字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント Ladies and gentlemen, hello. It's a pleasure to be here. Today, we will examine the differences between male's and female's brains seen in the lab, and their relationship to behaviors. This is said by Deyong Zhu, and I think many agrees: (on screen) men, without women, is without fun; men, with women, is without joy of life. Let's see why it is. This is a male brain; this is a female brain. The front of the left brain lights up when men speak. Both light up when women speak. This difference in feature stems from a difference in structure. This is called flat plastid, millions of cellulose between the two hemispheres. It is a bridge connecting the two. Girl's is thicker; guy's is thinner. If your bridge is bigger,you run faster from right to left and left to right. As expected, emotions are on the right, and language is on the left. Girls tend to express emotions through language. When a couple is arguing, the husband speaks 1 words, while the wife can speak 10. On Teacher's Days, students will write thank you notes. Girls will buy blank greetings cards and writes herself, "Professor, I've graduated, and I'm working at this and that." "My boyfriend is no longer the one you met last time." Guys remember teachers as well, but they don't write themselves. They just buy and send you a pre-written card saying "Thank You." So, the difference lies here: V1, V2, V3. V stands for "visual", our hindbrain. It's our visual cortex. And V4 deals with colors. V5 deals with actions. We can see that on the top, there is a parietal lob. The "where" passway to the parietal lobe is bigger for men. The "what" passway to the temporal lobe is bigger for women. After reading this report, you know why it is only useful to ask women the way. Why? Women's V4 is bigger than men's. V4 deals with colors and landmarks. So when a woman tells you the way, she goes, "go straight, then turn right when you see a 7-11, then turn left at the McDonald's." "Then on your right, you will see the red house behind the white church." "There you go." Colors and landmarks. As for men, their V5 is bigger. V5 deals with distance and direction. So when a guy tells you where to go, he is like, "go 5 km along Zhongzheng Road then turn to the east." Right? Many women don't know how far is 5 km. They don't know east from west. So this message is not very helpful. The other day, I gave a speech in Hualien. The Director of Education of Hualien was going to treat me a meal. We and another teacher kept walking on the same road. We couldn't find the restaurant. So we stopped at a landmark, a big hotel in Hualien, then we called the director telling him, "we are on the road, in front of the big hotel." "Can you tell me," "is the restaurant on my left or right?" I can just check like this and that, right? But he said, "it's north of you." So, women know how to read a map too, but if she's heading north, the map needs to be pointing north as well. If she is heading north, but the map is pointing south, she tilts her head. And if a woman is driving and gets honked at, she immediately checks if she's doing something wrong, why are they honking? But men would think they are honking at somebody else. It's not me. So, we invited normal collage girls to the lab. We asked them to think about a sad event in a NMR machine. For instance, a cheating boyfriend, an argument with the boyfriend, and so on. All at once, her whole brain lights up, even the cerebellum. When we asked men to lay in the NMR to do the same thing, there were only a few spots. That is why women are usually more depressed than men. That is why we often say if it's none of your business, don't take responsibility. Don't pay your husband's debt. And now we've seen why women are the way they are. There's this thing called serotonin. It relates directly to our emotions, motives, sleep, and memory. Anti-depressant drugs are called Prozac. Prozac blocks the brain from recycling serotonin. When there's more of it, you feel better. We found that the rate that men make serotonin is 52% faster than women. Because it's so much faster, no wonder after a fight, the wife is still upset, but the husband is already asleep. Why? Because serotonin makes me feel better, it's done already, so I fall asleep. But the wife is like, "I'm still upset, how can you go to bed?" So she wakes him up and keeps on fighting. This has something to do with the brains. For example, the wife complains that when the husband comes home, he never talks. The husband is like, "I can't stand her. She never stops talking." "I can't get a moment of silence." Let's check the brains and find out why. men speak 7,000 words on average everyday. Women speak 20,000. He already spend all his quota in his office. So he doesn't talk at home. The wife takes care of the kids at home, get them to eat or to sleep. These aren't talking. There are 20,000 words on her mind. She needs to get them out within the 3 hours when the husband is home. She can't get them all out if she doesn't constantly talk. Therefore, as one can see, it's a brain thing. Our fetus is originally a female one. The "prototype" is a female fetus. If you are of the XY genes, between 6 to 8 weeks of the pregnancy, there will be male hormones, testosterone, generated, setting up areas in your brain, called capa mental. If without it, by default, you are a female. A female has an ovary, which is why she keeps on secreting estrogens until she's 2. A male stops that at the 8th month. And because of the estrogens, females are more sensitive to facial expressions, languages, and so on than males. Females detects facial expressions 20/1000 second faster than males. That is why people say women are more suitable as personnel managers. Why? Once you say something wrong, and he or she gets mad, you'd know it's time to stop because he or she is mad. But when men see people flip out, they still don't know why you get mad. Therefore, we can see in kindergartens, girls are about 2 years more mature than boys. A 4-year-old girl would say, "that boy is this and that," ratting out all the bad things he's done clearly. In order to be fair, the teacher would get the boy too, and ask him, "did you do this and that?" 4 years old as well, the boy can't even speak clearly, just repeating, "You! You! You! You!" Right? Also, the class presidents before 6th grade are usually girls. They speak clearly and are reliable. However, in junior high, class presidents are usually guys, because the curve of growth has changed up. For example, if there's a high school girl, she comes home. She'll say, "mom, today at school, this and that happened. Somebody's been saying mean things about me." "Some teacher has wronged me." She'd tell her family. And when a girl breaks