字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント >> Hi. This is a tutorial on, when do you use quotation marks, and when do you use italics? First want to say this isn't using quotation marks with dialogue, when people are talking. This is for a lot of other situations, like books, songs, magazines -- do you use quotation marks? Do you use italics? That's what this one is about. So start off by just taking a moment and think, when might you use quotation marks? When might you use italics? Do you know the difference between the two of them? I also want to point out something before I go on. When I say "italics," this replaces underlining. You can't have italics and underlining at the same time. It's one or the other. Okay, now I'll give you some samples in a grid/table form, and you decide which ones are in quote marks, which ones are italicized. Okay, take a look at these eight and decide what you want to do for a book, for a short story -- and as you can see, there's an example for each of these -- for a magazine, an article, a song, a CD or an album, the name of the entire thing, name of a film, or a scene in a film. Okay, so hit Pause, make a decision about what you would do with those. And also, start to think if you're finding any kind of pattern, or is it just random and haphazard? Okay, do you have your answers? If not, hit Pause, give yourself a little bit more time, because I'm going to put all the answers up at once right now. And here they are. Those items that go in italics are books, magazines, the CD or the album name, the name of the entire film. Those that go in quotation marks are short stories, articles, song titles, scenes that might be in a film or in a TV program. Alright. Now, with that said, are you finding any pattern going on here? Well, there is a pattern. Not all the time, but enough that it's worth noting, that when it comes to quotation marks, those items are often the smaller items that can fit inside of a larger item. These over here are the names of all the songs on The White Album. This is the name of The White Album. Over here is the name of the chapters in a book or the small poems in a book, or the articles in a book; and this is the name of the book. So often the pattern is, the smaller things are in quotes; the thing that encases them all or captures them all, the bigger thing, that's in italics. Now, again, that's not always the case, but quite often it is. Now, here is a list of other items that sometimes are italicized, sometimes in quotation marks. Make a decision on these: a newspaper, foreign words, the titles of holy books, TV programs, ships, aircraft or spacecraft, websites, a long poem or a short poem. Take a moment, hit Pause, decide which ones you think are italicized, which ones are in quotes, and perhaps the reason why. And the answers are, well, as you can see, just about all are italicized. Now, notice one thing isn't. Look at number three. For holy books, notice how they are neither italicized or put in quotes. The idea, the theory is that these books are so special -- Bible, the Koran, the Bhagavad Gita, the Torah -- that they are in their own special category. Alright? And the only other exception here is, number nine, the shorter poem is in quotation marks. A poem that is long enough that it is a book or nearly a book, like Paradise Lost, like Beowulf, those are italicized. And as for the logic for all the others, why are they all italicized? Well, they all are major, bigger things, like a newspaper. If there were an article inside of the newspaper, that would be in quotes. But most of these are just very large and cannot be subdivided, like ships and aircraft. They just are significant enough that they are italicized. Okay, now apply all that you know about italics versus quotation marks to these 10 examples. Okay, hit Pause, put a checkmark or whatever other indication you want, and the answers are -- and here you go. The items that are in quotation marks are the song, and then down to number five, the short story, the article, the short poem. Again, these are things that are smaller, that tend to be able to fit into -- and these are the things that are italicized. Number two, the movie; four, the TV program; six, the aircraft; eight, the magazine; and 10, the book. Note the one exception that is neither italicized or in quotes is number three, and that is the holy books. And that's it for this tutorial on the difference between quotation marks and italics. Not always, but usually there is some logic behind it. The smaller things go in quotes, the bigger things in italics. Okay, hope this helped. Bye-bye.