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  • So, on the day after the Brexit vote,


  • in June 2016,


  • when Britain woke up to the shock


  • of discovering that we're leaving the European Union,

    イギリスが 衝撃の朝を迎えていたときに

  • my editor at the "Observer" newspaper in the UK


  • asked me to go back to South Wales, where I grew up, and to write a report.

    故郷の南ウェールズへ戻って ルポを書くよう依頼されました

  • And so I went to a town called Ebbw Vale.


  • Here it is.


  • It's in the South Wales Valleys, which is this quite special place.

    サウス・ウェールズ・バレーという 特別な場所にあります

  • So it's had this very, sort of rich, working-class culture,


  • and it's famous for its Welsh male voice choirs and rugby and its coal.

    ウェールズ男声合唱団とラグビー そして石炭で知られています

  • But when I was a teenager, the coal mines and the steelworks closed,

    私が十代の頃に 炭鉱や製鋼所は閉鎖され

  • and the entire area was devastated.


  • And I went there because it had one of the highest "Leave" votes in the country.

    ここを訪れたのは 「離脱」票の率が 最も高い地域だったかったからです

  • Sixty-two percent of the people here voted to leave the European Union.

    この町の62%の人々が EU離脱に票を投じました

  • And I wanted to know why.


  • When I got there, I was just a bit taken aback,

    到着すると 私は少し驚きました

  • because the last time I went to Ebbw Vale,

    なぜなら 前にエブ・ヴェイルを 訪れたときには

  • it looked like this.


  • And now, it looks like this.

    それが今は こうです

  • This is a new 33-million-pound college of further education

    これは3千3百万ポンドを投じた 職業訓練向けのカレッジで

  • that was mostly funded by the European Union.


  • And this is the new sports center


  • that's at the middle of 350-million-pound regeneration project

    3億5千万ポンドの再開発プロジェクトの 中心となっているもので

  • that's being funded by the European Union.


  • And this is the new 77-million-pound road-improvement scheme,

    これは7千7百万ポンドの 道路整備事業

  • and there's a new train line, a new railway station,


  • and they're all being funded by the European Union.


  • And it's not as if any of this is a secret,

    これは秘密でも なんでもありません

  • because there's big signs like this everywhere.

    そこら中に 大きな看板が 立っています

  • [EU Funds: Investing in Wales]

    [ウェールズへのEUファンド投資] (笑)

  • (Laughter)


  • I had this sort of weird sense of unreality,


  • walking around the town.


  • And it came to a head

    スポーツ施設の前で ある若者に会ったときです

  • when I met this young man in front of the sports center.

    彼は 自分が離脱に票を投じたのは

  • And he told me that he had voted to leave,

    EUから何の恩恵も 受けていないからだと言ったのです

  • because the European Union had done nothing for him.

    もうたくさんだ と

  • He was fed up with it.

    町中の誰もが 口を揃えて言いました

  • And all around town, people told me the same thing.

    主導権を取り戻したかった と

  • They said that they wanted to take back control,

    選挙戦で掲げられた スローガンのひとつです

  • which was one of the slogans in the campaign.


  • And they told me that they were most fed up

    移民と難民なのだと 彼らは言いました

  • with the immigrants and with the refugees.

    もう うんざりだ と

  • They'd had enough.


  • Which was odd.

    なぜなら 町を歩いても 移民にも難民にも会わなかったのです

  • Because walking around, I didn't meet any immigrants or refugees.


  • I met one Polish woman who told me

    町にいる外国人は 実質的に 自分だけだと教えてくれました

  • she was practically the only foreigner in town.


  • And when I checked the figures,

    実際に エブ・ヴェイルの

  • I discovered that Ebbw Vale actually has

    移民流入率は 国内で最低レベルでした

  • one of the lowest rates of immigration in the country.


  • And so I was just a bit baffled,


  • because I couldn't really understand


  • where people were getting their information from.

    移民についての記事を 書き立てているのは

  • Because it was the right-wing tabloid newspapers


  • which printed all these stories about immigration.

    この町の地盤は 左派の労働党支持なのです

  • And this is a very much left-wing Labour stronghold.

    記事が掲載された後で ある女性が連絡をくれました

  • But then after the article came out, this woman got in touch with me.


  • And she was from Ebbw Vale,

    Facebookで見たものについて 報せてくれたのです

  • and she told me about all this stuff that she'd seen on Facebook.


