中級 119 タグ追加 保存
動画の字幕をクリックしてすぐ単語の意味を調べられます!
単語帳読み込み中…
字幕の修正報告
Translator: Leslie Gauthier Reviewer: Joanna Pietrulewicz
So I have a confession to make.
I only recently learned how to drive.
And it was really hard.
Now, this wasn't an older brain thing.
Do you remember what it was like when you first learned how to drive?
When every decision you made was so conscious and deliberate?
I'd come home from my lessons completely wiped out mentally.
Now, as a cognitive scientist I know that this is because I was using
a lot of something called executive function.
Executive function is our amazing ability to consciously control our thoughts,
emotions and actions
in order to achieve goals ...
like learning how to drive.
It's what we use when we need to break away from habit,
inhibit our impulses and plan ahead.
But we can see it most clearly when things go wrong.
Like, have you ever accidentally poured orange juice on your cereal?
(Laughter)
Or, ever start scrolling on Facebook
and suddenly realize you've missed a meeting?
(Laughter)
Or maybe this one's more familiar:
Ever plan to stop at the store on the way home from work
and then drive all the way home instead on autopilot?
(Laughter)
These things happen to everyone.
And we usually call it absentmindedness,
but what's really happening
is we're experiencing a lapse in executive function.
So we use executive function every day in all aspects of our lives.
And over the past 30 years,
researchers have found that it predicts all kinds of good things
in childhood and beyond,
like social skills, academic achievement, mental and physical health,
making money, saving money
and even staying out of jail.
Sounds great, doesn't it?
So it's no surprise
that researchers like me are so interested in understanding it
and figuring out ways to improve it.
But lately, executive function has become a huge self-improvement buzzword.
People think you can improve it through brain-training iPhone apps
and computer games,
or by practicing it in a specific way, like playing chess.
And researchers are trying to train it in the lab
in the hopes of improving it and other things related to it,
like intelligence.
Well, I'm here to tell you
that this way of thinking about executive function is all wrong.
Brain training won't improve executive function in a broad sense
because it involves exercising it in a narrow way,
outside of the real-world contexts in which we actually use it.
So you can master that executive function app on your phone,
but that's not going to help you stop pouring OJ on your Cheeerios twice a week.
(Laughter)
If you really want to improve your executive function
in a way that matters for your life,
you have to understand how it's influenced by context.
Let me show you what I mean.
There's a great test that we use in the lab
to measure executive function in young children
called the "dimensional change card sort."
In this task, kids have to sort cards in one way --
like by shape --
over and over until they build up a habit.
And then they're asked to switch
and sort the same cards in another way,
like by color.
Now, really young kids struggle with this.
Three- and four-year-olds will usually keep sorting the cards in the old way
no matter how many times you remind them of what they should be doing.
(Video) Woman: If it's blue, put it here. If it's red, put it here.
Here's a blue one.
OK, so now we're going to play a different game.
We're not going to play the color game anymore.
Now we're going to play the shape game,
and in the shape game,
all the stars go here and all the trucks go here, OK?
Stars go here, trucks go here.
Where do the stars go?
And where do the trucks go?
Excellent.
OK, stars go here, trucks go here.
Here's a truck.
(Laughter)
Stars go here, trucks go here.
Here's a star.
(Laughter)
SB: So it's really compelling,
and it's really obvious when she fails to use her executive function.
But here's the thing:
we could train her on this task and others like it
and eventually she'd improve,
but does that mean
that she would've improved her executive function outside of the lab?
No, because in the real world, she'll need to use executive function
to do a lot more than switching between shape and color.
She'll need to switch from adding to multiplying
or from playing to tidying up
or from thinking about her own feelings to thinking about her friend.
And success in real-world situations depends on things
