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  • When our vegetarian ancestors started eating meat around two million years ago,

    野菜しか食べなかった祖先が 約200万年前に動物を食べ始めたのは

  • it wasn't just because animals taste great,


  • it was pure necessity.


  • Climate change made many of the plants our ancestors relied on less available and meat bridged that gap.

    主食である植物の多くが 気候変動で手に入らなくなり

  • From the discovery of fire at the latest, meat became a staple of the human diet.


  • But over the last few years eating meat has increasingly been associated with health risks like:

    初めて「火」を発見してからは 肉が人類の主食となった

  • heart disease, certain cancers, and an early death.

    だがここ数年で 心疾患・特定のガン・早死になどの

  • So how unhealthy is meat, really?

    健康リスクと肉との関係が 徐々に指摘され始めている

  • In this video we'll only talk about meat.


  • Dairy products deserve a video of their own.


  • Biologically, we need to eat for three reasons:


  • for energy, to acquire materials to fabricate our cells,


  • and to get special molecules that our bodies can't make themselves.


  • The energy and most of the materials come from the three macronutrients: fats, carbohydrates and proteins.

    体内で合成できない 「特殊な分子」の摂取だ

  • Proteins are the most important resource for repairing and replenishing our cell structures.


  • The special molecules are a large variety of vitamins and minerals we need to drive metabolic processes.

    脂質・炭水化物・タンパク質という 3つの多量栄養素から得られる

  • Meat provides us with most of these things.

    タンパク質は細胞の修復・補填に使われる 一番大事な栄養素である

  • It contains all essential amino acids our body needs and a lot of minerals like:

    「特殊な分子」とは 多種多様なビタミンやミネラルのことで

  • iron, zinc and essential vitamins, some of which are barely found in plants like Vitamin B12.


  • Only one essential nutrient is missing in most of the meat we consume: vitamin C.


  • It appears in almost all plants and supports our immune system

    全ての必須アミノ酸 鉄や亜鉛など多くのミネラル

  • as well as the development of connective tissues.

    植物には無いビタミンB12などの 大事なビタミンが含まれている

  • After a few months without it you'd get scurvy.

    肉食で不足する唯一の栄養素が ビタミンCだ

  • But meat has another big advantage, it's high bioavailability.

    ほぼ全ての植物に含まれ 結合組織の形成や

  • Some of the nutrients in meat are broken down faster and available quicker than those from plants.


  • Spinach for example, contains more iron than meat, but it's absorbed much slower

    ビタミンCがなければ 数ヶ月で壊血病になるだろう

  • and the body needs more energy to digest it.

    メリットは他にもある 吸収されやすいということだ

  • Several health benefits have also been observed in communities that rely solely on meat.

    肉の栄養素には 植物より早く分解・吸収されるものもある

  • The Inuit for example, are able to survive in extreme climate conditions thanks to a purely meat-based diet.


  • Since they consume the whole animal including the organs, they get every single nutrient they need

    吸収は緩やかで 消化に多くのエネルギーが必要だ

  • including vitamin C.

    肉しか食べない地域では むしろ多少の健康効果が認められる

  • So meat itself is definitely not dangerous for us.

    例えばイヌイットは、肉だけを食べて 厳しい気候を生き抜いている

  • But its health effects vary, depending on how its prepared and what animal it comes from.

    臓器を含め、余す所なく食べるので あらゆる栄養素が摂取できる

  • When talking about meat in the Western world,


  • we generally mean muscle tissues that have a high nutrient density,

    つまり肉自体は 決して危険なものではない

  • but also lack some of the vitamins that make it possible to survive on meat alone.

    だが加工の仕方や肉の種類で 健康への影響は変わる

  • The most healthy animals to eat are probably fish.


  • Fish contains polyunsaturated fatty acids like omega-3,


  • which may lower the risk of cardiovascular diseases and support anti-inflammatory immune functions.

    ビタミンの欠乏もあって 筋組織だけで生きていくのは難しい

  • As part of a balanced diet, fish can be eaten regularly without worries.

    一番健康に良いのは たぶん魚類だろう

  • Eating fish comes with its own bag of complications though,

    魚はオメガ-3などの 多価不飽和脂肪酸を含み

  • like overfishing and the destruction of the oceans.

    心疾患リスクの抑制効果や 抗炎症作用がある

  • We'll talk about that in another video.

    バランスよく食べる分には 魚はどれほど食べても問題ない

  • A close second is the most popular meat, chicken.

