Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

  • >> Stephen: WELCOME BACK, EVERYBODY.

  • MY NEXT GUEST IS A PROFESSOR OF PHYSICS AND MATHEMATICS AT

  • COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, A BESTSELLING AUTHOR, AND AN

  • ALL-AROUND SMARTY PANTS.

  • HE'S HERE TO TELL US ABOUT THE DISCOVERY OF GRAVITATIONAL WAVES

  • AND WHY IT'S A HUGE DEAL.

  • PLEASE WELCOME OUR FRIEND, BRIAN GREENE.

  • GOOD TO HAVE YOU HERE.

  • YOU'RE CODIRECTOR OF COLUMBIA'S INSTITUTE FOR STRINGS,

  • COSMOLOGY, AND ASTROPARTICLE PHYSICS.

  • >> YES.

  • >> Stephen: THAT'S A PRETTY GOOD PICKUP LINE.

  • SINCE LAST WE WERE TOGETHER, SCIENTISTS DETECTED

  • GRAVITATIONAL WAVES.

  • I UNDERSTAND THIS IS SOMETHING EINSTEIN PREDICTED.

  • >> YES.

  • >> Stephen: HOW LONG AGO?

  • >> 100 YEARS AGO THIS YEAR, IN 1916.

  • THIS IS A HUGE DISCOVERY, NOT ONLY CONFIRMING EINSTEIN'S IDEAS

  • BUT OPENING A WHOLE NEW WAY OF EXPLORING THE UNIVERSE.

  • >> Stephen: DOES HE SEEM EVEN SMARTER NOW THAN HE USED TO

  • SEEM?

  • >> HE'S, LIKE, SO UP THERE, THAT THERE IS NO GETTING SMARTER.

  • IT'S LIKE INFUNT, FURTHER NORTH THAN THE NORTH POLE.

  • >> Stephen: THE SCIENTISTS ARE STILL DOING HIS HOMEWORK FROM

  • 100 YEARS AGO ( LAUGHTER ).

  • >> YEAH, HE HAS GIVEN US AN INCREDIBLY RICH LEGACY THAT WE

  • HAVE BEEN PURSUING, YEAH, FOR 100 YEARS.

  • EVERYTHING THAT I'VE DONE IN MY OWN CAREER REALLY HAS, IN SOME

  • SENSE, BEEN TRYING TO PUSH FORWARD ON THE PATH THAT HE

  • FIRST BLAZE GLD WHAT IS A GRAVITATIONAL WAVE, AND WHY DOES

  • IT CHANGE EVERYTHING?

  • >> SO AIR, GRAVITATIONAL WAVE IS ACTUALLY A RIPPLE IN THE FABRIC

  • OF SPACE.

  • WE KNOW YOU THROW A PEBBLE INTO A POND, THE WATER RIPPLES.

  • NOW, THIS IS A RIPPLE, BUT NOT WITH WATER.

  • IT'S IN SPACE ITSELF.

  • >> Stephen: YOU ARE BLOWING MY MIND AGAIN.

  • ( LAUGHTER ) SO WHAT ARE WE LOOK AT HERE?

  • >> THIS IS EINSTEIN'S GENERAL RELATIVITY WHICH HE DISCOVERED

  • IN 1915, A YEAR EARLIER, AND THE KEY IDEA IS HE FOUND GRAVITY

  • COMES FROM THE WARPS AND CURVES IN THE SPACE.

  • THE SUN WARPS THE SPACE AND KEEPS THE EARTH IN ORBIT.

  • >> Stephen: LIKE A BOWLING BALL ON A TRAMPOLINE.

  • >> TRAMPOLINE, EXACTLY RIGHT.

  • WHAT HAPPENED IS, THIS IS 1915.

  • HE DISWNT JUST STOP.

  • HE KEEPS GOING, AND A YEAR LATER HE REALIZES IF SPACE IS LIKE A

  • TRAMPOLINE, THEN IMAGINE KIDS RUNNING AROUND ON A TRAMPOLINE.

