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I am a neurosurgeon,
and I'm here to tell you today that people like me need your help.
And in a few moments, I will tell you how.
But first, let me start off by telling you about a patient of mine.
This was a woman in her 50s,
she was in generally good shape,
but she had been in and out of hospital a few times
due to curative breast cancer treatment.
Now she had gotten a prolapse from a cervical disc,
giving her radiating pain of a tense kind,
out into the right arm.
Looking at her MRI before the consultation,
I decided to suggest an operation.
Now, neck operations like these are standardized, and they're quick.
But they carry a certain risk.
You make an incision right here,
and you dissect carefully past the trachea,
the esophagus,
and you try not to cut into the internal carotid artery.
(Laughter)
Then you bring in the microscope,
and you carefully remove the disc and the prolapse
in the nerve root canal,
without damaging the cord and the nerve root
lying only millimeters underneath.
The worst case scenario is the damage to the cord,
which can result in paralysis from the neck down.
Explaining this to the patient, she fell silent.
And after a few moments,
she uttered a few very decisive words for me and for her.
"Doctor, is this really necessary?"
(Laughter)
And you know what I realized, right there and then?
It was not.
In fact, when I get patients like this woman,
I tend to advise not to operate.
So what made me do it this time?
Well, you see,
this prolapse was so delicate,
I could practically see myself pulling it out of the nerve root canal
before she entered the consultation room.
I have to admit it, I wanted to operate on her.
I'd love to operate on her.
Operating, after all, is the most fun part of my job.
(Laughter)
I think you can relate to this feeling.
My architect neighbor says he loves to just sit and draw
and design houses.
He'd rather do that all day
than talk to the client paying for the house
that might even give him restrictions on what to do.
But like every architect,
every surgeon needs to look their patient in the eye
and together with the patient,
they need to decide on what is best for the person having the operation.
And that might sound easy.
But let's look at some statistics.
The tonsils are the two lumps in the back of your throat.
They can be removed surgically,
and that's called a tonsillectomy.
This chart shows the operation rate of tonsillectomies in Norway
in different regions.
What might strike you is that there is twice the chance
that your kid -- because this is for children --
will get a tonsillectomy in Finnmark than in Trondheim.
The indications in both regions are the same.
There should be no difference, but there is.
Here's another chart.
The meniscus helps stabilize the knee
and can be torn or fragmented acutely,
topically during sports like soccer.
What you see here is the operation rate for this condition.
And you see that the operation rate in Møre og Romsdal
is five times the operation rate in Stavanger.
Five times.
How can this be?
Did the soccer players in Møre og Romsdal
play more dirty than elsewhere in the country?
(Laughter)
Probably not.
I added some information now.
What you see now is the procedures performed
in public hospitals, in light blue,
the ones in private clinics are light green.
There is a lot of activity in the private clinics
in Møre og Romsdal, isn't there?
What does this indicate?
A possible economic motivation to treat the patients.
And there's more.
Recent research has shown that the difference of treatment effect
between regular physical therapy and operations for the knee --
there is no difference.
Meaning that most of the procedures performed
on the chart I've just shown
could have been avoided, even in Stavanger.
So what am I trying to tell you here?
Even though most indications for treatments in the world
are standardized,
there is a lot of unnecessary variation of treatment decisions,
especially in the Western world.
Some people are not getting the treatment that they need,
but an even greater portion of you
are being overtreated.
"Doctor, is this really necessary?"
I've only heard that question once in my career.
My colleagues say they never heard these words from a patient.
And to turn it the other way around,
how often do you think you'll get a "no" from a doctor
if you ask such a question?
Researchers have investigated this,
and they come up with about the same "no" rate
wherever they go.
And that is 30 percent.
Meaning, three out of 10 times,
your doctor prescribes or suggests something
that is completely unnecessary.
