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  • Hi guys, I'm Alex. Thanks for clicking, and welcome to this lesson on gerunds. Now, in

    こんにちは、アレックスです。クリックしてくださってありがとうございます。さて

  • this lesson, we're going to look at all the various functions that a gerund can have in

    このレッスンでは、gerundが持つ様々な機能を見ていきます。

  • a sentence. So before we begin that, we should understand what a gerund is and how a gerund

    のような文章を作ることができます。では、それを始める前に、gerundとは何か、gerundはどのようなものかを理解しておきましょう。

  • is formed. If you look at the title, you can see that a gerund is basically a verb plus

    が形成されます。タイトルを見ていただければわかると思いますが、gerundは基本的に動詞プラス

  • "ing". So, what is it? Is it a verb? Is it a noun? Well, it's actually a verbal noun

    "ing"です。では、それは何でしょうか?それは動詞ですか?名詞ですか?そうですね、実は動詞の名詞です。

  • which means that while it looks like a verb - like for example: in the first sentence

    これは、動詞のように見えても、例えば、最初の文では

  • we have: "running" -, it can perform the same functions as a noun. So think of it as a verbal

    we have: "running" -, it can perform the same function as noun.なので、動詞として考えてみてください。

  • noun, leaning more towards the noun part. Okay? So let's look at the six ways that we

    名詞の方に傾いています。いいですか?では、次の6つの方法を見てみましょう。

  • can use a gerund. The top one says:

    はgerundを使うことができます。上の方に書いてあります。

  • "Running is good for your heart." Now, as we've identified, "running" is the gerund.

    "Running is good for your heart." Now, as we've identified, " running" is the gerund.

  • And in this situation, "running" is clearly the subject of the sentence. Right? So a gerund

    そして、この状況では、" running"は明らかに文の主語になっています。だろう?ということで、gerund

  • can be the subject of a sentence. Just like a noun. Right? So "running", "running" is

    は文の主語にすることができます。名詞と同じようにですよね?なので、"running"、"running"は

  • what you're talking about; the activity of running. You follow it with a verb: "is",

    what you're talking about; the activity of running.あなたはそれに続く動詞: "is"をつけます。

  • "good for your heart". Okay? So in the second one we say:

    "good for your heart"です。いいですか?だから2つ目では、私たちは言います。

  • "He hates waking up early." Now, what is the gerund? The gerund is "waking", it's actually

    "He hates waking up early." さて、gerundは何ですか?gerund is "waking", it's actually

  • a complete thought here: "waking up". In which position of the sentence is the gerund in

    ここで完全な思考: "waking up"。文のどの位置に

  • this sentence? So we have "he" which is the subject, we have "hates" which is the verb,

    この文はどうでしょうか?ということで、主語である"he"を持っていますが、動詞である"hates"を持っています。

  • and then he has to hate something. Right? So, in this situation, what he hates is the

    とか言って、何かを嫌うようになってしまう。だろう?だから、この状況で、彼が嫌っているのは

  • object, just like a noun; it can be "pizza" or anything else here. Think of it as a noun.

    object, just like a noun; it can be " pizza" or anything else here.名詞のように考えてください。

  • Okay, number three: "What I hate most is repeating myself." So

    さて、その3:"What I hate most is repeating myself."So

  • what is the subject of this sentence? Is it: "What I", is it: "What I hate", "What I hate

    この文の主語は何ですか?Is it: "What I", is it: "What I hate", "What I hate

  • most", "What I hate most is"? Well, the complete subject is: "What I hate most" and "is", and

    most"、"What I hate most is"?さて、完全な主題は次のとおりです。

  • we have the gerund here: "repeating myself", so saying the same thing again and again.

    we have the gerund here: " repeating myself" so saying same thing again and again.

  • Now, in this situation, the gerund is not actually an object because the subject is

    さて、この状況では、主語が

  • not doing anything to the gerund. You're just giving more information about the subject.

    ゲラントに何もしていない主語についての情報を与えているだけです。

  • So: "What I hate most" and then you're actually telling me what you hate most; you're giving

    だから: "What I hate most" and then you're actually telling me what you hate most; you're giving.

  • more information about it. So what you're doing is providing a subject complement. Okay?

    より多くの情報を提供することができます。あなたがしていることは 主語の補完を提供しているということですねいいですか?

  • Okay. Now, the next one:

    さて、次はさて、次は

  • "I saw Jim riding his bike." So you're probably getting the idea of a pattern developing here.

    仝それにしても、このようなことがあったのですね。

  • First, let's identify the gerund. The gerund is: "riding". Okay, now let's look at the

    まず、gerundを確認してみましょう。gerundは: "ride"です。さて、次は、このように

  • sentence. We have "I" which is the subject, "saw" -- the verb, "Jim". "I saw Jim", okay,

    という文があります。We have "I" which is the subject, "saw" -- the verb, "Jim". "I saw Jim", okay.

  • "Jim" is the object. Okay, now you're giving more information about Jim's actions here

    Jim"がオブジェクトです。さて、ここでJimの行動についての情報を与えています。

  • though. "I saw Jim": what was he doing? He was: "riding his bike". So in this situation,

    しかし、"I saw Jim": what was he doing?彼は: "riding his bike"でした。だからこの状況では

  • the gerund is giving more information about the object's action. So in this situation

    はオブジェクトの動作についてより多くの情報を与えています。ですから、この状況では

  • it's an object complement. Okay? Sorry for my writing there.