  • THEY'RE GOING TO SEND RIPPLES ON THE SURFACE.

  • SO HE SAYS THE SAME SHOULD BE TRUE OF THE FABRIC OF SPACE.

  • IF YOU'VE QOT TWO RAPIDLY ORBITING STARS, NEUTRON STARS OR

  • BLACK HOLES, HIS MATH PREDICTS THAT THEY WILL GENERATE A STEADY

  • MARCH OF RIPPLES IN THE FABRIC OF SPACE.

  • THOSE ARE GRAVITATIONAL WAVES THAT HE PREDICTED

  • MATHEMATICALLY.

  • >> Stephen: AND NOW THEY HAVE BEEN DETECTED.

  • >> YES.

  • >> Stephen: WHAT HAPPENED THAT ALLOWED US TO DO THAT?

  • >> YEAH, SO HIS MATH ALSO SHOWS, AS WE GO ON FROM HERE TO THE

  • NEXT SEQUENCE, HIS MATH SHOWS AS A GRAVITATIONAL WAVE RIPPLES BY

  • ANYTHING, IT WILL STRETCH IT AND COMPRESS IT.

  • YOU SEE IT HAPPENING-- >> Stephen: LIKE THE EARTH.

  • >> LIKE THE EARTH RIGHT HERE.

  • >> Stephen: BECAUSE WE'RE A PART OF THE FABRIC OF SPACE TIME

  • YOU AND ME AND THE EARTH IS STRETCHING AND COMPRESSING,

  • ALONG WITH THE RIPPLING OF SPACE TIME.

  • >> THAT'S EXACTLY RIGHT.

  • THE ONE THING, IS THIS IS EXAGGERATE GLD I HOPE SO.

  • >> A LITTLE BIT.

  • >> Stephen: I HOPE SO, I HOPE SO.

  • >> THE RIPPLES WOULD ACTUALLY CAUSE THE EARTH TO STRETCH AND

  • COMPRESS BY LESS THAN AN ATOMIC DIAMETER.

  • >> Stephen: HOW DO YOU-- HOW DO YOU MEASURE THAT?

  • >> HOW DO YOU MEASURE THAT?

  • >> Stephen: YES.

  • THAT'S WHAT I SAID?

  • >> YEAH.

  • ( LAUGHTER ).

  • >> YEAH, THAT'S WHAT PEOPLE-- THOUSANDS OF SCIENTISTS HAVE

  • BEEN WORKING ON FOR 40, 50 YEARS.

  • THIS AMAZING TEAM OF RESEARCHERS, LIGO, LASER

  • INTERFEROMETER GRAVITATIONAL WAVE OBSERVATORY, JUST TWO WEEKS

  • AGO THEY ANNOUNCED THE FIRST DETECTION OF THESE GRAVITATIONAL

  • WAVES USING A SPECTACULAR PIECE OF EQUIPMENT.

  • THERE ARE ACTUALLY TWO OF THEM, ONE IN LOUISIANA AND THE ENERGY

  • WASHINGTON STATE.

  • >> Stephen: AND I UNDERSTAND THIS INVOLVES LASERS.

  • >> LASERS.

  • IN FACT WE SLAILGT MODEL VERSION OF IT HERE IF YOU WANT TO CHECK

  • IT OUT.

  • IN THIS DEVICE HERE-- IN FACT IF WE BRING THE LIGHTS DOWN, IT

  • WILL BE EASIER TO SEE.

  • WE HAVE A LASER, RIGHT HERE, THAT'S SENDING OUT A BEAM THAT

  • THIS DEVICE HERE SPLITS INTO TWO.

  • AND YOU CAN SEE THEY GO THAT DIRECTION TOWARD THE RIGHT, OUR

  • RIGHT, AND THIS UPSTAGE OVER HERE.

