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  • Thanks to Skillshare for supporting this episode of SciShow. Click the link in the description to learn more about Skillshare.

  • If you've ever run your fingers over a comfy blanket or buried your face in a fluffy cat after a bad day,

  • you're familiar with just how nice the sensation of softness can be.

  • And people are willing to pay for it.

  • You'll see bed sheets proclaiming the sumptuous goodness of Egyptian cotton

  • or cashmere scarves retailing for a small fortune.

  • But why do cashmere and these other soft fabrics feel so soft?

  • Well, the answer isn't completely clear, but it seems to involve two main components:

  • the properties of the material you're touching, and you.

  • Or rather, your brain.

  • Fabric hand, or handle, is the term the textile industry uses to describe the way a fabric feels and moves when you touch it.

  • For years, scientists who study fabric hand have been trying to relate the subjective words we use to describe textures,

  • like "soft" or "crisp," to properties they can actually measure.

  • And it can get pretty complex.

  • The feel of the fabric can be influenced not just by the material properties

  • but also by the way you touch it and whether or not you're actively moving your fingers over the material.

  • And your definition of "soft" might not match mine, which makes things even more complicated.

  • Despite this, scientists have pinpointed material properties that could be related to softness.

  • And these can be split into two main groups: how smooth the fabric is, which includes properties like friction and surface irregularities,

  • and how easy it is to compress, which includes properties like the flexibility of the fabric.

  • So a bean bag sofa is soft not only because of its fabric casing, but also because you can squish it really easily.

  • But soft doesn't necessarily mean you have the smoothest, most compressible object in the world.

  • A 2006 study showed that even though alpaca fiber was 10 times as rigid as wool,

  • we encounter less friction when touching alpaca, so it feels softer.

  • So material properties are part of the story, but clearly there's more to it.

  • And that "more" is in our brains.

  • We don't understand everything about how it works yet.

  • But two psychology studies that examined how people rated the softness of compliant objects may provide clues as to why.

  • Compliance, which can be measured by compressing an object,

  • is a way of describing how objects deform when they are subject to forces.

  • In 1995, scientists found that your perception of softness could be related to the way that

  • pressure is distributed on your fingers as you move them over an object.

  • At least in the case of objects with deformable surfaces, not so much for rigid ones.

  • The researchers performed a series of experiments that involved, among other things,

  • people using their finger to press down on rubber, and having rubber pressed down on their finger.

  • The results suggested that tactile information is enough to tell us whether something's soft.

  • This information is communicated by mechanoreceptors in our skin

  • that work by sensing differences in pressure on your skin when your finger touches an object.

  • A study in 2008 extended these findings and found that people tended to rate rubber objects as soft

  • if they were more compliant or deformable than the human finger, and hard if they were less compliant.

  • So whether you're petting your dog or just gliding your hand over a bunch of luxurious cashmere scarfs,

  • there's actually a lot going on to bring you that lovely experience.

  • So, cashmere scarves are a treat to touch.

  • But cream mixing with coffee can be a treat for your eyes.

  • Just picture it, a nice glass of cold brew with that perfect swirl of cream.

  • And if you wanted to capture that moment forever,

  • Skillshare offers a course on how to photograph coffee swirls.

  • In the class "Cold Brew Coffee Swirl," Tabitha Park takes you through the whole process,

  • from choosing the right coffee and cream to editing your shots.

  • And that's just one of the over 25,000 classes on Skillshare, which is an online learning community for creators.

  • Premium members get unlimited access to those classes,

  • so you can browse them all and find what you need to jump-start your creativity or your career.

  • And right now, the first 500 SciShow subscribers to sign up using the link in the description will get a 2 month free trial.

  • So check it out and get learning!

Thanks to Skillshare for supporting this episode of SciShow. Click the link in the description to learn more about Skillshare.

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B1 中級

柔らかいものは何で柔らかくなるのか? (What Makes Soft Things Soft?)

  • 79 4
    Jessieeee に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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