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in this video we're talking about the most intimidating things that pilots face
talking to air traffic control radio communications and how to master them
coming up
Hey everyone Carl with the Aviation Guys here and if you like training tips going
on flights and aviation gadget reviews and this is the channel for you if you
if like what you see please consider subscribing now let's get going let's
Lets start out by saying who this video is for. This video is primarily for student pilots
who are ready to take control of the radios, but it's also for certified
pilots who don't usually fly into control airports. But the whole idea is
to help you learn how to get around, fly into, and out of your local airport.
But here's the bottom line the FAA requires certain communications
to happen on the radio and that puts a lot of pressure on air traffic control
and so they have to put pressure on the pilots to make sure they're in
compliance as well so let's make radio communication as simple as possible
there's three basic parts the request instructions and confirmation
so you make a request to air traffic control they give you instructions and then you
repeat those instructions back to confirm that you heard them correctly
then unless they've asked you to contact them or you have a new request you only
receive instructions and confirm it as air traffic control gives you updated information
that's it that's all radio communication is but because what you
say and how you say it matters we're going to dig a little deeper.
so we're going to walk through this as if we're going on a flight and at an airport with air
traffic control there's multiple controllers if you're on the ground
you'll start by contacting ground control to get you to the runway and
after you have the runway you'll contact the tower to clear you for takeoff so
since we're on the ground we're gonna start with our initial
contact with ground control. this initial contact is basically asking permission
to enter the movement area which is anywhere where there's taxiways and
runways in order to enter those areas you have to give them all the
information that they need to be able to graduate entrance into the movement
area watch here as I make my initial contact with ground.
We on ground?
Looks good.
Is it really that today?
Is it really that what?
Yea, I know right?
dear valley ground Cessna seven five six zero zero
at romeo eight requesting taxi for Northwest departure with information
Again your communication with air traffic control on your initial contact
has to have a lot of information. To keep things simple we're going to use the
W's use of ATC communication. When you make your initial contact
with air traffic control, whether you're in the air or on
the ground it has to include these five things.
who you're talking to
who you are
where you are
what is your request and intentions
and with what airport information
This is everything air traffic control needs to know to give
you clearance and instruction. Now the W's aren't the end-all in radio
communication. It's just a good technique to help you get going.
In fact the order of what you are, where you are, and what your requests are
doesn't even matter. But by using the W's in your communication it helps things
flow better and feel more natural. Now, the first communication was the hardest
one from here you just have to listen to what air traffic control says and repeat
it back to them so they know you heard them correctly. Let's watch the rest of
this transmission
Cessna Seven five six zero zero, taxi to northwest run-up via Alpha
advise run-up complete.
Taxing to northwest run-up area via alpha will advise when complete six zero zero
Now that we're cleared to taxi we'll follow the
instructions air traffic control gave us to the run-up area.
Just a side note,
not all airports have a designated run-up area like mine. Sometimes you complete
your run-up at the end of the runway or the runway access point, but what's
important here is that I just entered a non-movement area,
as indicated by these lines which means that once my run-up is complete I
have to contact ground again for clearance into the movement area.
But, because I already gave them all the information they needed about me and my
initial contact, I only have to advise them on the things that they requested.
Which, in this case, is that my run-up is complete.
Deer Valley Ground, Cessna seven five six zero zero
run-up is complete
by now you should have noticed
two things that I'm doing with every communication. The first is that I'm
addressing who I'm talking to and saying Who I am.
These are the first two W's use instead of our steps. Anytime you're
making contact with air traffic control, Unicom, or even air-to-air frequency you
should always start with who you're talking to and who you are.
Second I close my transmission by using my tail number or rather, in this case the last
three of my tail number to help speed things up. It's technically not required
to do so you could just end your transmission by lifting the push-to-talk
button but using this technique is common and helps others in the area know
that you're done communicating. Also speaking of using the last three of your
tail number to help speed things up, air traffic control might do the same thing
so make sure you're actively listening for the last
three of your tail number whenever you're inside of a traffic area.
Now back to my taxi and just like before I'm going to listen to the instructions I'm
given and confirm them.
Cessna six zero zero runway seven left, taxi via
alpha, alpha four.
Taxing via alpha to alpha four for seven left six zero zero
alright now we followed the instructions given to us by ground control,
completed our run-up, made it to the runway, and are holding short.