  • >> Stephen: AT WHAT POINT DO I PUT ON THE PINK FLOYD?

  • >> LET'S DO IT NOW!

  • >> Stephen: ANOTHER ALL RIGHT.

  • >> SO IN THE REAL EXPERIMENT, IT HITS A MIRROR THAT'S TWO AND A

  • HALF MILES AWAY.

  • >> Stephen: LIKE A TWO-AND-A-HALF-MILE PIPE OR

  • SOMETHING?

  • >> A TWO-AND-A-HALF-MILE EVACUATED PIPE, EXACTLY.

  • WHEN THE LASER BOUNCES BACK IT RECOMBINES, LIKE COMMINGLES, AND

  • WHEN THEY COMMINGLE THEY CREATE A VERY INTERESTING PATTERN.

  • I DON'T KNOW IF YOU CAN SEE TRIGHT HERE.

  • >> Stephen: THERE IT IS.

  • THERE IS AN IDEA OF THE PATTERN.

  • >> YOU HAVE BRIGHT AREAS.

  • THAT'S WHERE THE TWO BEAMS ARE WORK TOGETHER.

  • THE DARK AREAS ARE WHERE THE BEAMS ARE CANCELLING EACH OTHER

  • OUT.

  • AND THAT INTERFERENCE PATTERN IS ABSOLUTELY KEY.

  • NOW, LET ME JUST SHOW YOU, SO IF YOU BLOCK ONE OF THESE BEAMS

  • RIGHT HERE, YOU SEE HOW THE INTERFERENCE PATTERN GOES AWAY.

  • THEY'RE NO LONGER COMMINGLING.

  • IF I RELEASE IT, NOW YOU SEE THAT THEY ARE WORKING TOGETHER

  • TO CREATE THAT PATTERN.

  • >> Stephen: ALL RIGHT.

  • >> BUT THE KEY THING IS THIS PATTERN IS HIGHLY DEPENDENT ON

  • THE DISTANCE THAT THE LASER BEAM TRAVELS.

  • SO IF A GRAVITATIONAL WAVE ROLLS BY AND STRETCHES ONE DISTANCE

  • RELATIVE TO ANOTHER -- >> EVEN JUST THE DISTANCE OF,

  • LIKE, THE-- NOT THE DIAMETER OF AN ATOM.

  • >> THAT'S RIGHT.

  • THAT'S WHY THIS IS SUCH AN AMAZING PIECE OF EQUIPMENT, THE

  • REAL ONE, OF COURSE, THAT'S OUT THERE.

  • THIS IS JUST A MOD GLEL ANY MOVEMENT IN THIS BEAM MAKES THAT

  • PATTERN CHANGE.

  • >> OBVIOUSLY WE CAN'T DO IT HERE WITH THE GRAVITATIONAL WAVES BUT

  • WE CAN TRY IT, IF YOU'RE UP TO TO, AN EXPERIMENT WITH SOUND

  • WAVES.

  • >> >> Stephen: JUST YELL AT IT?

  • >> WE'LL SEE IF IT SHIFTS.

  • >> Stephen: SCIENCE!

  • SCIENCE!

  • >> WELL DONE, WELL DONE.

  • ( CHEERS AND APPLAUSE ).

  • >> Stephen: SO, WHAT CAN WE DO?

  • NOW THAT WE KNOW THE GRAVITATIONAL WAVES ARE BENDING

  • SPACE TIME LIKE THIS, HOW CAN IT LET US SEE THE UNIVERSE IN A

  • DIFFERENT WAY?

  • >> YOU KNOW LIGHT CAN BE BLOCKED, RIGHT?

  • IF I COVER MY FACE YOU DON'T SEE ME ANY LONGER.

  • >> Stephen: THAT'S VERY FRIGHTENING.

  • MEAS PLOOEZ DON'T DO THAT.

  • >> CAN'T BLOCK GRAVITY, WHICH MEANS GRAVITY CAN GO INTO PLACES

  • IN THE UNIVERSE THAT LIGHT CANNOT PENETRATE.

