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  • (gentle music)

  • - Hello everyone and welcome back to English with Lucy.

  • Do you ever feel confused, when you hear or see

  • phrases like gimme, hafta,

  • lotsa, sorta,

  • typa, frunna, (laughing) what do these all mean?

  • Well, they are quite a few to learn ,

  • they are reductions, or reduced words,

  • and you do need to know these words,

  • in order to understand natural conversation

  • and you might want to use these words

  • if you want to sound more like

  • a native speaker when you talk.

  • Before we get started, I would just like to thank

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  • Right, let's get started with the lesson.

  • So reductions, what are they?

  • They are reduced forms of words.

  • Normally two words, occasionally three words.

  • For example, the reduction, gimme,

  • is actually give plus me.

  • Gimme.

  • For example, gimme that pen.

  • Gimme that pen.

  • Give me that pen.

  • You will find that there are some commonly used words

  • that are often included in reductions.

  • Me being one of them.

  • Another example of reduction including me, is lemme.

  • Lemme.

  • For example, lemme come with you.

  • Lemme come with you.

  • Let me come with you.

  • Now you must never (laughing)

  • use these in formal situations, or formal writing tasks,

  • especially don't use these in exams,

  • unless you are specifically asked to use reductions

  • or slang language.

  • I would say that the most important part of this,

  • is that you understand them so that if a native speaker

  • uses one with you, you can understand and respond,

  • but if you are looking to sound like a native speaker,

  • then you might want to practise these.

  • Now let's move on to the second set of reductions

  • which is what plus is plus word.

  • The first one is, what is up.

  • What is up.

  • What do we say?

  • We say wassup.

  • Wassup.

  • Wassup with that?

  • Wassup with that?

  • What is up with that?

  • Another one is what is her, what is her?

  • We reduce this to whatser, whatser.

  • For example, whatser name again ?

  • What's her name again?

  • That is something that I would genuinely say,

  • in an informal situation,

  • however it would be unlikely to write this down.

  • I would just use this in spoken informal speech.

  • Spoken speech, obviously.

  • The masculine form of this, whatsis.

  • Whatsis.

  • What is his?

  • Whatsis phone number?

  • Whatsis phone number?

  • What is his phone number?

  • Again, I wouldn't write whatsis down,

  • but I would say it.

  • Right onto the third group of reductions,

  • we have word plus have.

  • Word plus have.

  • The first one is could plus have, coulda, coulda.

  • So instead of saying could of, we can say coulda.

  • You coulda told me that yesterday.

  • We also have might have, which reduces to mighta, mighta.

  • She mighta gone to the bank today,

  • she mighta gone to the bank today.

  • We also have must have, which reduces to musta.

  • Musta.

  • She musta taken the train, she musta taken the train.

  • And we have, should have, which reduces to shoulda.

  • I did a video on shoulda, woulda, coulda,

  • you should know about this.

  • I will link it down below or up in the sky somewhere,

  • if you want to watch that video,

  • because this is seriously important.

  • People need to learn how to use,

  • shoulda, woulda, and coulda.

  • Natives and non-natives alike.

  • An example for shoulda, shoulda done something.

  • You shoulda done something.

  • And the last one, would have, woulda, woulda.

  • I woulda gone, I woulda gone, but I was ill.

  • I woulda gone but I was ill.

  • Now the next group of reductions is word plus to.

  • Word plus to.

  • This next one is one you will hear so frequently,

  • it is going plus to, is gonna.

  • I actually did, back in the day, a whole video

  • on just wanna, and gonna, and people found it really useful

  • so I'm hoping this video is really going to

  • enlighten a lot of you, but yes, gonna is a reduction

  • that we use, all the time.

  • I'm gonna go to the shops.

  • Do you want anything?

  • I'm gonna go to the shops, do you want anything?

  • I really wouldn't say, "I'm going to to go the shops,

  • "do you want anything?"

  • I would say, "I'm gonna go to the shops, I'm gonna go"

  • it's much easier.

  • Another really common one, got plus to, got to.

  • This changes to gotta, gotta.

  • I gotta go, I gotta go.

  • Notice that I'm not saying, I got to go, I got to go,

  • I'm saying, "I gotta"

  • I'm almost saying it with a D sound.

