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  • In the 4th century BCE, a banker's son threw the city of Sinope into scandal by counterfeiting coins.

    紀元前 4 世紀、ある銀行家の息子が硬貨を偽造してシノーペ市をスキャンダルに陥れました。

  • When the dust finally settled, the young man, Diogenes of Sinope, had been stripped of his citizenship, his money, and all his possessions.


  • At least, that's how the story goes.


  • While many of the details of Diogenes' life are shadowy, the philosophical ideas born out of his disgrace survive today.


  • In exile, Diogenes decided that by rejecting the opinions of others and societal measures of success, he could be truly free.


  • He would live self-sufficiently, close to nature, without materialism, vanity, or conformity.


  • In practice, this meant he spent years wandering around Greek cities with nothing but a cloak, staff, and knapsackoutdoors year-round, forgoing technology, baths, and cooked food.

    つまり実際にはマント、杖、ナップザックだけでギリシャの都市を何年も歩きまわり、 一年中野外で、テクノロジーや風呂、調理済みの食品なしで過ごしました。

  • He didn't go about this new existence quietly, but is said to have teased passers-by and mocked the powerful, eating, urinating and even masturbating in public.


  • The citizens called him a kyôn— a barking dog.

    市民は彼のことをキュオン (吠える犬) と呼びました。

  • Though meant as an insult, dogs were actually a good symbol for his philosophythey're happy creatures, free from abstractions like wealth or reputation.


  • Diogenes and his growing number of followers became known asdog philosophers,” or kynikoi, a designation that eventually became the wordCynic.”


  • These early Cynics were a carefree bunch,drawn to the freedom of a wandering lifestyle.


  • As Diogenes' reputation grew, others tried to challenge his commitment.


  • Alexander the Great offered him anything he desired.


  • But instead of asking for material goods,Diogenes only asked Alexander to get out of his sunshine.


  • After Diogenes' death,adherents to his philosophy continued to call themselves Cynics for about 900 years, until 500 CE.

    ディオゲネスの死後、彼の哲学の信奉者たちは、自分達を約 900 年の間、紀元後 500 年まで「キュニコス派」と呼び続けました。

  • Some Greek philosophers, like the Stoics, thought everyone should follow Diogenes' example.


  • They also attempted to tone down his philosophy to be more acceptable to conventional societywhich, of course, was fundamentally at odds with his approach.


  • Others viewed the Cynics less charitably.


  • In the Roman province of Syria in the 2nd century CE, the satirist Lucian described the Cynics of his own time as unprincipled, materialistic, self-promoting hypocrites, who only preached what Diogenes had once actually practiced.

    紀元後 2 世紀のシリア属州では、風刺作家のルキアノスが彼の時代のキュニコス派を、ディオゲネスがかつて実践したことを説いただけの無節操で唯物論的、自己宣伝的な偽善者であると表現しました。

  • Reading Lucian's texts centuries later, Renaissance and Reformation writers called their rivals cynics as an insultmeaning people who criticized others without having anything worthwhile to say.


  • This usage eventually laid the groundwork for the modern meaning of the wordcynic:"

    この用法は、最終的に「cynic = 皮肉屋」という単語の現代の意味の基礎となりました。

  • A person who thinks everyone else is acting out of pure self-interest, even if they claim a higher motive.


  • Still, the philosophy of cynicism had admirers, especially among those who wished to question the state of society.


  • The 18th-century French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau was called thenew Diogeneswhen he argued that the arts, sciences, and technology, corrupt people.

    18 世紀フランスの哲学者ジャン=ジャック・ルソーは、芸術、科学、技術が人々を堕落させると主張した際に、「新ディオゲネス」と呼ばれていました。

  • In 1882, Friedrich Nietzsche reimagined a story in which Diogenes went into the Athenian marketplace with a lantern, searching in vain for a single honest person.

    1882 年、フリードリヒ・ニーチェは、ディオゲネスが提灯を持ってアテネの市場に行って、正直な人をたった一人でも探そうとしたが無駄に終わったという話を解釈し直しました。

  • In Nietszche's version, a so-called madman rushes into a town square to proclaim thatGod is dead.”


  • This was Nietzsche's way of calling for a “revaluation of values,” and rejecting the dominant Christian and Platonic idea of universal, spiritual insights beyond the physical world.


  • Nietzsche admired Diogenes for sticking stubbornly to the here-and-now.


  • More recently, the hippies of the 1960s have been compared with Diogenes as counter-cultural rebels.

    最近では、 1960 年代のヒッピーはカウンターカルチャーの反逆者としてディオゲネスと肩を並べています。

  • Diogenes' ideas have been adopted and reimagined over and over again.


  • The original cynics might not have approved of these fresh takes: they believed that their values of rejecting custom and living closely with nature were the only true values.


  • Whether or not you agree with that, or with any of the later incarnations, all have one thing in common: they questioned the status quo.


  • And that's an example we can still follow: not to blindly follow conventional or majority views, but to think hard about what is truly valuable.


  • Thinking critically about our institutions and way of life is more important than ever. Hone your new found skepticism with these videos.


In the 4th century BCE, a banker's son threw the city of Sinope into scandal by counterfeiting coins.

紀元前 4 世紀、ある銀行家の息子が硬貨を偽造してシノーペ市をスキャンダルに陥れました。


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