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  • Pablo Neruda published his first collection of poems at age 19.

  • He went on to win the Nobel Prize in Literature

  • and also rescue 2,000 refugees,

  • spend three years in political exile,

  • and run for president of Chile.

  • A romantic and a revolutionary,

  • Neruda was one of the most celebrated poets of the 20th century,

  • but also one of the most accessible and controversial.

  • Originally written in Spanish,

  • his poems often use straightforward language and everyday experience

  • to create lasting impact.

  • Neruda was born Ricardo Eliezer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto

  • in a small Chilean town in 1904.

  • His father didn't want him to be a poet,

  • so at sixteen he began to write under the pen namePablo Neruda.”

  • The poems in his early collection "Twenty Love Poems and a Song of Despair"

  • were tender and perceptive,

  • illuminating the subtleties of love and enchantment.

  • In "Poem VI," for example, he writes:

  • Tu recuerdo es de luz, de humo, de estanque en calma!/

  • Más allá de tus ojos ardían los crepúsculos.”

  • Later, he poured this attention to detail into poems of appreciation

  • for everyday objects.

  • Many of the 225 short poems in his collection "All the Odes"

  • are dedicated to the assortment of small,

  • apparently insignificant items that surround us,

  • from a pair of shoelaces to a watermelon.

  • An onion is más hermosa que un ave/ de plumas cegadoras,

  • while a tuna in the market is a bala del profundo/

  • océano, proyectil natatorio, te vi, muerto.

  • Despite this early literary success,

  • Neruda struggled financially,

  • and took a series of diplomatic jobs in places such as Burma, Indonesia,

  • Singapore and Spain.

  • In 1936, while Neruda was working at the consulate in Madrid,

  • civil war broke out

  • and the government was overthrown by a fascist military dictatorship.

  • Neruda organized an evacuation of refugees from Spain to Chile,

  • saving 2,000 lives.

  • Over a period of twenty years,

  • Neruda captured his experiences abroad in a three volume poetry collection

  • titled "Residence on Earth."

  • Many of these poems were experimental and surreal,

  • merging epic landscapes, supernatural themes,

  • and feelings of longing with discussion of political strife

  • and a poet's responsibility to speak out against injustice.

  • In “I Explain a Few Things

  • he lingers on haunting details of the destruction of the Spanish Civil War.

  • For the rest of his life,

  • Neruda remained committed to revolutionary ideals.

  • His politics led to several years of exile

  • before he was able to return to Chile in 1952.

  • While in exile,

  • he published his influential "Canto General."

  • The book attempts to retell the entire history of Latin America through poetry,

  • touching on everything from its flora and fauna

  • to its politics and wars,

  • but above all paying homage to the common people

  • behind its civilizations' achievements.

  • Although he continued to travel,

  • after returning from exile

  • Neruda lived in Chile for the rest of his life.

  • In 1970, at age 66,

  • Neruda ran for president of Chile before yielding to Salvador Allende

  • and becoming his close advisor.

  • But in 1973, Allende was overthrown in a military coup by General Augusto Pinochet.

  • Neruda died in the hospital a couple of weeks later.

  • Because of the timing of his death so soon after the coup,

  • rumors swirled that he had died of sadness or even been assassinated,

  • but the hospital recorded his cause of death as cancer.

  • Today, Neruda's lines are recited at protests and marches worldwide.

  • Much like his life,

  • Neruda's poems bridged romance and revolution

  • by emphasizing the everyday moments worth fighting for.

Pablo Neruda published his first collection of poems at age 19.


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ロマンスと革命:パブロ-ネルーダの詩 - アラン-スタバンス (Romance and revolution: the poetry of Pablo Neruda - Ilan Stavans)

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    April Lu に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日