    一方で、魚を食べると 大量の問題も生じる

  • It's regarded as the meat with the fewest health risks.


  • The only negative health effect of poultry is a bit controversial:


  • fat.


  • It's high content of saturated fats is associated with a higher cholesterol level and cardiovascular disease.


  • But this idea has also been criticized by a large number of scientists


  • arguing high cholesterol levels might be inherited and not caused by nutrition.


  • So in general, if you want meat and are concerned about your health, go for chicken.

    高コレステロールや心疾患と関係のある 不飽和脂肪酸が

  • Things start to get problematic with high intakes of red meats like beef, veal, pork, lamb, horse and goat.


  • A recently published study recommends for example a maximum of 23 grams of red meat per day

    だがこの見解は 多くの科学者に否定されてもいる

  • which is a very small steak per week.

    いわくコレステロールが高いのは遺伝が原因で 食事のせいではないという

  • However, large-scale meta-analysis studies have shown that eating 100 grams of red meat every day

    つまり肉を食べるとき健康が心配なら 大体は鶏肉を食べておけばいい

  • increases the risk of diabetes by 19%, of strokes by 11% and of colorectal cancer by 17%.

    ところが牛・仔牛・豚・仔羊・馬・ヤギなどの レッドミートの大量摂取ではワケが違う

  • This sounds alarming. But before we panic, let's have a look at how these studies were conducted.

    例えば最近の研究で レッドミートは1日23g未満が推奨されている

  • Because this brings us to the second big problem when trying to answer the question of


  • whether meat is unhealthy or not.

    他方で、大規模メタ分析による研究では 毎日100gのレッドミート摂取で

  • Most studies that linked health risks to eating red meat were case-control studies.

    糖尿病で19%、脳卒中で11%、大腸ガンで17%の リスク上昇が報告された

  • Which means taking a group of people with a disease and classifying them by their eating habits.

    不安に思えるが、慌てる前に どういう研究だったか検証しよう

  • The more red meat they consume, the more likely they were to contract certain diseases.


  • The problem is that it's very hard to eliminate other factors.


  • People who eat less meat tend to live a healthier lifestyle in general.

    レッドミートと健康リスクの関係は ほとんどケースコントロール研究で調べられていた

  • They tend to eat more vegetables and fruit and are less likely to smoke and drink alcohol.

    病気に罹った人を連れてきて 食習慣で比較する方法のことだ

  • Most studies try to eliminate these factors, but it's extremely hard to make definitive statements.

    レッドミートが多いほど 特定疾患の罹患が認められたが

  • Things get worse when we look at processed meat though.

    この方法の問題は 他の要素を排除しきれないことだ

  • Processing meat means adding certain chemicals by

    総じて肉を食べない人ほど 健康的な生活を送りがちで

  • curing, smoking, sorting or fermenting

    野菜や果物を多く摂り 喫煙や飲酒を避ける傾向にある

  • or in other words making it delicious.

    多くの場合、そういう要素は排除されるが 完全な排除は極めて難しい

  • Bacon, ham, salami, sausages and hot dogs contain chemicals that are harmful for us


  • like nitrates and nitrites that can damage the DNA in our digestive system and lead to cancer.


  • The w-h-o reviewed 800 studies over 20 years,


  • and concluded that processed wheat is strongly linked to an increased risk of colorectal cancer.


  • Each extra 50 grams of processed meat per day increases your risk of cancer by 18 percent.

    ベーコン、ハム、サラミ、ソーセージ、 ホットドッグは有害な化学物質を含む

  • When it comes to cancer risk, processed meat is now in the same category as plutonium,

    例えばNO2やNO3は 消化過程でDNAを傷つけてガンを発生させる

  • asbestos and smoking.


  • The w-h-o highlights that it's research is only about the question of whether or not something

    加工肉と大腸ガンのリスク増加に 強い関連があると結論付けた

  • causes cancer and not to what extent.

    加工肉の摂取が50g/日増えるごとに ガンのリスクが18%上昇する

  • But processed meat may also significantly increase the chance of suffering from


  • diabetes, strokes and coronary heart diseases.

    加工肉とプルトニウム・アスベスト・タバコは 現在同じ分類に属する

  • It also makes a difference what sort of life our meat lived when it was still part of a living being.

    何がガンの原因か調べただけで どの程度危険かは不明だと

  • It's common to feed large amounts of antibiotics to livestock


  • in order to prevent diseases which can spread antibiotic resistance.


  • Combined, a high consumption of both red and processed meat


  • could increase your chance of premature death by up to 29%.