    オブジェクトを補完するんだいいですか?そこに書いてごめんなさい。

  • And number five - a very, very common way to use gerunds and a very important rule,

    そして5番 - 冠詞の使い方はとても一般的で、とても重要なルールです。

  • especially for intermediate and advanced speakers: "I'm interested in improving myself." In getting

    特に中級・上級者向け: "I'm interested in improving myself." In getting

  • better. So we have: "improving" as the gerund. Now, why are we using the gerund? Why can't

    の方が良いです。ということで、私たちは: " improving"を動詞として使っています。さて、なぜgerundを使っているのでしょうか?なぜ

  • we say: "I am interested in improve" or: "I am interested in to improve"? Well, any time

    we say: "I am interested in improve" or: "I am interested in to improve"?まあ、任意の時間

  • you have a preposition - and normally we have lots and lots of adjective and proposition

    前置詞があって、普通は形容詞や命題がたくさんありますよね。

  • combinations - after the preposition, always use a gerund. So a gerund can be the object

    組み合わせ - 前置詞の後には必ずgerundを使います。ですから、gerundは目的語になります。

  • of a preposition. Now, more examples of this are: "I am excited about doing something.",

    前置詞のさて、これのより多くの例は次のとおりです:"I am excited about doing something."。

  • "I am used to doing something." Okay? So it can be the object of a preposition.

    "I am used to doing something." Okay?ということで、前置詞の目的語にもなります。

  • And finally, this is a rule which is often forgotten and you can actually check out a

    そして最後に忘れがちなルールですが、実際にチェックしてみると

  • deeper explanation of it on www.engvid.com: "She doesn't like your bossing her around."

    www.engvid.com: "She doesn't't like your bossing her around.&quot.

  • So we have "bossing", this means telling a person what to do. Okay? So: "She doesn't

    だから私たちは"bossing"を持っている、これは人に何をすべきかを伝えることを意味します。いいですか?だから: "She doesn't

  • like your bossing her around." Here we're using "your", we're using a possessive. So

    like your bossing her around." Here we're using "your", we're using possessive.ということで

  • in this situation, a gerund is actually the object of a possessive pronoun. Okay? So it

    この場合、gerundは所有代名詞の目的語になります。いいですか?ということは

  • can be the object of a possessive. There we go.

    は所有格の目的語になることがあります。これでいいわ

  • So, as you can see, there are numerous ways that we can use a gerund. It's not just a

    ということで、お分かりのように、gerundの使い方は無数にあります。それは

  • simple type of word with only one function; it has a variety of functions in a variety

    簡約語

  • of ways we can use it in different parts of a sentence.

    文章の異なる部分での使用方法の

  • Now, do not confuse, never confuse a gerund with a continuous verb. So if I say: "She

    さて、混同しないでください、決して連続動詞と多動詞を混同しないでください。ですから、もし私が次のように言ったら: "She

  • is running." Okay, I am describing her action in the moment. "Running" is not a gerund.

    is running." Okay, I am describing her action in the moment. " Running" is not a gerund.

  • "Running" is a continuous verb in this situation. Okay? So that is really the most common confusion.

    "Running"はこの状況では連続動詞です。いいですか?ということで、本当によくある混同ですね。

  • Don't confuse a gerund for a continuous verb. Remember: it's a verbal noun. It can perform

    gerundと連続動詞を混同しないでください。覚えておいてください:動詞の名詞です。これは

  • the same functions as any noun like: "pizza", "table", "car", etc.

    のような任意の名詞と同じ機能:"pizza"、"table"、"car"など。

  • So once more: a gerund can be the subject of a sentence. For example: "Smoking is bad

    だからもう一度:gerundは文の主語になることができます。例: "喫煙は悪い

  • for you." "Smoking" is the subject. It can be the object of the sentence like we have

    for you." " Smoking"は主語です。それは私たちが持っているような文の目的語にすることができます。

  • here: "He hates..." what does he hate? "Waking up early." It can be a subject complement.

    here: "He hates..." what does he hate? "Waking up early." it can be subject complement.

  • "What I hate most is repeating myself." Another example of this might be: "My favourite activity

    "What I hate most is repeating myself." Another example of this might be: "My Favorite activity

  • is hiking", for example. "I saw Jim riding his bike." Object complement. "I'm interested

    はhiking"、例えば。 "I saw Jim riding his bike." Object complement.

  • in improving myself." So it can be the object of a preposition. Right? So any time you have

    in improving myself." だから、前置詞の目的語にすることができます。だろう?だから、あなたが持っている任意の時間

  • a preposition like: "in", "at", "on", "by", "against", "with". Okay? "ing", "ing", "ing".

    のような前置詞: "in"、"at"、"on"、"by"、" against"、"with"。いいですか、"ing"、"ing"、"ing"。

  • And finally, it can be the object of a possessive. So: "She doesn't like your bossing her around."

    そして最後に、所有格のオブジェクトにすることができます。だから: "She doesn't't like your bossing her around.&quot.

  • Or this can even be something simple like: "I don't like her cooking." Okay? So you're

    または、これも何か簡単なもののようにすることができます:"I don't like her cooking." Okay?だからあなたは

  • not describing her activity, you're describing the thing, her cooking. Or I can say: "Your

    彼女の活動を記述していない、あなたは事を記述している、彼女の料理。または私は言うことができます: "Your

  • speaking", or: "Your listening", "Your writing needs to improve."

    speaking"、または: "Your listening"、"Your writing needs to improve.&quot.

  • Okay guys, to test your understanding of this knowledge, as always, you can check out the

    さて、みんな、この知識の理解度をテストするために、いつものように

  • quiz on www.engvid.com. Take care, and good luck. And don't forget to subscribe to my

    クイズ www.engvid.com。お気をつけて、頑張ってください。そして、ドン'tは、私の

  • YouTube channel. See ya.

    YouTubeチャンネル。じゃあね

Hi guys, I'm Alex. Thanks for clicking, and welcome to this lesson on gerunds. Now, in

こんにちは、アレックスです。クリックしてくださってありがとうございます。さて

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