中級 567 タグ追加 保存
動画の字幕をクリックしてすぐ単語の意味を調べられます!
単語帳読み込み中…
字幕の修正報告
The most important gift your mother and father ever gave you
was the two sets of three billion letters of DNA
that make up your genome.
But like anything with three billion components,
that gift is fragile.
Sunlight, smoking, unhealthy eating,
even spontaneous mistakes made by your cells,
all cause changes to your genome.
The most common kind of change in DNA
is the simple swap of one letter, or base, such as C,
with a different letter, such as T, G or A.
In any day, the cells in your body will collectively accumulate
billions of these single-letter swaps, which are also called \"point mutations.\"
Now, most of these point mutations are harmless.
But every now and then,
a point mutation disrupts an important capability in a cell
or causes a cell to misbehave in harmful ways.
If that mutation were inherited from your parents
or occurred early enough in your development,
then the result would be that many or all of your cells
contain this harmful mutation.
And then you would be one of hundreds of millions of people
with a genetic disease,
such as sickle cell anemia or progeria
or muscular dystrophy or Tay-Sachs disease.
Grievous genetic diseases caused by point mutations
are especially frustrating,
because we often know the exact single-letter change
that causes the disease and, in theory, could cure the disease.
Millions suffer from sickle cell anemia
because they have a single A to T point mutations
in both copies of their hemoglobin gene.
And children with progeria are born with a T
at a single position in their genome
where you have a C,
with the devastating consequence that these wonderful, bright kids
age very rapidly and pass away by about age 14.
Throughout the history of medicine,
we have not had a way to efficiently correct point mutations
in living systems,
to change that disease-causing T back into a C.
Perhaps until now.
Because my laboratory recently succeeded in developing such a capability,
which we call \"base editing.\"
The story of how we developed base editing
actually begins three billion years ago.
We think of bacteria as sources of infection,
but bacteria themselves are also prone to being infected,
in particular, by viruses.
So about three billion years ago,
bacteria evolved a defense mechanism to fight viral infection.
That defense mechanism is now better known as CRISPR.
And the warhead in CRISPR is this purple protein
that acts like molecular scissors to cut DNA,
breaking the double helix into two pieces.
If CRISPR couldn't distinguish between bacterial and viral DNA,
it wouldn't be a very useful defense system.
But the most amazing feature of CRISPR
is that the scissors can be programmed to search for,
bind to and cut
only a specific DNA sequence.
So when a bacterium encounters a virus for the first time,
it can store a small snippet of that virus's DNA
for use as a program to direct the CRISPR scissors
to cut that viral DNA sequence during a future infection.
Cutting a virus's DNA messes up the function of the cut viral gene,
and therefore disrupts the virus's life cycle.
Remarkable researchers including Emmanuelle Charpentier, George Church,
Jennifer Doudna and Feng Zhang
showed six years ago how CRISPR scissors could be programmed
to cut DNA sequences of our choosing,
including sequences in your genome,
instead of the viral DNA sequences chosen by bacteria.
But the outcomes are actually similar.
Cutting a DNA sequence in your genome
also disrupts the function of the cut gene, typically,
by causing the insertion and deletion of random mixtures of DNA letters
at the cut site.
Now, disrupting genes can be very useful for some applications.
But for most point mutations that cause genetic diseases,
simply cutting the already-mutated gene won't benefit patients,
because the function of the mutated gene needs to be restored,
not further disrupted.
So cutting this already-mutated hemoglobin gene
that causes sickle cell anemia
won't restore the ability of patients to make healthy red blood cells.
And while we can sometimes introduce new DNA sequences into cells
to replace the DNA sequences surrounding a cut site,
that process, unfortunately, doesn't work in most types of cells,
and the disrupted gene outcomes still predominate.
Like many scientists, I've dreamed of a future
in which we might be able to treat or maybe even cure
human genetic diseases.
But I saw the lack of a way to fix point mutations,
which cause most human genetic diseases,
as a major problem standing in the way.
Being a chemist, I began working with my students
to develop ways on performing chemistry directly on an individual DNA base,
to truly fix, rather than disrupt, the mutations that cause genetic diseases.
The results of our efforts are molecular machines
called \"base editors.\"
Base editors use the programmable searching mechanism of CRISPR scissors,
but instead of cutting the DNA,
they directly convert one base to another base
without disrupting the rest of the gene.
So if you think of naturally occurring CRISPR proteins as molecular scissors,
you can think of base editors as pencils,
capable of directly rewriting one DNA letter into another
by actually rearranging the atoms of one DNA base
to instead become a different base.
Now, base editors don't exist in nature.
In fact, we engineered the first base editor, shown here,
from three separate proteins
that don't even come from the same organism.
We started by taking CRISPR scissors and disabling the ability to cut DNA
while retaining its ability to search for and bind a target DNA sequence
in a programmed manner.
To those disabled CRISPR scissors, shown in blue,
we attached a second protein in red,
which performs a chemical reaction on the DNA base C,
converting it into a base that behaves like T.
Third, we had to attach to the first two proteins
the protein shown in purple,
which protects the edited base from being removed by the cell.
The net result is an engineered three-part protein
that for the first time allows us to convert Cs into Ts
at specified locations in the genome.
But even at this point, our work was only half done.
Because in order to be stable in cells,
the two strands of a DNA double helix have to form base pairs.
And because C only pairs with G,
and T only pairs with A,
simply changing a C to a T on one DNA strand creates a mismatch,
a disagreement between the two DNA strands
that the cell has to resolve by deciding which strand to replace.
We realized that we could further engineer this three-part protein