  • I gotta go, gotta go.

  • Now what will we say for have plus to?

  • Have to, have to.

  • We would say, hafta, hafta.

  • So we change that V sound to a F sound

  • and then shwah at the tend.

  • Hafta.

  • Oh my god you hafta meet him.

  • You haft meet him.

  • And what about has plus to?

  • Has to, has to.

  • Well it changes to hasta.

  • Hasta, now a lot of non-native speakers

  • will find it quite hard to say the Z sound

  • in front to the T sound.

  • Hasta, hasta.

  • That's quite a hard combination,

  • because Z is voiced and T is unvoiced,

  • so even native speakers will change it to hasta, hasta.

  • She hasta believe him, she hasta believe him.

  • Another one, ought and to, ought to,

  • this changes to oughta.

  • Oughta.

  • You oughta call in sick.

  • You oughta call in sick.

  • Now this is more common in American English.

  • They say oughta, oughta and then (laughing)

  • sorry my American accent really needs some work.

  • It just, the combination of vowel

  • and consonants sound is slightly easier,

  • especially with their, the way they use D,

  • instead of T oughta, oughta, but we say oughta,

  • oughta and it sounds almost too posh.

  • So maybe this one isn't as commonly used in British English,

  • but I think you ought to know about it, anyway.

  • See what I did there.

  • And then the last one, a really really common one,

  • again I have explained before, it is, want to,

  • want to, this is wanna, wanna.

  • And in a third person singular it's wansta, wansta.

  • A lot of teachers forget about this one

  • and student's get really really confused,

  • and say, she wanna, when it should be she wansta.

  • I want to go to the cinema, she wansta to come with me.

  • She wanna come with me, is used, in a slang way,

  • but if you want to speak proper slang English,

  • then you should say, wansta.

  • It sounds more grammatically correct

  • because it's accounting for that third person singular.

  • Now the next group of reductions is word plus of,

  • these are really common.

  • So make sure you listen to this part,

  • because a lot of them aren't as obvious

  • as the previous group.

  • The first one is kind of, kind of.

  • We reduce this to kinda, kinda.

  • I kinda like it, I kinda like it.

  • This one I use all the time, I rarely say kind of,

  • I really often say, kinda.

  • It also works with the plural of kind,

  • kinds of, this makes, kindsa.

  • Kinda, I've got loads of kinds of teas in my cupboard.

  • I said, loadsa.

  • This is loads of, loads of, loadsa,

  • I got loadsa kinds of tea in my cupboard.

  • It also works for, lots of, lotsa, lotsa.

  • There are lotsa people here, there are lots of people here.

  • Also works for lot of, lot of.

  • This makes lotta, she's had a lot of boyfriends,

  • she's had a lot of boyfriends.

  • We also have, out of, which makes outa, outa.

  • I have to get outa here, I have to get outa here.

  • So I'm using hafta and I'm also using outta, out of.

  • We also have sort of, making sorta.

  • What sorta chocolate's that?

  • What sorta chocolate's that?

  • And type of, making typa.

  • It's a typa dark chocolate.

  • It's a type of dark chocolate.

  • And, a really weird one which we do use in spoken slang

  • but not in written slang, really,

  • it's front of which makes frunna, fruana.

  • Park in frunna the house.

  • Park in front of the house.

  • Right, now we have a huge group of reductions,

  • it is, word plus you.

  • There are so many reductions here,

  • most of them are commonly used,

  • so it's important that you know them.

  • The first one we have, is bet you, bet you.

  • This changes to betcha, betcha.

  • So when we join a T sound and a ye sound,

  • bet, you, we join it together as part of connected speech

  • and we make a cha sound.

  • Betcha, betcha.

  • I betcha can't guess how much that cost.

  • I bet you can't guess how much that cost.

  • We also have, don't you, making dontcha.

  • You might remember the Pussycat Dolls song

  • dontcha wish your girlfriend,

  • I'm not going to sing it, just because

  • it doesn't compliment my voice.

  • Yeah, dontcha.

  • Dontcha wish your girlfriend was hot like me?

  • (laughing)

  • And that's my example.

  • We also have, get you, which makes, getcha.

  • I'm gonna getcha next time I see ya.

  • I'm gonna getcha next time I see ya.