字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント "The death toll continues to rise at a fatal gas line explosion in Mexico." "Authorities say that the pipeline had been ruptured by suspected oil thieves." People were lighting cigarettes, they were dancing, they were throwing gasoline on top of each other. Completely intoxicated by the fumes. "They took their fill as soldiers sent to guard the pipeline looked on seemingly powerless. Then this happened." And essentially in a matter of seconds, the whole thing ignited. People were running from the blast like human torches. It was complete chaos. "The most important thing now is to look after the injured, to save lives. That is the most important thing. The fight against the illegal theft of fuel will be strengthened." The state loses in the region of three billion U.S. dollars a year and the 95 percent of what is known as tomas clandestinas, which are illegal extractions, are done by big cartels. My name is Matthew Bremner I'm a Scottish writer. I wrote the story about Mexico's biggest pipeline explosion. Within the first sort of 24 hours, people said there were 20 people dead and 71 people injured. Obviously those numbers rocketed up but the final death toll, as it were, is 134. Now in the field where the irrigation trench was where the pipeline runs, framed by an old tree which was scorched in the blast there is now a shrine. Almost every day, relatives of the victims go there. They sit on little plastic benches or wooden crates. They stare at the crosses, often crying. Sometimes in some sort of trance. And they spend hours there. It's the same always in society, the people who are at the bottom of the tree, the people that were there looking to take advantage of an opportunity. They're the people that always suffer. The scale of oil theft in Mexico is enormous. The state loses 3 billion US dollars a year. Huachicolero, which is the illegal siphoning and tapping of fuel which has been happening in Mexico now for about 25 years, perhaps longer. What was a very informal industry has now become something which is far more organized. A lot of the big Mexican cartels are now branching into this sale of oil theft. Half of their business is now focused on illegal fuel tapping. It's a lot less risky, essentially, to get involved in illegal fuel trade because you don't need to transport drugs across borders. You don't need to pay off different types of police in different countries. The corruption inside the big petrol giant, in this case Petróleos Mexicanos, Pemex, is rampant. And so it's quite easy to pay off workers inside, to find out when the oil is flowing through certain pipelines and to rob it and then sell it domestically on the black market. Pemex is one of the biggest oil companies in the world. For a long time it was considered a cash cow for the Mexican economy. It kept Mexico afloat in many ways and people always refer to it as the most important institution that the country had. The government recently released figures that around 80 percent of the tomas clandestinas and the fuel robberies that take place in Mexico are organized in some way by insiders in Pemex. What would normally happen is that they would have a link inside Pemex who would tell them through which pipeline a certain, it could be gasoline, it could be gas, it could be anything, is running and what time and what the pressure is. They would then go down to the specific pipeline normally at nighttime. Normally the pipes are about between one or two meters below the ground. They would dig to get to the pipeline. Then would perforate it with a high-powered drill. Then a professional solderer would come in and he would solder a tap to the pipe. They know exactly what they're doing when they do it and the risks that it entails. So they're professionals. One of the huachicoleros in Hidalgo area told me that in one night the organization that he works for can make up to 90 thousand pesos. If you take into account that an average wage, at least in that area from what people were telling me, is about 15 hundred pesos a week. Then, you know, we're talking serious money here. Around midday there was a rumor that was spread that a pipeline had been perforated and that people were illegally siphoning gasoline from one of the biggest pipelines in Mexico. Around two thirty in the afternoon a patrol of 25 officers from the military arrived. So this was quite an unusual occurrence simply because normally fuel robberies would take place at night. Men, women, and children were turning up in vans, in cars, on foot, and on bicycles and motorbikes and coming to the area in huge numbers. Within the next two-to-three hours what may have been 80 people soon was six times that. It felt like they were almost celebrating in some sort of way. It felt like a water party, I heard people say. Generally, they were just local townspeople who were taking advantage of the situation to get free fuel. One thing that's very important here is the fuel that was running through this particular pipeline was very high octane. Which meant that it released lots of very, very, flammable gasses. Because the day itself was relatively hot, these gasses were sort of floating above the crowd. It hadn't yet got to the stage where it was low enough to be ignited. So around six o'clock when it began to get darker and the temperature dropped, those gasses also dropped. And so they sort of began to smother the crowd. Now the interesting thing is that the fire created inside a cigarette butt is not hot enough to ignite petrol but what is hot enough is static electricity. And what would have probably happened is that a static shock would have come from somewhere where there were two hands that were being shaken or friction created between two people rubbing up against each other. And that would have created a static shock which would have been hot enough to ignite these gasses which had now sunk down. And essentially within a matter of seconds, the whole thing ignited. And as the ignition of the fire settles down somewhat then you see the people running from the blast. And this is perhaps the most impactful moment because the people that are running from the blast are in flames. Some of them trip over. Some of them run towards the road. Some of them are rolling on the ground. Some of them are crying for water. The local paramedics came in first from the surrounding villages and when they got to the field, they saw people sort of writhing on the floor in agony. They saw charred bodies that were completely incinerated. Sort of falling apart. People that were in their last moments of agony but burned into that position. What they saw was the most horrific thing that you could possibly see, I can imagine. The Mexican government has declared war on huachicolero. Are they winning it? I think it's far too early to say. Will they win it? Well I think if the drug war is anything to go by then probably not.