to flag the nonedited strand as the one to be replaced
by nicking that strand.
This little nick tricks the cell
into replacing the nonedited G with an A
as it remakes the nicked strand,
thereby completing the conversion of what used to be a C-G base pair
into a stable T-A base pair.
After several years of hard work
led by a former post doc in the lab, Alexis Komor,
we succeeded in developing this first class of base editor,
which converts Cs into Ts and Gs into As
at targeted positions of our choosing.
Among the more than 35,000 known disease-associated point mutations,
the two kinds of mutations that this first base editor can reverse
collectively account for about 14 percent or 5,000 or so pathogenic point mutations.
But correcting the largest fraction of disease-causing point mutations
would require developing a second class of base editor,
one that could convert As into Gs or Ts into Cs.
Led by Nicole Gaudelli, a former post doc in the lab,
we set out to develop this second class of base editor,
which, in theory, could correct up to almost half of pathogenic point mutations,
including that mutation that causes the rapid-aging disease progeria.
We realized that we could borrow, once again,
the targeting mechanism of CRISPR scissors
to bring the new base editor to the right site in a genome.
But we quickly encountered an incredible problem;
namely, there is no protein
that's known to convert A into G or T into C
in DNA.
Faced with such a serious stumbling block,
most students would probably look for another project,
if not another research advisor.
(Laughter)
But Nicole agreed to proceed with a plan
that seemed wildly ambitious at the time.
Given the absence of a naturally occurring protein
that performs the necessary chemistry,
we decided we would evolve our own protein in the laboratory
to convert A into a base that behaves like G,
starting from a protein that performs related chemistry on RNA.
We set up a Darwinian survival-of-the-fittest selection system
that explored tens of millions of protein variants
and only allowed those rare variants
that could perform the necessary chemistry to survive.
We ended up with a protein shown here,
the first that can convert A in DNA
into a base that resembles G.
And when we attached that protein
to the disabled CRISPR scissors, shown in blue,
we produced the second base editor,
which converts As into Gs,
and then uses the same strand-nicking strategy
that we used in the first base editor
to trick the cell into replacing the nonedited T with a C
as it remakes that nicked strand,
thereby completing the conversion of an A-T base pair to a G-C base pair.
(Applause)
Thank you.
(Applause)
As an academic scientist in the US,
I'm not used to being interrupted by applause.
(Laughter)
We developed these first two classes of base editors
only three years ago and one and a half years ago.
But even in that short time,
base editing has become widely used by the biomedical research community.
Base editors have been sent more than 6,000 times
at the request of more than 1,000 researchers around the globe.
A hundred scientific research papers have been published already,
using base editors in organisms ranging from bacteria
to plants to mice to primates.
While base editors are too new
to have already entered human clinical trials,
scientists have succeeded in achieving a critical milestone towards that goal
by using base editors in animals
to correct point mutations that cause human genetic diseases.
For example,
a collaborative team of scientists led by Luke Koblan and Jon Levy,
two additional students in my lab,
recently used a virus to deliver that second base editor
into a mouse with progeria,
changing that disease-causing T back into a C
and reversing its consequences at the DNA, RNA and protein levels.
Base editors have also been used in animals
to reverse the consequence of tyrosinemia,
beta thalassemia, muscular dystrophy,
phenylketonuria, a congenital deafness
and a type of cardiovascular disease --
in each case, by directly correcting a point mutation
that causes or contributes to the disease.
In plants, base editors have been used
to introduce individual single DNA letter changes
that could lead to better crops.
And biologists have used base editors to probe the role of individual letters
in genes associated with diseases such as cancer.
Two companies I cofounded, Beam Therapeutics and Pairwise Plants,
are using base editing to treat human genetic diseases
and to improve agriculture.
All of these applications of base editing
have taken place in less than the past three years:
on the historical timescale of science,
the blink of an eye.
Additional work lies ahead
before base editing can realize its full potential
to improve the lives of patients with genetic diseases.
While many of these diseases are thought to be treatable
by correcting the underlying mutation
in even a modest fraction of cells in an organ,
delivering molecular machines like base editors
into cells in a human being
can be challenging.
Co-opting nature's viruses to deliver base editors
instead of the molecules that give you a cold
is one of several promising delivery strategies
that's been successfully used.
Continuing to develop new molecular machines
that can make all of the remaining ways
to convert one base pair to another base pair
and that minimize unwanted editing at off-target locations in cells
is very important.
And engaging with other scientists, doctors, ethicists and governments
to maximize the likelihood that base editing is applied thoughtfully,
safely and ethically,
remains a critical obligation.
These challenges notwithstanding,
if you had told me even just five years ago
that researchers around the globe
would be using laboratory-evolved molecular machines
to directly convert an individual base pair
to another base pair
at a specified location in the human genome
efficiently and with a minimum of other outcomes,
I would have asked you,
\"What science-fiction novel are you reading?\"
Thanks to a relentlessly dedicated group of students
who were creative enough to engineer what we could design ourselves
and brave enough to evolve what we couldn't,
base editing has begun to transform that science-fiction-like aspiration
into an exciting new reality,
one in which the most important gift we give our children
may not only be three billion letters of DNA,
but also the means to protect and repair them.
Thank you.
(Applause)
Thank you.
コツ:単語をクリックしてすぐ意味を調べられます!

