中級 980 タグ追加 保存
動画の字幕をクリックしてすぐ単語の意味を調べられます!
単語帳読み込み中…
字幕の修正報告
When desert locusts are well fed, they're solitary creatures.
But when food becomes scarce,
hungry, desperate locusts crowd onto small patches of land
where they can still find something to eat.
Contact between different locusts' hind legs set off a slew of reactions
that change their appearance and behavior.
Now, instead of shunning their peers, they seek each other out.
The locusts eventually start marching and then fly away in large numbers
seeking a better habitat.
These gigantic swarms can host millions of insects
and travel thousands of miles,
devastating vegetation and crops.
They stay close to each other, but not too close,
or they might get eaten by their hungry neighbors.
When many individual organisms, like locusts,
bacteria,
anchovies,
or bats,
come together and move as one coordinated entity,
that's a swarm.
From a handful of birds to billions of insects,
swarms can be almost any size.
But what they have in common is that there's no leader.
Members of the swarm interact only with their nearest neighbors
or through indirect cues.
Each individual follows simple rules:
Travel in the same direction as those around you,
stay close,
and avoid collisions.
There are many benefits to traveling in a group like this.
Small prey may fool predators by assembling into a swarm
that looks like a much bigger organism.
And congregating in a large group
reduces the chance that any single individual will be captured.
Moving in the same direction as your neighbors
saves energy by sharing the effort of fighting wind or water resistance.
It may even be easier to find a mate in a swarm.
Swarming can also allow groups of animals
to accomplish tasks they couldn't do individually.
When hundreds or millions or organisms follow the same simple rules,
sophisticated behavior called swarm intelligence may arise.
A single ant can't do much on its own,
but an ant colony can solve complex problems,
like building a nest
and finding the shortest path to a food source.
But sometimes, things can go wrong.
In a crowd, diseases spread more easily,
and some swarming organisms may start eating each other if food is scarce.
Even some of the benefits of swarms, like more efficient navigation,
can have catastrophic consequences.
Army ants are one example.
They lay down chemicals called pheromones
which signal their neighbors to follow the trail.
This is good if the head of the group is marching towards a food source.
But occasionally the ants in the front can veer off course.
The whole swarm can get caught in a loop following the pheromone trail
until they die of exhaustion.
Humans are notoriously individualistic, though social, animals.
But is there anything we can learn from collective swarm-based organization?
When it comes to technology, the answer is definitely yes.
Bats can teach drones how to navigate confined spaces without colliding,
fish can help design software for safer driving,
and insects are inspiring robot teams that can assist search and rescue missions.
For swarms of humans, it's perhaps more complicated
and depends on the motives and leadership.
Swarm behavior in human populations can sometimes manifest as a destructive mob.
But collective action can also produce a crowd-sourced scientific breakthrough
an artistic expression,
or a peaceful global revolution.
コツ:単語をクリックしてすぐ意味を調べられます!

読み込み中…

どうして動物は群になるのか? (Why do animals form swarms? - Maria R. D'Orsogna)

980 タグ追加 保存
ktyvr258 2019 年 10 月 17 日 に公開
お勧め動画
  1. 1. クリック一つで単語を検索

    右側のスプリクトの単語をクリックするだけで即座に意味が検索できます。

  2. 2. リピート機能

    クリックするだけで同じフレーズを何回もリピート可能!

  3. 3. ショートカット

    キーボードショートカットを使うことによって勉強の効率を上げることが出来ます。

  4. 4. 字幕の表示/非表示

    日・英のボタンをクリックすることで自由に字幕のオンオフを切り替えられます。

  5. 5. 動画をブログ等でシェア

    コードを貼り付けてVoiceTubeの動画再生プレーヤーをブログ等でシェアすることが出来ます!

  6. 6. 全画面再生

    左側の矢印をクリックすることで全画面で再生できるようになります。

  1. クイズ付き動画

    リスニングクイズに挑戦!

  1. クリックしてメモを表示

  1. UrbanDictionary 俚語字典整合查詢。一般字典查詢不到你滿意的解譯,不妨使用「俚語字典」,或許會讓你有滿意的答案喔