And you know what they claim the reason for this is?
Patient pressure.
In other words, you.
You want something to be done.
A friend of mine came to me for medical advice.
This is a sporty guy,
he does a lot of cross-country skiing in the winter time,
he runs in the summer time.
And this time, he'd gotten a bad back ache whenever he went jogging.
So much that he had to stop doing it.
I did an examination, I questioned him thoroughly,
and what I found out is that he probably had a degenerated disc
in the lower part of his spine.
Whenever it got strained, it hurt.
He'd already taken up swimming instead of jogging,
there was really nothing to do,
so I told him, "You need to be more selective
when it comes to training.
Some activities are good for you,
some are not."
His reply was,
"I want an MRI of my back."
"Why do you want an MRI?"
"I can get it for free through my insurance at work."
"Come on," I said -- he was also, after all, my friend.
"That's not the real reason."
"Well, I think it's going to be good to see how bad it looks back there."
"When did you start interpreting MRI scans?" I said.
(Laughter)
"Trust me on this.
You're not going to need the scan."
"Well," he said,
and after a while, he continued, "It could be cancer."
(Laughter)
He got the scan, obviously.
And through his insurance at work,
he got to see one of my colleagues at work,
telling him about the degenerated disc,
that there was nothing to do,
and that he should keep on swimming and quit the jogging.
After a while, I met him again and he said,
"At least now I know what this is."
But let me ask you a question.
What if all of you in this room with the same symptoms had an MRI?
And what if all the people in Norway
had an MRI due to occasional back pain?
The waiting list for an MRI would quadruple, maybe even more.
And you would all take the spot on that list
from someone who really had cancer.
So a good doctor sometimes says no,
but the sensible patient also turns down, sometimes,
an opportunity to get diagnosed or treated.
"Doctor, is this really necessary?"
I know this can be a difficult question to ask.
In fact, if you go back 50 years,
this was even considered rude.
(Laughter)
If the doctor had decided what to do with you,
that's what you did.
A colleague of mine, now a general practitioner,
was sent away to a tuberculosis sanatorium as a little girl,
for six months.
It was a terrible trauma for her.
She later found out, as a grown-up,
that her tests on tuberculosis had been negative all along.
The doctor had sent her away on nothing but wrong suspicion.
No one had dared or even considered confronting him about it.
Not even her parents.
Today, the Norwegian health minister
talks about the patient health care service.
The patient is supposed to get advice from the doctor about what to do.
This is great progress.
But it also puts more responsibility on you.
You need to get in the front seat with your doctor
and start sharing decisions on where to go.
So, the next time you're in a doctor's office,
I want you to ask,
"Doctor, is this really necessary?"
And in my female patient's case,
the answer would be no,
but an operation could also be justified.
"So doctors, what are the risks attached to this operation?"
Well, five to ten percent of patients will have worsening of pain symptoms.
One to two percent of patients
will have an infection in the wound or even a rehemorrhage
that might end up in a re-operation.
0.5 percent of patients also experience permanent hoarseness
and a few, but still a few,
will experience reduced function in the arms or even legs.
"Doctor, are there other options?"
Yes, rest and physical therapy over some time
might get you perfectly well.
"And what happens if I don't do anything?"
It's not recommended,
but even then, there's a slight chance that you will get well.
Four questions.
Simple questions.
Consider them your new toolbox to help us.
Is this really necessary?
What are the risks?
Are there other options?
And what happens if I don't do anything?
Ask them when your doctor wants to send you to an MRI,
when he prescribes antibiotics
or suggests an operation.
What we know from research
is that one out of five of you, 20 percent,
will change your opinion on what to do.
And by doing that, you will not only have made your life
a whole lot easier, and probably even better,
but the whole health care sector
will have benefited from your decision.
Thank you.
(Applause)
コツ:単語をクリックしてすぐ意味を調べられます!

読み込み中…

【TED】4 questions you should always ask your doctor | Christer Mjåset

199 タグ追加 保存
林宜悉 2019 年 10 月 15 日 に公開
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