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  • Doo-doo-doo-doo.

  • Today I'm going to teach you about something that's super: Superlatives.

  • Are you a bit confused about superlatives?

  • Don't worry, I'm here to teach you.

  • Superlatives.

  • Now, understand I'm teaching you with adjectives, not adverbs, because that's a whole other lesson.

  • So, superlatives as adjectives - they're the best.

  • We don't say: "They're the goodest" for a reason.

  • What we have to understand about superlatives are: There can be only one superlative.

  • If you're looking at another grammar called comparative, there have to be two things to compare.

  • For example, red and blue; purple and yellow.

  • But with superlatives there's only one thing.

  • And what we're telling you is that this one is number one.

  • This one is the best.

  • There's no other competition for this adjective.

  • So, the way that we make superlatives, you're going to have two choices.

  • You can either put: "the" plus your adjective plus "-est", or you can put: "the" plus "most"

  • plus your adjective.

  • So, how do you know which adjective will get "est" and which one will get "the most"?

  • I'll tell you.

  • We get to play a game.

  • We get to do something very fun called counting syllables.

  • First of all, we have to understand what a syllable is.

  • A syllable is a vowel sound, or how long the word is.

  • So, when we count syllables we have to be very careful, and we're only going to count

  • the vowel sounds of the words; not the vowels because this gets confusing.

  • Once we have counted the vowel sounds, we use "est" or "the most".

  • So let's do some simple examples and I'll tell you our game.

  • The first one: How many syllables or how many verb sounds...?

  • Or vowel sounds do we have in the word "beautiful"?

  • If we simply count the vowels, we've got one, two, three, four...

  • Oo, we've got five vowels, but in English, "beautiful" is not five syllables, it's only

  • three because if you have two or three vowels together, they're only going to make one vowel

  • sound.

  • So, in English, the word "beautiful" is only three syllables.

  • "Beau-ti-ful".

  • Okay?

  • If we look at this word: "gentle", we don't say: "gentl-e", but because it's "le" together,

  • this is going to make another syllable sound, so we say: "gentle".

  • This one is two syllables, this one is three.

  • What about this one?

  • First of all, count the vowels.

  • How many vowels are there?

  • One, two.

  • Because the vowels are separated with consonants, the vowels are not together, we can actually

  • count these as two: "na-rrow".

  • Two syllables.

  • We have this word: "busy".

  • Bzz, busy bee.

  • "Busy", again, one syllable...

  • Sorry, one vowel sound, one vowel sound is two.

  • "Hungry", one and one, this is two.

  • This one's easy, there's only one vowel, there's only one vowel sound, so it's going to be

  • one syllable.

  • "Happy", two vowels, two syllables.

  • You understand?

  • Try and do these ones.

  • Now, be careful, in English if we have an "e" at the end of the word, we don't say it.

  • So we don't say: "blu-e", we just say: "blue".

  • So in this, how many syllables are there?

  • How many vowel sounds?

  • Two?

  • One.

  • So we just say: "blue", the "e" is silent.

  • Okay?

  • My favourite colour is two syllables: "pur-ple".

  • Again, I told you if it ends in "le" we're going to actually put another syllable here.

  • This is an exception to our vowel-counting rule.

  • So we say: "purple".

  • "Good", how many syllables?

  • "Good" has two vowels together, but it only makes one sound.

  • "Bad" has one.

  • What about this one?

  • "Lar..."

  • We don't say in English: "larg-e", we say: "large".

  • So, again, because the "e" is silent this only has one syllable.

  • And a lot of people get confused, but there's only one.

  • And this one, easy: "big".

  • So, if you look at our words, the very first thing that we're going to do is we're going

  • to count the syllables, we're going to count the vowel sounds.

  • Three, two, one.

  • Now, this is how we have to figure out: When do we use "est" and when do we use "the most"?

  • This part is easy.

  • If your word is small...

  • So if your word has one syllable, it's always going to be "est".

  • So, we say: "The bluest".

  • "What?

  • That's very strange.

  • Ronnie, how can something be bluest?"

  • Well, colour is an adjective, so you can say: "Wow, that's the bluest sky I've ever seen

  • in my life.

  • It's beautiful."

  • We can use colours with this because colours are adjectives.

  • So, it might sound weird for you at first, but it's completely normal, just like me.

  • If your word is small and it has one syllable, you're going to use "est".

  • If your word has more than one syllable, then you're going to use "the most".

  • So, one, one, one, one, one - we'd put "est"; two, three, two, two, two, two, one - we would

  • put "the most".

  • So, "beautiful" would become: "the most beautiful", because it has three.

  • Okay?

  • With everything in English, we have some exceptions, and exceptions make things a little bit more

  • difficult to understand.

  • As a basic rule, if you have one syllable, we add "est"; if we have more than one syllable,

  • we're going to put "the most"; but then we get these crazy words that end in a "y".

  • So: "hungry", "busy", and "happy", these all have two syllables but it doesn't matter,

  • because if you have your adjectives that ends in a "y", we think: "Okay, well, it's more

  • than one, we use 'the most'", oh no, not in English grammar.

  • If it...

  • If your adjective ends in a "y", we always change it to "iest".

  • We never use "most" with "y".

  • We can only change the "y" to "i" and add "est".

  • So: "busy", even though it's two syllables, we don't say: "the most busy", we actually

  • have to say: "the busiest", and we always need to put "the".

  • Okay?

  • "Hungry", because it ends in a "y", we're going to say: "the hungriest".

  • I'm the hungriest teacher on the planet.

  • "Happy", again, because it ends in a "y", we can't say: "more happy".

