字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント Prof: Okay, now today we move--basically we move into the twentieth century. And there is a lot of similarity between the three authors we will be discussing: Nietzsche, Freud and Max Weber. You know, Durkheim will be a somewhat different kind of story. But all--I mean, Nietzsche, of course, died in 1900, but he was out of action for ten years because of mental illness, rather severe mental illness. He published all of his work in the nineteenth century. Freud and Weber started to publish in the nineteenth century. But these three characters, in many ways, are very important bridges towards twentieth century social theory. In a way they did foreshadow a great deal of theorizing, particularly during the second half of the twentieth century, especially in the last thirty or forty years. I think it's also very easy to see the point of departure from Marx-- some continuity, but the basic point of department from Marx in the work of Nietzsche, Freud, and Weber. If I can put it very simply, the major departure is that they all depart from Marx's economic reductionism-- right?--the emphasis on economic interest, which is actually not only Marx. Right? It was common in Adam Smith, and Marx as well. They depart from this and they emphasize that the problem in modernity is not so much in the economic system; it is much more in terms of power and consciousness. The problem of modernity is repression, in one way or another. The problem of modern life is that we internalize the reasons for our own subjugation, as such, and somehow we have to figure out how to liberate ourselves from this internalized subjugation. Why do we obey orders? Why do we actually accept that we are subjugated? This is the central question, I think, Nietzsche, Freud, and Weber are posing. It's again a question which has not been really asked by the other theorists we discussed so far. They just had civil society as a point of reference for the good society. Now the problem for Nietzsche, Freud, and Weber is in us, internally--in us, how we solve the problem within ourselves. So this is a kind of introducing the three authors. In some ways one can say Nietzsche, Freud, and Weber not only foreshadows twentieth century social theory, but in some ways they are the first of post-modern theorists-- right?--the theorists which are beginning to come to terms with the oppressive nature of modernity, and try to figure out how to transcend that. Now I think what I asked you to read for today is probably the most difficult text for the semester, The Genealogy of Morals, and you may have been greatly frustrated by it, and probably also irritated by it, because he's a very provocative mind. I hope you did what I suggested; namely, you had a cursory reading of the text before today, and now you can go back to the text, after my lecture notes, and I think that should help you to find your way out and to see what he is really up to. Now what is he up to? Let me just foreshadow, before I get into his life and work, and particularly in Genealogy of Morals. There is another point in which Nietzsche, Freud, and Weber can be understood in relationship to Marx. In my very introductory comments, I emphasized the difference--right?--the shift away from the economy to the question of power and domination. But there is a point at which there is a continuity between them and Marx--Nietzsche, Freud and too mainly Weber; I mean, Weber is a somewhat more complicated story. But certainly Nietzsche and Freud are critical theorists; critical theorists in the sense as we defined this earlier. Right? Critical theorists, that they are offering a criticism of human consciousness. What is in our mind and how did it get into our mind, and how-- and the problem of our consciousness in relationship to our existence. And this is very much critical theory as it was defined by Hegel and then the young Marx, the Hegelian Marx, the Marx of Paris Manuscripts. Right? The Marx of alienation. Right? This is very much coming from this tradition, and the central issue is how can we subject this to critical scrutiny? And in Nietzsche's case, there is an incredible attempt being made here to try to offer a critical theory which does not really have a critical vantage point. Right? All critical theories of Hegel and Marx and twentieth century critical theory do have an idea of a good society, of an emancipated human existence, and they criticize the reality, the society what they are analyzing, from the point of view of this critical vantage point. Nietzsche is different. He is really the most radical of critical theorists. And in the twentieth century the theorist which builds the most consistently on it is Michel Foucault-- right?--who tried to create a theory which is critical of existence and our consciousness, but critical without telling you what is good, what you should be aspiring for. And that's exactly what Nietzsche is trying to do. It is sort of the squaring of the circle. Can you be critical of a situation if you cannot tell what is the good outcome? Right? Can you actually subject the very notion of the good society, the good, to critical scrutiny? This is what he's trying to do. Right? To offer such a theory. Well Freud is different. Right? Freud is a critical theorist beyond Hegel and beyond Marx. He does agree with Marx that we have to find some critical analysis which is rooted in our sensuous experiences, and somehow we have to relate the problems of our consciousness to our sensuous experiences. Right? In this respect, Freud is very much in the line of Marx's critique of Hegel. This is not simply radicalizing your consciousness; you have to confront your consciousness with your sensuous experiences. But he is different from Marx because-- I pointed this out earlier very briefly-- because in Marx, this sensuous activity is production, it is economic activity. For Freud it is our sexual experiences-- right?-and he offers a criticism of our consciousness by confronting us with our repressed sexual experiences in our earlier life. Right? So this is a critical theory. Right? He said, "What you think is in your mind is right. No, no, no, it isn't." Right? You have to think about all of your experiences of your earlier sexual life, and then when you figure out what you repressed as bad memories, that's when you will actually will be able to have a healthier psychic life. Right? Well Weber is more complicated, and we will come back to this, Weber's critical theory, when we get to Weber, and to the question whether he's a critical theorist at all, that has been highly debated. Okay, I think now we are ready for Friedrich Nietzsche. And I hope this makes more sense now for you--right?--what you were reading. Right? And let me just emphasize one more time-- right?--the big project in Nietzsche is to offer a critical scrutiny of human mind, but not to have any critical vantage point. Right? To criticize the very principles of good society and good, to critical scrutiny. Where does it come from when we have the conception of good and good society? That is his project. It's an incredible intellectual venture. Right? As I said, it is this kind of squaring of the circle, what he does; what he does with a great deal of power.