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  • ["In ancient times cats were worshipped as gods; they have not forgotten this." - Terry Pratchett]

    1941年5月27日にドイツの戦艦 ビスマルクは激しい銃撃戦の後 沈みました: 2,200人の乗組員のうち118人だけが生き残りました。

  • On May 27th, 1941, the German battleship Bismarck sank in a fierce firefight, leaving only 118 of her 2,200 crew members alive.

    しかしイギリスの駆逐艦が 捕虜を捕捉する時、思いがけない生存者を発見しました。それは浮かんでいる板にしがみついている白黒の猫でした。

  • But when a British destroyer came to collect the prisoners, they found an unexpected survivor: a black and white cat clinging to a floating plank.

    その後の数ヶ月間 この猫はネズミを狩り、それにイギリスの士気も高めました。しかし突然の魚雷攻撃が船体を粉砕して、船を沈めてしまいました。

  • For the next several months this cat hunted rats and raised British morale until a sudden torpedo strike shattered the hull and sank the ship.


  • But, miraculously, not the cat.

    「不沈のサム」と名付けられた猫は、救助された乗組員と共にジブラルタルに行き、さらに3隻の船で 「船乗り猫」として仕えましたが、その内1隻も沈没し、ベルファストにある船乗りの宿舎で引退しました。

  • Nicknamed "Unsinkable Sam," he rode to Gibraltar with the rescued crew and served as a ship cat on three more vessels, one of which also sank, before retiring to the Belfast Home for sailors.


  • Many may not think of cats as serviceable sailors or cooperative companions of any kind.


  • But cats have been working alongside humans for thousands of years, helping us just as often as we help them.


  • So how did these solitary creatures go from wild predator, to naval officer, to sofa sidekick?


  • The domestication of the modern house cat can be traced back to more than 10,000 years ago, in the Fertile Crescent, at the start of the Neolithic era.


  • People were learning to bend nature to their will, producing much more food than farmers could eat at one time.


  • These Neolithic farmers stored their excess grain in large pits and short clay silos.


  • But these stores of food attracted hordes of rodents as well as their predator, Felis Silvestris Lybica, the wildcat found across North Africa and Southwest Asia.

    これらの野生猫たちは、俊敏で獰猛な肉食性のハンターでした。現代の飼い猫と大きさや外観が とても似ていました。

  • These wildcats were fast, fierce, carnivorous hunters, and they were remarkably similar in size and appearance to today's domestic cats.


  • The main differences being that ancient wildcats were more muscular, had striped coats, and were less social towards other cats and humans.


  • The abundance of prey in rodent-infested granaries drew in these typically solitary animals.


  • And as the wildcats learned to tolerate the presence of humans and other cats during mealtime, we think that farmers likewise tolerated the cats in exchange for free pest control.


  • The relationship was so beneficial that the cats migrated with Neolithic farmers from Anatolia into Europe and the Mediterranean.

    ねずみは七つの海で ひどい災難をもたらしました。

  • Vermin were a major scourge of the seven seas.

    食料を食べたり ロープを噛み込んだりしたので、猫はずっと昔から航海における 不可欠な同伴者となりました。

  • They ate provisions and gnawed at lines of rope, so cats had long since become essential sailing companions.

    世界を駆け巡ることになる アナトリアの猫が旅立ったのとほぼ同じ頃、エジプトの人々も 地元の猫を飼いならしていました。

  • Around the same time these Anatolian globe trotting cats set sail, the Egyptians domesticated their own local cats.

    有毒なヘビと鳥やネズミを狩ることのできる エジプトの猫は崇拝の対象となり、飼い猫は宗教文化にとって 重要な存在となりました。

  • Revered for their ability to dispatch venomous snakes, catch birds, and kill rats, domestic cats became important to Egyptian religious culture.

    猫はフレスコ画や象形文字、彫像、さらには 飼い主と共にミイラになり、墓でも不死となりました。

  • They gained immortality in frescos, hieroglyphs, statues, and even tombs, mummified alongside their owners.


  • Egyptian ship cats cruised the Nile, holding poisonous river snakes at bay.


  • And after graduating to larger vessels, they too began to migrate from port to port.


  • During the time of the Roman Empire, ships traveling between India and Egypt carried the lineage of the central Asian wildcat F. S. Ornata.


  • Centuries later, in the Middle Ages, Egyptian cats voyaged up to the Baltic Sea on the ships of Viking seafarers.

    近東と北アフリカの野生猫は ― おそらくこの時に飼いならされ ― ヨーロッパ横断を続け、最終的にオーストラリアとアメリカに向けて航海を始めました。

  • And both the Near Eastern and North African wildcats--probably tamed at this point--continued to travel across Europe, eventually setting sail for Australia and the Americas.

    現在ほとんどの飼い猫は近東か エジプト産アフリカ山猫の系統を引き継いでいます。

  • Today, most house cats have descended from either the Near Eastern or the Egyptian lineage of F. S. Lybica.


  • But close analysis of the genomes and coat patterns of modern cats tells us that unlike dogs, which have undergone centuries of selective breeding, modern cats are genetically very similar to ancient cats.


  • And apart from making them more social and docile, we've done little to alter their natural behaviors.

    言い換えれば、現代の猫は、多かれ少なかれ昔からのままの野生動物です。 私たちを彼らの番人とは見ていない、獰猛なハンターです。

  • In other words, cats today are more or less as they've always been: wild animals, fierce hunters, creatures that don't see us as their keepers.


  • And given our long history together, they might not be wrong.

    猫はアナトリアからヨーロッパと地中海に 新石器時代の農家と共に移住しました

  • If you love cats as much as we do, check out these lessons for more fun facts on our feline friends.

    ねずみは七つの海で ひどい災難をもたらしました

["In ancient times cats were worshipped as gods; they have not forgotten this." - Terry Pratchett]

1941年5月27日にドイツの戦艦 ビスマルクは激しい銃撃戦の後 沈みました: 2,200人の乗組員のうち118人だけが生き残りました。

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B2 中上級 日本語 TED-Ed エジプト 野生 航海 船乗り 現代

猫による世界の歴史! (The history of the world according to cats - Eva-Maria Geigl)

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    minami.kuo に公開 2019 年 12 月 15 日