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  • Hi this is Tutor Nick P and this is lesson 184 . Part 1 , actually today

  • we're going to have a part one and a part two. The title of today's lesson i's common everyday

  • abbreviations uses and meanings. Yeah these are abbreviations we see very often in

  • English in written English and not everybody knows what all of them

  • actually stand for. So I'm just going review them maybe you do know most of

  • these or maybe you know half of them but anyway let's cover it. So let's look at the

  • first one. AD, I'm sure everybody's familiar with it and if you ask the

  • average person what does it stand for actually in the States when I heard if

  • ask the average person what it stands for most people usually say after death.

  • Because AD and BC goes together most people know BC stands for before

  • Christ after death is actually not correct. A lot of these abbreviations

  • actually do come from Latin. So AD actually stands for Anno Domini

  • in Latin and in Latin it means year of God which to be honest that makes

  • more sense. Because I remember growing up thinking well AD shouldn't really be

  • right because if AD meant after death then it should really be beginning

  • around 30-something AD so it actually makes sense so AD means year of God

  • meaning the year that God or Jesus is supposed to be born. So that's what AD

  • actually stands for. All right and let's give an example.

  • Remember eg we're going to be covering eg, eg actually stands for example. The

  • colonies declared independence from Britain in 1776 AD. Let's look at the next

  • one. BC of course BC and AD goes together so

  • BC is before the Year Zero. Of course it does originally stand for before Christ and that's one of the

  • reasons why some people thought AD might actually stand for after death. They

  • didn't realise that it comes from Latin. Okay so let's look at the first example

  • here. Alexander the Great died in 323 BC. So you know like minus 323 BC. All right good. Now here's a couple of other ones also

  • related to AD and BC. The first one is BCE. All right , what does BCE stand for ?It stands

  • for before Common Era . Actually BC just means BCE means exactly the

  • same thing as BC, but here's a note here it's used mostly by some non-Christians.

  • Yeah I remember the first time I came across it. I thought to myself you know

  • when I realized what it stood for well why do you need BCE and CE e when you

  • already have AD and BC and I kind of suspected it might have been for this

  • reason. So to be honest I don't see it a lot. I see it in probably less than 1% of

  • all articles and stuff that's written out there so it's still not really

  • really common. The only thing that you should note is you should focus on what

  • it means BCE actually is the same as BC CE is the same thing as AD but i would

  • probably avoid using it a bit. It's I guess there is a chance that some

  • Christians actually might be a little offended because it seems like you're

  • going way out of your way to not want to use you know the meaning of Christ or AD.

  • A little bit like the X sometimes in Xmas. sometimes you know that some

  • Christians don't really like you know if they had a Christmas card that's an Xmas

  • for the same sort of reason. This might be a little worse

  • because it seems like you're

  • going much more out of your way. Your whole life

  • when you were growing up and throughout the world everybody knows BC and AD

  • that's been standard for a long long time. It doesn't matter what your

  • religion is everybody uses BC and AD to refer to that time period. Okay let's go

  • on. Let's go to the next one, am. , am you know time. We see this all the time.

  • Everybody knows am everybody knows how to use am you know . Definitely all

  • native speakers do. This one also comes from Latin but in Latin it stands for

  • ante meridian. And that directly translated to English.

  • That means before midday so before 12:00 I guess before 12 pm. so that's means ante

  • meridiem. This is another one that even though most native speakers know it and

  • know how to use it if you ask the average American on the street

  • what does am stand for I don't think most would be able to say ante meridiem.

  • I think definitely less than 50% I wouldn't be surprised if it was about

  • eighty or ninety percent did not know this. But anyway it's just good to note

  • it. Let's see an example with it. He wakes up at 7:00 a.m. every morning . Yeah of

  • course we use it all the time. I wouldn't be surprised if you ask some you know

  • average person on the street what does a.m. stand for let's say it

  • stands for something?

  • it's the time it's a.m. it's always a.m. you might get

  • a response like that. I wouldn't be surprised. All right let's look at the

  • next one, p.m. yeah it's the opposite p.m. actually stands for post meridiem.

  • So after midday. Okay good . Yeah so just the total opposite, So of course after 12:00.

  • You know after 12:00 pm. Yeah the afternoon. So here's the example. She gets off work

  • at 5:00 p.m. every day. Most people should know this. All right let's look at the next one CV. CV is mostly British use.

  • It literally stands for curriculum vitae. It is also from Latin, Again like I said British use.

  • Literally translated back to English it means the course of life. In

  • American English we tend to use the French word we use resume. So of course

  • if you're going for a job you might need your you're British you need your CV if

  • you're American you to use your resume. You know if somebody said you have your

  • resume. So of course you know that's the listing of all the previous jobs you had

  • your education. Any other skills or talents you have and so on . Okay good, ca is

  • the next one here. A lot of times you see CA actually written as circa but you

  • might see the abbreviation sometimes. It means around or about and it's mostly

  • used with dates. So used to show dates are close but not exact. Yeah so they

  • don't really know the exact dates. But they're kind of guessing and it's their

  • best guess of around the time it is. So a lot of times if you do see circa or CA

  • It's often used a round number like they'll say you know 500 BC they don't say 502

  • you know CA with 502 that much or circa 502 to a more likely to say 500 or 490.

  • They're more likely to give it a round number. Like on the tens or something.

  • Okay good. Here's an example they believed he died circa 300 BC. Good All right.

  • ironically we have the abbreviation for for example this one sometimes confuses

  • someone because the eg. doesn't look like it should stand for for example.

  • I've sometimes seen some native speakers actually write ex and to be honest

  • with you , logically from a Western point of view I wouldn't be surprised a lot of

  • people think it should be ex. For example but uh but it's not it's eg, eg is for

  • example. Okay so eg means for example. It comes this one also comes directly from

  • Latin. So this is the reason we use eg because it stands for exempli gratia.

  • That's so that's the eg, so the eg, comes from that. Comes from the Latin. All right so

  • and you know, translated from the Latin it means for the sake of an example. But

  • usually we just say for example. Okay good I have an eg for eg. So an example

  • for for example several presidents of the US were assassinated , the eg is

  • you know for example Lincoln , JFK etc. Okay and I'm using the same example here

  • as for the last one. Because we have both eg and etc in the same sentence.

  • etc. we see it all the time. This is one of those ones that you

  • cannot pronounce as etc you have to say the

  • full word etc. Although you rarely see the full word written out. Sometimes I've

  • seen some people write the full word out as a single word, but technically it

  • really should be two words from Latin, et in Latin means and, And cetera means the

  • rest. So that's why it's always used after a series you mentioned like one

  • two three things and then you might say et cetera, meaning you could name a lot more,

  • but you don't want to bore the person or the reader by naming all of them,. So

  • basically it means and the rest or , and so on.

  • Okay I hope you got it. I hope it was informative. And I guess I look forward

  • to part two. Thank you for your time. Bye-bye.

Hi this is Tutor Nick P and this is lesson 184 . Part 1 , actually today

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家庭教師Nick P レッスン184 パート1 - 日常でよく使われる略語の使い方と意味 (Tutor Nick P Lesson 184 Part 1 - Common Everyday Abbreviations Uses and Meanings)

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    anitawu12 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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