But ground control can't give us clearance to take off
only tower can. So we have to change our radio
frequency to tower to make our next transmission.
dear valley power Cessna seven five six zero zero is holding short of seven left
ready for departure.
now because we switch over to a different controller we
not only had to tell them who we are again but we had to use our full tail number
But also tell them where we were and what our request is and in this case
it was a request to depart. The rest of our intentions like where we were going
and what airport information we had, was already handed over to tower from ground control
So we didn't need to tell him that again.
Cessna seven five six zero zero, Deer Valley Tower, hold short runway seven left.
Holding short, seven left, six zero zero.
no matter what instructions you're given you just need to confirm and comply to
them in my case I was told to hold short but, they could give you any number of
instructions from here. Here are just a few of them.
hold short of runway.
You'll hear this if there's an aircraft about to land or the runway isn't clea
Fly straight out or fly runway heading.
you'll hear this if you're departing the
airport and they want you to fly until you reach the required altitude
I'll call your crosswind
You'll hear this when the tower is trying to keep
separation between traffic. They'll let you know when you can turn.
left or rightclose traffic approved
You'll hear this when you're approved to stay in the
traffic pattern for touch and go's.
turn at your discretion
You'll hear this when you're leaving the airport and you can turn for departure whenever you'd like
line up and wait
Here you've been cleared onto the runway to get ready for
takeoff but not actually do so until you get clearance
cleared for take off
this one's kind of self-explanatory
Cessna six zero zero fly straight out to advise
runway seven left cleared for takeoff
clear for takeoff on seven left for six zero zero flying straight out
Great, you're up in the air. You fly away from the airport
for some maneuvers.
You do some stalls
maybe a couple spins
your instructor simulates an emergency
Alright buddy, simulated engine failure.
soon enough it's time
to head back to the airport.
Once you're ready, you'll have to make contact with
air traffic control letting them know that you're ready to come back for a landing
just like when you're on the ground you have to contact them to be allowed into
their airspace and your transmission would sound something like this
Deer Valley tower cessna seven five six zero zero is over the shooting range
inbound requesting touch and goes with information Zulu.
so if you're paying close attention you realize I use the five W's again. The process for
contacting aircraft traffic control is the same whether you're on the ground or in
the air, the information just changes a little bit because you're not calling
out airport intersection you're calling out a local landmark that air traffic
control is used to, or you could be using a reporting point found on a sectional
from here air traffic control will give me instructions that I just have to repeat to confirm.
Cessna seven five six zero zero deer vally tower, Roger.
Left base for seven left, report over canal and freeway.
Reporting over canal freeway for seven five six zero zero
from out here air traffic control can give you all kinds of instructions in my
case they asked me to report back to them when I got a little bit closer to
the airport. Now typically I would have called air traffic control at the
reporting point that they asked me but anything can happen when you're inbound
to an airport and in my case they gave me updated instructions before I got to
the reporting point
Cessna six zero zero for traffic make a left turn and fly
eastbound I'll let you know when you can make a right turn back to downwind
make a right turn to east bound, I'll listen for your call.
Err... yes... EAST bound, LEFT TURN! for six zero zero.
In situations like these it's important to just confirm and comply because air
traffic control really could ask you to do any number of things. Here's a short
list of things that they could ask you to do.
extend your downwind I'll call your base
Air traffic control is trying to space the landings just keep flying
until they tell you to turn
enter a left or right base for runway
This information is to tell you how air traffic control would like you to approach the runway.
Enter right or left traffic for runway
This is the same thing as entering a left or right base. Air traffic control wants you to enter
the traffic pattern and is telling you how to approach the runway.
continue straight in
You're already flying runway heading so you can fly
straight in and skip the pattern
Cross over midfield and make right or left traffic
You're on the wrong side of the airport in this situation so air traffic
control is directing you to fly over the field and how have you join the patter.
Remain outside class Delta
This means stay out of their airspace.
They may have too much traffic or something else is going on and they
just don't want you in there yet.
Follow traffic at your 12 o'clock.
I used 12 o'clock as an example here but you'll typically hear this when air traffic control want you
to follow someone else in the pattern and they're telling you where to look.
If you see the traffic you would respond with
traffic in sight
otherwise you would respond with looking for traffic
cleared for the option
Typically you would have to request the option to be
cleared for it but if your traffic control says that you've been cleared
for the option you can do whatever type of landing you want. Full stop, touch and
go, and even a stop and go.
clear to land on runway
this one should be obvious but
make sure you don't land unless you hear it the same rule applies for any type of
landing just make sure air traffic control says what type of landing you're
looking to attempt
now going back to my landing, air traffic control told me why
there was a delay for my entry into their area. But usually they don't have
to tell you. But just like I was asked I flew East until I was told to come
inbound to the airport.