読み込み中…

【TED】デイヴィッド・リュー: DNAを書き換えて遺伝病を治すことはできるか? (Can we cure genetic diseases by rewriting DNA? | David R. Liu)

567 タグ追加 保存
林宜悉 2019 年 5 月 22 日 に公開
お勧め動画
  1. 1. クリック一つで単語を検索

    右側のスプリクトの単語をクリックするだけで即座に意味が検索できます。

  2. 2. リピート機能

    クリックするだけで同じフレーズを何回もリピート可能!

  3. 3. ショートカット

    キーボードショートカットを使うことによって勉強の効率を上げることが出来ます。

  4. 4. 字幕の表示/非表示

    日・英のボタンをクリックすることで自由に字幕のオンオフを切り替えられます。

  5. 5. 動画をブログ等でシェア

    コードを貼り付けてVoiceTubeの動画再生プレーヤーをブログ等でシェアすることが出来ます!

  6. 6. 全画面再生

    左側の矢印をクリックすることで全画面で再生できるようになります。

  1. クイズ付き動画

    リスニングクイズに挑戦!

  1. クリックしてメモを表示

  1. UrbanDictionary 俚語字典整合查詢。一般字典查詢不到你滿意的解譯,不妨使用「俚語字典」,或許會讓你有滿意的答案喔