  • >> Stephen: WHAT!

  • >> YEAH.

  • HOW DO YOU BLOCK GRAVITY?

  • YOU ALWAYS FEELS THE EARTH'S GRAVITY NO MATTER WHERE YOU GO.

  • USING THE GRAVITATIONAL SUFFER FASES WE MAY BE ABLE TO STUDY

  • HOW BLACK HOLES COMBINE AND WE MAY BE ABLE TO STUDY THE BIG

  • BANG ITSELF.

  • >> Stephen: THE SAME WAY YOU CAN SET OFF A BOMB ON ONE SIDE

  • OF THE EARTH ARE YOU CAN EASE A SEISMOGRAPH TO ECHO MAP THE

  • INSIDE OF THE PLANET, CAN HELP US MAP THINGS WE CAN'T SEE?

  • >> THAT'S EXACTLY RIGHT.

  • THE DEVICE IS ONLY SENSITIVE TO WAVES THE GRAVITY.

  • IT'S SHIELDED FROM ORDINARY ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES.

  • >> Stephen: WOW.

  • >> AND IN FACT, YOU CAN ACTUALLY IN IN SOME SENSE HEAR THE

  • GRAVITATIONAL WAVES.

  • THEY VIBRATE AT A FREQUENCY THAT IF YOU TURN IT INTO SOUND, THE

  • HUMAN AIR CAN HEAR.

  • >> Stephen: SO LITERALLY, THESE WAVES CAN BE TURNED INTO

  • SOUND.

  • >> THEY CAN.

  • AND THESE ARE THE MOST SPECTACULAR SOUNDS FROM THE

  • STANDPOINT OF THEY HERALD A REVOLUTION IN OUR UNDERSTAND, OF

  • THE UNIVERSE.

  • >> Stephen: ANOTHER SO I UNDERSTAND YOU BROUGHT ONE OF

  • THESE SOUNDS WITH YOU.

  • >> YEAH, YEAH, I DID.

  • >> Stephen:S AND THIS THE SOUND OF WHAT?

  • WHAT ARE WE LISTENING TO?

  • >> THIS IS THE SOUND OF TWO BLACK HOLES COLLIDING.

  • >> Stephen: THIS IS ACTUALLY A COMPUTER RENDERING OF

  • GRAVITATIONAL WAVES INTO SOUNDS.

  • >> THIS IS A SIM LAIRKZ BUT THE DATA AGREES WITH THE

  • SIMULATION.

  • >> >> Stephen: THIS IS WHAT IT

  • WOULD SOUND LIKE.

  • >> THIS IS WHAT IT WOULD SOUND LIKE.

  • >> Stephen: DRUM ROLL PLEASE.

  • ( LAUGHTER ) >> Stephen: IS GOD BUGS BUNNY?

  • WHAT IS THAT?

  • >> BIG THINGS COME IN LITTLE PACKAGES.

  • THOSE SOUNDS ARE REALLY US THINGS ABOUT THE UNIVERSE THAT

  • WE HAVE NO OTHER WAY OF DISCERNING.

  • THOSE KINDS OF SOUNDS ARE THE FUTURE OF STUDYING THE COSMOS.

  • >> Stephen: WELL, THANK YOU FOR BRINGING US THE FUTURE

  • TONIGHT.

  • BRIAN GREENE, WHAT A PLEASURE.

  • ( CHEERS AND APPLAUSE ) GRAVITY WAVES.

  • BRIAN GREENE.

  • SCIENCE!

  • SCIENCE!

>> Stephen: WELCOME BACK, EVERYBODY.

字幕と単語

動画の操作 ここで「動画」の調整と「字幕」の表示を設定することができます

B1 中級

重力波がレイトショーでヒット (Gravitational Waves Hit The Late Show)

  • 23 6
    VoiceTube に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
動画の中の単語