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Hi guys, I'm Alex. Thanks for clicking, and welcome to this lesson on gerunds. Now, in
this lesson, we're going to look at all the various functions that a gerund can have in
a sentence. So before we begin that, we should understand what a gerund is and how a gerund
is formed. If you look at the title, you can see that a gerund is basically a verb plus
"ing". So, what is it? Is it a verb? Is it a noun? Well, it's actually a verbal noun
which means that while it looks like a verb - like for example: in the first sentence
we have: "running" -, it can perform the same functions as a noun. So think of it as a verbal
noun, leaning more towards the noun part. Okay? So let's look at the six ways that we
can use a gerund. The top one says:
"Running is good for your heart." Now, as we've identified, "running" is the gerund.
And in this situation, "running" is clearly the subject of the sentence. Right? So a gerund
can be the subject of a sentence. Just like a noun. Right? So "running", "running" is
what you're talking about; the activity of running. You follow it with a verb: "is",
"good for your heart". Okay? So in the second one we say:
"He hates waking up early." Now, what is the gerund? The gerund is "waking", it's actually
a complete thought here: "waking up". In which position of the sentence is the gerund in
this sentence? So we have "he" which is the subject, we have "hates" which is the verb,
and then he has to hate something. Right? So, in this situation, what he hates is the
object, just like a noun; it can be "pizza" or anything else here. Think of it as a noun.
Okay, number three: "What I hate most is repeating myself." So
what is the subject of this sentence? Is it: "What I", is it: "What I hate", "What I hate
most", "What I hate most is"? Well, the complete subject is: "What I hate most" and "is", and
we have the gerund here: "repeating myself", so saying the same thing again and again.
Now, in this situation, the gerund is not actually an object because the subject is
not doing anything to the gerund. You're just giving more information about the subject.
So: "What I hate most" and then you're actually telling me what you hate most; you're giving
more information about it. So what you're doing is providing a subject complement. Okay?
Okay. Now, the next one:
"I saw Jim riding his bike." So you're probably getting the idea of a pattern developing here.
First, let's identify the gerund. The gerund is: "riding". Okay, now let's look at the
sentence. We have "I" which is the subject, "saw" -- the verb, "Jim". "I saw Jim", okay,
"Jim" is the object. Okay, now you're giving more information about Jim's actions here
though. "I saw Jim": what was he doing? He was: "riding his bike". So in this situation,
the gerund is giving more information about the object's action. So in this situation
it's an object complement. Okay? Sorry for my writing there.
And number five - a very, very common way to use gerunds and a very important rule,
especially for intermediate and advanced speakers: "I'm interested in improving myself." In getting
better. So we have: "improving" as the gerund. Now, why are we using the gerund? Why can't
we say: "I am interested in improve" or: "I am interested in to improve"? Well, any time
you have a preposition - and normally we have lots and lots of adjective and proposition
combinations - after the preposition, always use a gerund. So a gerund can be the object
of a preposition. Now, more examples of this are: "I am excited about doing something.",
"I am used to doing something." Okay? So it can be the object of a preposition.
And finally, this is a rule which is often forgotten and you can actually check out a
deeper explanation of it on www.engvid.com: "She doesn't like your bossing her around."
So we have "bossing", this means telling a person what to do. Okay? So: "She doesn't
like your bossing her around." Here we're using "your", we're using a possessive. So
in this situation, a gerund is actually the object of a possessive pronoun. Okay? So it
can be the object of a possessive. There we go.
So, as you can see, there are numerous ways that we can use a gerund. It's not just a
simple type of word with only one function; it has a variety of functions in a variety
of ways we can use it in different parts of a sentence.
Now, do not confuse, never confuse a gerund with a continuous verb. So if I say: "She
is running." Okay, I am describing her action in the moment. "Running" is not a gerund.
"Running" is a continuous verb in this situation. Okay? So that is really the most common confusion.
Don't confuse a gerund for a continuous verb. Remember: it's a verbal noun. It can perform
the same functions as any noun like: "pizza", "table", "car", etc.
So once more: a gerund can be the subject of a sentence. For example: "Smoking is bad
for you." "Smoking" is the subject. It can be the object of the sentence like we have
here: "He hates..." what does he hate? "Waking up early." It can be a subject complement.
"What I hate most is repeating myself." Another example of this might be: "My favourite activity
is hiking", for example. "I saw Jim riding his bike." Object complement. "I'm interested
in improving myself." So it can be the object of a preposition. Right? So any time you have
a preposition like: "in", "at", "on", "by", "against", "with". Okay? "ing", "ing", "ing".
And finally, it can be the object of a possessive. So: "She doesn't like your bossing her around."
Or this can even be something simple like: "I don't like her cooking." Okay? So you're
not describing her activity, you're describing the thing, her cooking. Or I can say: "Your
speaking", or: "Your listening", "Your writing needs to improve."
Okay guys, to test your understanding of this knowledge, as always, you can check out the
quiz on www.engvid.com. Take care, and good luck. And don't forget to subscribe to my
YouTube channel. See ya.
コツ:単語をクリックしてすぐ意味を調べられます!

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English Grammar - 6 Ways to Use Gerunds

22531 タグ追加 保存
青云 2013 年 12 月 6 日 に公開
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