up, she'll call her friends, saying, "I've been so good to him! He's a jerk! He broke up with me!" And after half a hour, she will hang up. And then right after, she'll call another friend. She'll tell the same story. However, you'll notice, she's changed her wording. >From "this guy is a jerk, breaking up with me", to "this guy is worthless, and I broke up with him." Then she'll hang up and move on to other things. Because she's dealt with her emotions. But guys are different. A high school guy comes home. The mom asks, "son, how's school today?" He says "it is fine" or "I don't know." The son speaks no more than 3 words to the mom. When a guy is upset, he just closes his door and sulks by himself. As one can see, males and females deal with feelings differently. For example, when a husband sees that his wife is busy, he asks, "can I help you with anything?" The wife responds, "sure." "Take those potatoes, peel half of them, and then put then in the pot." Next, when the wife is done, she opens the pot. she can't believe it. We girls will never cook like that. You either peel all of the skins, or don't peel at all. How would you peel only half of the skins? You do that and starch all comes out. But you can't scold him. If you do, he'll be like, "you told me to peel half of them and put them in the pot!" You can tell a significant difference. Another thing people say is that women have got a 6th sense. That is true. But what is the reason? For males (top), their forebrain and hindbrain connect very closely, nerve fibers-wise. As for females (bottom), their left and right brains are more connected. Then why do females have a better 6th six sense than males? Our attention is much like a spotlight projecting out on a dark stage. If your spotlight focuses more narrowly, it is brighter. But a female's spotlight is wider, it is not as bright, getting more information. Not all information is going to get into your consciousness. The ones that don't get in gets to your subconscious. And your subconscious affects your decision making. In the 70s, I was studying in the University of California in the US. There's this young assistant professor. She got robbed at an ATM. It was 200 US dollars, and that was a lot of momey back then. She was upset. She called the cops, and the cops asked her, "what does he look like?" She said, "I was so nervous. I couldn't see his face clearly. I only saw his gun." The cops were like, "that's too bad." "You only saw the gun. How could I catch him?" That's it. And then a week passed. She started to hate one of her graduate students. She complained that this student ate hamburgers with onions and it smelled so bad. He never showered. This and that. We felt so weird. Graduate students in the US don't just take exams and get in, they get interviewed and then get in. This person was already like that when he got in. He's a hippie: a little bit chubby, with to-the-shoulders hair length. He wears overall, ripped pants, bare-feet. He is always like that. But she said, "he's got an IQ over 140. It's delightful to teach and nourish the talented and all." So we asked, "you wanted him then why don't you now?" We didn't understand. 3 months passed, and the cops came looking for her. They caught a robber around the campus. They said, "you reported, right? Can you come and identify?" There weren't a lot of girls back then, so I went with her. Five men standing over there. It's a one-way mirror. They see a mirror, we see a window, right? The second she entered, she said immediately, "the second one from the left!" It means that she did see the robber, that's why she could recognize. How does the second one from the left look? Just like her graduate student. Chubby, hair to the shoulders, overall, ripped pants. So you realize, she did see the guy. But because she was so nervous, the information didn't get into her brain, but her subconscious. Therefore, when her student came talk to her, she felt insecure. She kept driving him away. But you are a professor, how can you drive a student away? The front of our left brain is an explainer. It helps you find reasons for your behaviors. It told her, "hamburgers with onions are stinky, and he's this and that." So we can see, We didn't know if she remembered it, but she had this feeling. And this feeling drove her decision-making process. So, we did a study, asking college students, "do you like this Chinese character?" They were like, "are you kidding? I don't know any Chinese character. How will I know?" We told them, "it's okay. We used to pay you $2 for a experiment. Right?" "We'll pay you double this time. $4. Please help us." The students thought they just picked randomly. But that's not true. Before a Chinese characters showed, we would put a smiley face. Two eyes, one smile, like this :) But only for 30 milliseconds. For a thirty thousandth second. They couldn't have seen it. However, their choice goes from 50/50, yes or no, to a 70% to 80% chance of saying, "yes, I like this Chinese character." Similarly, we invited another group of students. The same Chinese character, but with a crying face :( They would be like, "no, I don't like this Chinese character." Therefore, we can see that subconscious affects one's decision making. Later, we did another study with kids. We showed them 3 minutes of Tom & Jerry, the cartoon. But in between, we input some pictures of a man hitting a dog, kicking it. After the cartoon, the door opened and two men came in: same height, same clothes. The teachers said, "children, I have something else to do now." "There are two people here, and you can play with whomever you want." The children went for this one, and not that one, because in the video, he kicked a dog. The teacher said, "don't just play with the same person. Go play with the other, too." The children were like, "you go!" "No, you go!" I don't know why I don't want to, but you doing it is better than me doing it. Next, we did the opposite. The other person kicked the dog. Now everybody played with this one and not that one. So it's not about their faces. It's about their subconscious knowing that this guy hit a dog. I don't wanna play with him. Therefore, if you are dropping your kid to the nanny's, and your kid starts to cry as soon as your car pulls into the driveway, replace your nanny. So we realize that subconscious does affect us. There's this saying: Small things, listen to your head. big things, listen to your heart. More often than not, you don't know why, but we know it's the right choice. When we were young, we all experienced this while taking an exam: there's only 2 minutes left, and there're some multiple choices I need to finish. What to do? Just put something in quickly. Because if you put in something, you just may get it. If you don't, you don't.