Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

  • Take a look at this image.

  • What might this be?

  • A frightening monster?

  • Two friendly bears?

  • Or something else entirely?

  • For nearly a century,

  • ten inkblots like these have been used

  • as what seems like an almost mystical personality test.

  • Long kept confidential for psychologists and their patients,

  • the mysterious images were said to draw out the workings of a person's mind.

  • But what can inkblots really tell us,

  • and how does this test work?

  • Invented in the early 20th century by Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach,

  • the Rorschach Test is actually less about the specific things we see,

  • and more about our general approach to perception.

  • As an amateur artist

  • Hermann was fascinated by how visual perception varies from person to person.

  • He carried this interest to medical school,

  • where he learned all our senses are deeply connected.

  • He studied how our process of perception doesn't just register sensory inputs,

  • but transforms them.

  • And when he started working at a mental hospital in eastern Switzerland,

  • he began designing a series of puzzling images

  • to gain new insight into this enigmatic process.

  • Using his inkblot paintings,

  • Rorschach began quizzing hundreds of healthy subjects

  • and psychiatric patients with the same question:

  • what might this be?

  • However, it wasn't what the test subjects saw that was most important to Rorschach,

  • but rather, how they approached the task.

  • Which parts of the image did they focus on or ignore?

  • Did they see the image moving?

  • Did the color on some inkblots help them give better answers,

  • or distract and overwhelm them?

  • He developed a system to code people's responses,

  • reducing the wide range of interpretations to a few manageable numbers.

  • Now he had empirical measures to quantify all kinds of test takers:

  • the creative and imaginative,

  • the detail-oriented, the big-picture perceivers,

  • and flexible participants able to adapt their approach.

  • Some people would get stuck,

  • offering the same answer for multiple blots.

  • Others gave unusual and delightful descriptions.

  • Responses were as varied as the inkblots,

  • which offered different kinds of perceptual problems

  • some easier to interpret than others.

  • But analyzing the test-taker's overall approach

  • yielded real insights into their psychology.

  • And as Rorschach tested more and more people,

  • patterns began to pile up.

  • Healthy subjects with the same personalities

  • often took remarkably similar approaches.

  • Patients suffering from the same mental illnesses

  • also performed similarly,

  • making the test a reliable diagnostic tool.

  • It could even diagnose some conditions

  • difficult to pinpoint with other available methods.

  • In 1921,

  • Rorschach published his coding system alongside the ten blots he felt

  • gave the most nuanced picture of people's perceptual approach.

  • Over the next several decades,

  • the test became wildly popular in countries around the world.

  • By the 1960s,

  • it had been officially administered millions of times in the U.S. alone.

  • Unfortunately, less than a year after publishing the test,

  • Hermann Rorschach had died suddenly.

  • Without its inventor to keep it on track,

  • the test he had methodically gathered so much data to support

  • began to be used in all sorts of speculative ways.

  • Researchers gave the test to Nazi war criminals,

  • hoping to unlock the psychological roots of mass murder.

  • Anthropologists showed the images to remote communities

  • as a sort of universal personality test.

  • Employers made prejudiced hiring decisions based on reductive decoding charts.

  • As the test left clinics and entered popular culture

  • its reputation among medical professionals plummeted,

  • and the blots began to fall out of clinical use.

  • Today, the test is still controversial,

  • and many people assume it has been disproven.

  • But a massive 2013 review of all the existing Rorschach research

  • showed that when administered properly the test yields valid results,

  • which can help diagnose mental illness

  • or round out a patient's psychological profile.

  • It's hardly a stand-alone key to the human mind

  • no test is.

  • But its visual approach and lack of any single right answer

  • continue to help psychologists paint a more nuanced picture

  • of how people see the world.

  • Bringing us one step closer

  • to understanding the patterns behind our perceptions.

Take a look at this image.

字幕と単語

ワンタップで英和辞典検索 単語をクリックすると、意味が表示されます

B1 中級

ロールシャッハ・インクブロットテストの仕組みは?- ダミオン・サールズ (How does the Rorschach inkblot test work? - Damion Searls)

  • 444 22
    shuting1215 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
動画の中の単語