  • I was like, "What stuff?"

    とりわけトルコの移民に関して 恐ろしい話を目にしたと言います

  • And she said it was all this quite scary stuff about immigration,


  • and especially about Turkey.


  • So I tried to find it.

    人々の目に触れた広告や ニュースフィードに現れた記事の

  • But there was nothing there.


  • Because there's no archive of ads that people had seen

    何の痕跡もなく 全くの闇でした

  • or what had been pushed into their news feeds.

    一方 この国民投票はイギリスに 永久に重大な影響を及ぼすものであり

  • No trace of anything, gone completely dark.


  • And this referendum that will have this profound effect forever on Britain --

    ウェールズと北東イングランドで 炭鉱の代わりに職をもたらした―

  • it's already had a profound effect:


  • the Japanese car manufacturers that came to Wales and the north east

    ブレグジットのせいで 撤退を始めています

  • to replace the mining jobs --

    この国民投票は 暗闇の中で行われました

  • they are already going because of Brexit.

    なぜなら Facebook の中で 起こったからです

  • And this entire referendum took place in darkness,

    Facebook の中のものは Facebook にとどまります

  • because it took place on Facebook.

    ニュースフィードは見たら すぐに消えてしまうので

  • And what happens on Facebook stays on Facebook,


  • because only you see your news feed, and then it vanishes,

    誰がどんな広告を見て どんな影響が生じたのか

  • so it's impossible to research anything.

    どのようなデータによって 絞り込まれたのかが

  • So we have no idea who saw what ads


  • or what impact they had,

    誰が広告を出したのか いくらお金が使われたか

  • or what data was used to target these people.


  • Or even who placed the ads, or how much money was spent,

    Facebook は知っています

  • or even what nationality they were.

    Facebook は答えを知りながら

  • But Facebook does.


  • Facebook has these answers,

    イギリス議会は複数回にわたり マーク・ザッカーバーグに

  • and it's refused to give them to us.

    イギリスに来て 証言するよう求めました

  • Our parliament has asked Mark Zuckerberg multiple times to come to Britain

    彼は毎回 拒否してきました

  • and to give us these answers.

    これは なぜでしょうか

  • And every single time, he's refused.

    それは 私を含むジャーナリストが

  • And you have to wonder why.

    国民投票期間中に 複数の犯罪が行われたと暴いたためです

  • Because what I and other journalists have uncovered

    Facebook が舞台でした

  • is that multiple crimes took place during the referendum.


  • And they took place on Facebook.


  • It's because in Britain, we limit the amount of money


  • that you can spend in an election.

    文字通り 手押し車に 金を積んで歩き

  • And it's because in the 19th century,


  • people would walk around with literally wheelbarrows of cash

    これを防ぐために 厳しい法律を制定したのです

  • and just buy voters.

    でも こうした法律は もはや機能しません

  • So we passed these strict laws to stop that from happening.

    この国民投票は ほぼすべてが オンライン上で起こりました

  • But those laws don't work anymore.

    Facebook や Google や YouTube の広告にいくら金を積んでも

  • This referendum took place almost entirely online.

    ブラックボックスであるため 誰にもわかりません

  • And you can spend any amount of money on Facebook or on Google or on YouTube ads

    起こったのは こういうことです

  • and nobody will know, because they're black boxes.


  • And this is what happened.

    わかっているのは ブレグジットの投票前の数日間で

  • We've actually got no idea of the full extent of it.

    離脱派の正式な運動団体 「Vote Leave」から

  • But we do know that in the last days before the Brexit vote,


  • the official "Vote Leave" campaign


  • laundered nearly three quarters of a million pounds


  • through another campaign entity


  • that our electoral commission has ruled was illegal,


  • and it's referred it to the police.

    「Vote Leave」は虚偽の情報を 大量に流したのです

  • And with this illegal cash,


  • "Vote Leave" unleashed a fire hose of disinformation.

    [7千6百万人のトルコ国民が EUに加盟]

  • Ads like this.

    これは嘘です まったくのデタラメです

  • [Turkey's 76m people joining the EU]


  • This is a lie, it's a total lie.

    加盟に向けた議論も 今はありません

  • Turkey is not joining the European Union.

    私たちのほとんどが こうした広告を目にしないのは

  • There's not even any discussions of it joining the European Union.