  • This means if your chance of dying is at 3% this year, it's now 4%.


  • This might not sound like a lot but tiny percentages have a huge impact on societies of millions.


  • They also seem harmless until they affect you.

    加えて、レッドミートと加工肉の 両方を大量摂取すると

  • To blame meat alone for bad health would be wrong though.


  • There is no evidence that the very essence of meat has any negative effect beyond it's high fat content.

    つまり、今年死ぬ確率が3%なら それが4%になるということだ

  • And even this point is highly contentious.

    たかが知れてると思うだろうが たった1%でも百万人単位で社会に影響を及ぼす

  • Just like with many other pleasures in life, sometimes too much of a good thing is harmful.


  • Most public health agencies suggest cutting meat consumption to 500 grams a week


  • while studies suggest cutting down processed meat as much as possible.

    高濃度の脂肪以外に 肉の栄養素が悪影響を及ぼす証拠はないし

  • So if you feast on meat no more than once or twice a week, you should be good.


  • For most people this already means a drastic change in their diets though,

    何事もそうだが 良いことでもやりすぎは害になりうる

  • The average American consumes around almost 1600 grams of meat a week.

    行政機関はレッドミートと加工肉の合計を 週500gに抑えるよう提言したが

  • The average German 1100 grams a week.

    調査では加工肉も可能な限り 摂取を控えるべきだとしている

  • And many of us needs much much more.

    要するに肉の日を 週1、2回に抑えるなら大丈夫だ

  • If you're not really sure, make a small note whenever you eat meat for a week or two.

    とはいえ大半の人は 食生活の劇的な変化を要するだろう

  • You'll be surprised how much it really is.

    平均的なアメリカ人は 週に約1600gの肉を食べる

  • So most people watching this video would benefit from cutting down on meat.


  • Aside from health concerns,


  • there's still the fact that the meat industry is one of the largest contributors to climate change

    肉食過多か分からないなら 1、2週間の食事を記録してみよう

  • and has reached a scale where it's impossible to deliver millions of tons of meat


  • and still treat animals with dignity.

    動画を見た人なら 肉を減らすメリットが分かるだろう

  • We've already discussed that in detail in another video.


  • All in all, in moderation, meat is not unhealthy and you don't need to become vegetarian overnight

    気候変動の元凶に 食肉産業が依然として挙がる

  • to have a real impact on your health and the planet.


  • But your lifestyle choices do matter.

    流通に不備があり 家畜の扱いはぞんざいだ

  • For yourself and for others.


  • The key is being open to trying something new once in a while.


  • Maybe you'll discover your new favourite dish.

    健康や環境のことで思い悩んで 今すぐベジタリアンになる必要もない

  • Until you try you'll never know what you'll enjoy or what you're capable of.


  • Maybe after watching hours of Kurzgesagt videos, you've decided you'd like to learn how to animate.


  • Now you might not know this, but most of our team actually has a graphic design background.

    扉は開かれた たまには新メニューに挑戦しよう

  • Learning about design principles first before we got into animation was really key to where we are today.


  • There's a really great new Skillshare class on using Adobe Illustrator,

    挑戦なくしては何が美味しく食せるのか 決して分からない

  • The software we use to create artwork by graphic designer Aaron Draplin

    Kuzgesagtの動画に興味があるなら アニメの作り方を学んでみてはどうでしょう

  • and we can personally recommend it.

    実はチームメンバーのほとんどは グラフィックデザイナーの経験者です

  • It's full of great tips to help understand and simplify a very complicated program.

    我々が今日ここまで成長したのは 動画制作にあたってデザインの基礎を学んだからです

  • If you want to do more afterwards, we have three animation courses of our own on Skillshare too.

    私たちも使っている"Adobe illustrator"を "Skillshare"で一緒に学びませんか?

  • Skillshare offers over 25,000 classes on topics

    グラフィックデザイナーの Aaron Draplinが教えてくれます

  • like film and video editing, writing, design and technology from an array of skilled experts.


  • With the Premium Membership, you can access all of them for only $10 a month.

    難しいプログラムも簡単に分かっちゃう 色々なコツが盛りだくさん!

  • And as a bonus, the first 1000 Kurzgesagt viewers to use the link in the description,


  • will get their first two months of Skillshare for free.

    私たち自身が教える 3つのアニメ講座も用意しました

When our vegetarian ancestors started eating meat around two million years ago,

野菜しか食べなかった祖先が 約200万年前に動物を食べ始めたのは


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