like how motivated you are and what your peers are doing.
And it also depends on the strategies that you execute
when you're using executive function in a particular situation.
So what I'm saying is that context really matters.
Now let me give you an example from my research.
I recently brought in a bunch of kids to do the classic marshmallow test,
which is a measure of delay of gratification
that also likely requires a lot of executive function.
So you may have heard about this test,
but basically, kids are given a choice.
They can have one marshmallow right away,
or if they can wait for me to go to the other room
and get more marshmallows,
they can have two instead.
Now, most kids really want that second marshmallow,
but the key question is: How long can they wait?
(Laughter)
Now, I added a twist to look at the effects of context.
I told each kid that they were in a group,
like the green group,
and I even gave them a green T-shirt to wear.
And I said, "Your group waited for two marshmallows,
and this other group, the orange group,
did not."
Or I said the opposite:
"Your group didn't wait for two marshmallows
and this other group did."
And then I left the kid alone in the room
and I watched on a webcam to see how long they waited.
(Laughter)
So what I found was that kids who believed
that their group waited for two marshmallows
were themselves more likely to wait.
So they were influenced by a peer group that they'd never even met.
(Laughter)
Pretty cool, isn't it?
Well, so with this result I still didn't know
if they were just copying their group or if it was something deeper than that.
So I brought in some more kids,
and after the marshmallow test, I showed them pictures of pairs of kids,
and I told them, "One of these kids likes to have things right away,
like cookies and stickers.
And the other kid likes to wait
so that they can have more of these things."
And then I asked them,
"Which one of these two kids do you like more
and who would you want to play with?"
And what I found was that kids who believed that their group waited
tended to prefer other kids who liked to wait for things.
So learning what their group did made them value waiting more.
And not only that,
these kids likely used executive function
to generate strategies to help themselves wait,
like sitting on their hands or turning away from the marshmallow
or singing a song to distract themselves.
(Laughter)
So what this all shows is just how much context matters.
It's not that these kids had good executive function or bad,
it's that the context helped them use it better.
So what does this mean for you and for your kids?
Well, let's say that you want to learn Spanish.
You could try changing your context
and surrounding yourself with other people who also want to learn,
and even better if these are people that you really like.
That way you'll be more motivated to use executive function.
Or let's say that you want to help your child do better on her math homework.
You could teach her strategies to use executive function
in that particular context,
like putting her phone away before she starts studying
or planning to reward herself after studying for an hour.
Now, I don't want to make it sound like context is everything.
Executive function is really complex, and it's shaped by numerous factors.
But what I want you to remember
is if you want to improve your executive function
in some aspect of your life,
don't look for quick fixes.
Think about the context
and how you can make your goals matter more to you,
and how you can use strategies
to help yourself in that particular situation.
I think the ancient Greeks said it best when they said, "Know thyself."
And a key part of this is knowing how context shapes your behavior
and how you can use that knowledge to change for the better.
Thank you.
(Applause)
コツ:単語をクリックしてすぐ意味を調べられます!

読み込み中…

【TED】How your brain's executive function works -- and how to improve it | Sabine Doebel

119 タグ追加 保存
林宜悉 2019 年 5 月 31 日 に公開
お勧め動画
  1. 1. クリック一つで単語を検索

    右側のスプリクトの単語をクリックするだけで即座に意味が検索できます。

  2. 2. リピート機能

    クリックするだけで同じフレーズを何回もリピート可能!

  3. 3. ショートカット

    キーボードショートカットを使うことによって勉強の効率を上げることが出来ます。

  4. 4. 字幕の表示/非表示

    日・英のボタンをクリックすることで自由に字幕のオンオフを切り替えられます。

  5. 5. 動画をブログ等でシェア

    コードを貼り付けてVoiceTubeの動画再生プレーヤーをブログ等でシェアすることが出来ます!

  6. 6. 全画面再生

    左側の矢印をクリックすることで全画面で再生できるようになります。

  1. クイズ付き動画

    リスニングクイズに挑戦!

  1. クリックしてメモを表示

  1. UrbanDictionary 俚語字典整合查詢。一般字典查詢不到你滿意的解譯,不妨使用「俚語字典」,或許會讓你有滿意的答案喔