  • And most of us, we never saw these ads,

    「Vote Leave」が 説得しうる層だと想定した―

  • because we were not the target of them.

    ごく少数の人々が これらを見ました

  • "Vote Leave" identified a tiny sliver of people

    今 こうして目にできるのは

  • who it identified as persuadable, and they saw them.

    議会が Facebook に 提出を強いたからです

  • And the only reason we are seeing these now

    こう 思うかもしれません

  • is because parliament forced Facebook to hand them over.


  • And maybe you think,


  • "Well, it was just a bit of overspending.

    しかし これは過去百年のイギリスで 最大の選挙不正です

  • It's a few lies."

    しかも 有権者のたった1%で 結果が決まった―

  • But this was the biggest electoral fraud in Britain for 100 years.


  • In a once-in-a-generation vote

    これは国民投票期間中に起きた 犯罪のひとつに過ぎません

  • that hinged upon just one percent of the electorate.


  • And it was just one of the crimes that took place in the referendum.

    この人物 ナイジェル・ファラージが 代表を務めたものです

  • There was another group,


  • which was headed by this man, Nigel Farage,

    彼の離脱派組織「Leave.EU」も 法を犯しました

  • the one to the right of Trump.

    イギリスの選挙法と データ法を犯し

  • And his group, "Leave.EU" -- it also broke the law.


  • It broke British electoral laws and British data laws,

    このアーロン・バンクスという人物が キャンペーンに出資しました

  • and it's also being referred to the police.


  • And this man, Arron Banks, he funded this campaign.


  • And in a completely separate case,


  • he's being referred to our National Crime Agency,


  • our equivalent of the FBI,

    金の出所が不明だと 結論づけたためです

  • because our electoral commission

    そもそも国内の資金かも 怪しいでしょう

  • has concluded they don't know where his money came from.

    アーロン・バンクスが ロシア政府との密かな関係について

  • Or if it was even British.

    述べた嘘について 詳細には立ち入りません

  • And I'm not even going to go into the lies that Arron Banks has told

    またナイジェル・ファラージは 奇妙なタイミングでジュリアン・アサンジや

  • about his covert relationship with the Russian government.

    トランプの側近で 起訴された ロジャー・ストーンと面会しました

  • Or the weird timing of Nigel Farage's meetings with Julian Assange

    これはウィキリークスによる 2つの大規模な機密公開の直前で

  • and with Trump's buddy, Roger Stone, now indicted,

    いずれもドナルド・トランプを 利するものでした

  • immediately before two massive WikiLeaks dumps,

    ブレグジットとトランプは 密接に関わっているのです

  • both of which happened to benefit Donald Trump.

    この男性は「ブレグジットは トランプのための実験だった」と言いました

  • But I will tell you that Brexit and Trump were intimately entwined.


  • This man told me that Brexit was the petri dish for Trump.


  • And we know it's the same people, the same companies,

    ヘイトと恐怖を同じように 利用したのです

  • the same data, the same techniques,

    Facebook に このような投稿をしていました

  • the same use of hate and fear.

    嘘とすら 呼びたくないような代物です

  • This is what they were posting on Facebook.


  • And I don't even want to call this a lie,

    むしろヘイトクライムのように 思えるからです

  • [Immigration without assimilation equals invasion]


  • because it feels more like a hate crime to me.

    世界中でヘイトや恐怖が ネットを介して植え付けられています

  • I don't have to tell you

    イギリスやアメリカに限らず フランスやハンガリー

  • that hate and fear are being sown online all across the world.

    ブラジルやミャンマーや ニュージーランドもそうです

  • Not just in Britain and America, but in France and in Hungary

    危険な暗流によって 私たちは世界的に 結びつけられていると分かりました

  • and Brazil and Myanmar and New Zealand.

    テクノロジーのプラットフォームを 介した流れですが

  • And we know there is this dark undertow which is connecting us all globally.

    その表面のごく僅かなものしか 目に見えません

  • And it is flowing via the technology platforms.

    こうした暗黒部について わかったのは

  • But we only see a tiny amount of what's going on on the surface.


  • And I only found out anything about this dark underbelly

    ケンブリッジ・アナリティカという 企業について調べ始めたからです

  • because I started looking into Trump's relationship to Farage,

    元従業員のクリストファー・ワイリーを 何か月もかけて追跡しました