Cessna six zero zero, affirmative. Left turn to the east. My plan is, I've got a...
the downwind is pretty stretched out so I'm gonna put you behind everybody
Roger six zero zero.
Here are the rest of the updates as I came in for my landing.
Cessna six zero zero traffic approaching your three o'clock higher on
downwind Seminole
traffic is a sight.
Cessna six zero zero you can turn inbound
and follow the Seminole that's at midfield.
turning right following traffic. Six zero zero.
Cessna seven five six zero zero, follow the Seminole just crossing the freeway on final
Runway seven left, cleared to land.
Cleared to land, looking for traffic six zero zero.
okay now we've landed but our last contact with air traffic control tower
is going to be telling us to pull off the runway and contact ground for our
taxi instructions
Cessna six zero zero contact ground point 8
Contacting ground, six zero zero.
After clearing the runway we change our radios over to ground control to make our last call
and you guessed it, use the five W's all except for the last one because that
information isn't required to taxi to the hangars.
Deer Valley Ground, Cessna seven five six zero zero
at alpha nine requesting taxi to north hangars
Cessna seven five six zero zero, deer valley ground.
Taxi via alpha to north hangers.
taxing via alpha to north hangar six zero zero.
So that's a really brief overview of air traffic control communications to help you get in and
out of an airport. Now this was specifically for Class D airspace and it
also works for Class C and B airspace with slight variations. But we're going
save that for another video. So I know what you're thinking, now how do I get
good at all this? well practice.
practicing your transmissions is the best way to perfect them. starting with your initial
transmission go ahead and use the five W's. most of us fly out of the same
airport so you can even write these down if you want to and read them back to air
traffic control. but practicing not only helps you with what to say but helps
your transmissions feel more natural. just remember to practice all three
parts of the transmission for all stages of flight in the air and on the ground.
you can anticipate what air traffic control is going to say, and practice
those confirmations. also practice your transmissions out loud, not just in your
head. when you say them out loud it helps you articulate them better and get them
into muscle memory. this will help you from freezing when you push that
push-to-talk button. another great way to the practice is to listen to the radio
communication from your flights. I use a little pocket recorder and a couple of
cables that I plug into the airplane to be able to record all the communications
I have. I'll have links to these down inside of the description below so you
can record your own audio. reviewing the audio help me tremendously inside of my
practice especially since every flight I went on I heard something new. another
good resource for air traffic control audio is live ATC com. it may not be
your audio but it'll still help you practice and hear the different things
that controllers will say. all right now send for some pointers to
help you become a radio communications master.
use a single transmission
when you make your transmission make sure to provide all the required information at
once. don't keep pressing and releasing the push-to-talk button. if you break up
your transmission air traffic control may not hear everything that you say or
make you repeat it all in a single transmission.
actively listen for your callsign
If you're in a stage of life that requires you to communicate with
air traffic control make sure you're paying extra close attention. if you have
passengers just ask them to be quiet for a bit so you can manage the radios better
wait your turn to communicate.
sometimes we have to be patient to talk
to air-traffic control they. can be busy and stepping on someone else's
transmission causes confusion and frustration for everybody don't hesitate
Don't hesitate to ask them to repeat what they said or to talk slower
if you don't understand the instructions ask them to "say again" or "speak slower" so you can make sure
you're doing exactly what they ask you to do
also don't hesitate to tell air traffic control you're unable
if you find yourself in a situation where their instructions make you feel uncomfortable
or nervous, let them know that you're unable and ask for different instructions.
last and probably my most important piece of advice to help you
become a radio communications master is
don't feel stupid
remember air traffic control is there to help you
if you want to take a deeper dive into radio
communications there's a couple of resources that you can use. first you can
check the aeronautical information manual or AIM. in section 2 chapter 4 it
goes over the lot of details on how to communicate on the radios. you can also
check out the pilot controller glossary this goes over almost every aviation
term known to man and its definition
I have links to these resources in the
description below but you can also find them on the tool sections on our website
at flywiththeguys.com. that's it for this video and I wanted to give a shout
out to my instructor and honorary Aviation Guys Jim Pitman who's help
on this video was invaluable. you can check him out at flywithJim.com
hey guys thanks for watching the video if you liked it make sure to give it a
thumbs up and hit that subscribe button also tell us what you think inside of
the comments down below as always share aviation wherever you can and we'll see
in the next one


Talking to Air Traffic Control | Radio Basics | ATC Communications | Part 1

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