  • We're going to say: "iest", "happiest".

  • Are there any ones that end in a "y" here?

  • No.

  • So, when we do this, the first thing that I would do, even before I count the syllables,

  • is I would look for any of my adjectives that end in a "y".

  • As soon as they end in a "y", it's always "iest".

  • Those ones are easy.

  • Now, as you know, everything in English is crazy and people like to talk about things,

  • and sometimes rules are a little bit foggy which means sometimes they don't make sense.

  • So, there's another exception to the one-syllable or more-than-one-syllable rule, and it is

  • adjectives that end in: "er", "le", "or", or "ow".

  • For example: "gentle" ends in "le", "narrow" ends in "ow".

  • Because these two end with these endings, we're going to make it "est".

  • Now, if you said: "the most gentle", nothing happens because people debate this.

  • People say: "Do we say: 'the most gentle', or do we say: 'the gentlest'?"

  • A lot of people, it's a grey area, which means that grammar people fight over it.

  • Don't fight; choose which one you like the most.

  • But this is a rule that sometimes-not always-we follow.

  • So: "gentle" will become: "the gentlest".

  • Again, if you said: "more gentle"...

  • You might hear people say: "more gentle", and hey, that's fine; they've chosen rule

  • number two.

  • So we say: "the gentlest".

  • "Narrow", because it ends in an "ow", we would say: "the narrowest".

  • These are the exceptions to our two-vowel sound rule.

  • "Sad", what do you guys think?

  • "Sad" has one syllable, so we're going to add "est", so I would say: "That is the saddest

  • dog I've ever seen."

  • And this is another thing that's confusing: Sometimes we make the consonant double, sometimes

  • we don't.

  • We're not doing spelling, so let's worry about that in a whole new lesson.

  • "Happy", because it ends in a "y", we put: "the happiest".

  • Okay?

  • "Purple", what do you guys think about "purple"?

  • Because "purple" ends in "le", we're going to say: "the purplest".

  • Okay, if you look down here, we have two more exceptions.

  • The first one is "good" will change to: "the best".

  • We don't say: "goodest".

  • That even sounds funny.

  • And look it, look it, look it: I didn't write: "They're the goodest", I wrote: "They're the

  • best".

  • So, "good" and "bad" are exceptions.

  • These guys are the rebels.

  • We're like: "We're not even going to do this or this; we're going to have our own category

  • and 'far' is coming with us, because we're special".

  • "Good" will always say: "the best".

  • Do you guys know a singer called Tina Turner?

  • Really old.

  • "Simply the best..."

  • She's using superlatives - she's the best.

  • "Bad", we don't say - one syllable: "the baddest".

  • No.

  • We have to say: "the worst".

  • So I can say: "Wow, that was the worst song Ronnie has ever sang.

  • She really needs to take singing lessons."

  • This word: "large", "large", as I told you, the "e" is silent, it has one syllable, so

  • you're going to use what?

  • Would you use A or B?

  • One syllable, would you use: "the largest" or do you think we say: "the most large"?

  • The answer is "largest" because there's one syllable, we would say: "Wow, that is the

  • largest pizza I've ever eaten."

  • And "big", again, one syllable, we would say: "the biggest".

  • So, the other exception is "far".

  • Okay?

  • And this is one...

  • "Far" is just like: "Do you know what, 'good' and 'bad'?

  • I'm not even playing your game.

  • I'm going to do something completely crazy and I'm going to give you two choices."

  • You can say: "the farthest" or you can say: "the furthest".

  • Both of these are the same, but the only difference is we just put a "th".

  • So it's not that crazy, but it's just the spelling is different.

  • So, "far", you can say: "the farthest".

  • It's whatever you feel more comfortable with.

  • Okay?

  • So if you want to use "furthest", go ahead; if you want to say "farthest", awesome.

  • The only difference is the spelling of the word, which is a big difference.

  • So, the next time someone asks you or you have a test about superlatives, what you're

  • going to do first of all is you're going to pay special attention to the exceptions of

  • our rules in English.

  • The "y" always changes to an "iest".

  • Doesn't matter how many syllables.

  • Rule number two: If you want to remember it like that, that's easy, but it's not all the time.

  • And definitely: "good", "bad", and "far", these ones will never change; these are 100%,

  • you cannot change them to anything else.

  • "The badderest" doesn't work.

  • So, the first thing that you're going to do with your list of adjectives is you're going

  • to look for your exceptions.

  • The second thing you're going to do, where the fun begins, is you're going to count the syllables.

  • You're going to count the vowel sounds.

  • Be careful with silent e's.

  • After that, we decide: If it's a one-syllable word, the word is small, you're going to put

  • "the" with the adjective and "est"; if the word is more than one syllable, you're going

  • to put: "the most" plus your original adjective.

  • So, be careful because sometimes I hear or I see this: "Oh my god, that person was the

  • most beautifullest person I have ever seen."

  • Well, guess what, ladies and gentlemen?

  • You can't have both.

  • You can only have one.

  • You can't say: "the most beautifullest".

  • It's difficult to say.

  • So, be careful: You can never put these two together; you can only use A or B. You can

  • never say: "the most beautifullest".

  • "The most farthest", never.

  • "The most biggest", it's wrong.

  • You will hear people say this; maybe children will say or people will say it to be funny,

  • but this - be careful, it's something that I see a lot and it's a big mistake.

  • When you're speaking, enjoy your superlatives, you're doing the best job ever.

  • And I am gone.

Doo-doo-doo-doo.

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A2 初級

英文法を学ぶ: 上品な形容詞 (Learn English Grammar: Superlative Adjectives)

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    angellee2512 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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