字幕表 動画を再生する 英語字幕をプリント It's AumSum Time Hi guys. Can you guess the title of my next video? How many brains do you have dude? No. Just one. Hurry up. Write your guess in the comments section below. Diamonds. Diamonds. Oh. Where did they go? But scientists believe that it can actually rain diamonds on Jupiter and Saturn. These planets have methane rich atmospheres. During storms, lightning turns methane in clouds into soot. As soot begins to fall, it is subjected to intense temperatures and pressures. These conditions squeeze the soot into chunks of graphite. As the pressure increases, graphite is compressed, making it literally rain diamonds. Topic: Neutralization reaction. How to treat a bee sting? Hey. Hold On. Don't go near that honeycomb. Please listen to me. It is quite dangerous. Fine. Go ahead. See, I told you. Okay. Now, don't worry. Put this baking soda solution on the bee stung area. You got some relief, right? Do you know why you got relief? This happened because a neutralization reaction took place when we applied baking soda on the stung area. The venom of a honey bee contains formic acid. When it stings us, it injects that acid into our skin. Formic acid causes immense pain and irritation. However, when we apply baking soda solution, which is a mild base, on the stung area. It neutralizes the formic acid and cancels its effect. As a result, the sensation of pain and irritation decreases and we get some relief. Such a reaction between an acid and a base is called neutralization. In neutralization, both acidic and basic solutions neutralize the effect of each other. The nature of both acids and bases gets destroyed. Hey, Wait. What are you doing? Don't tease that insect. It is not a honey bee. It looks similar to a honey bee but it is a bit longer. It is called a wasp. At least this time listen to me. Okay. Don't listen and bear the consequences. Applying the baking soda is not going to help. See, nothing is happening. I will tell you what to do. Pour this vinegar on the stung area, you will get some relief. Why do you think the baking soda solution did not help in this case? Earlier, in case of the honey bee, we learnt that its venom is acidic. Hence, baking soda, being a basic solution helped to neutralize the effect. Now, in case of a wasp, the nature of its venom is basic. When it stings us, it injects that venom into our skin. This venom causes us pain and itching. Now, baking soda is also a basic solution. Hence, it will not provide any sort of relief. However, when we pour vinegar, which is a mild acid, on the stung area. The acid, that is, vinegar and the base, that is, the wasp's venom get neutralized. As a result, the sensation of pain and itching decreases and we feel better. Topic: Human bones. How does a bone heal? Simple, by a bandage. No. Bones are one of the most important parts of our body. They not only provide structural support but also produce red blood cells. What? Our bones produce red blood cells? Absolutely. Hence, when we crack or break a bone, it is very important to heal it. In the healing process, cells called chondrocytes produce collagen which forms cartilage. This cartilage bridges the gap between the broken bones, thus producing a soft callus. Then, Special cells called osteoblasts create a hard bony callus using collagen. Minerals like calcium and phosphorus, thus forming our new bone. However, this new bone is irregular in shape. Hence, cells called osteoclasts start remodelling the bone. Resulting in the formation of bone similar to the original shape. Why do dogs lick their wounds? Dogs including animals like cats, chimpanzees, rodents, etc. Don't have access to a proper medical treatment. Hence, a little licking helps to heal and clean the wound. What? But how? When dogs lick, they apply saliva on their wounds. This saliva has antiviral and antibacterial compounds like an enzyme called lysozyme. Lysozyme destroys cell walls of certain bacteria and helps kill them, thus preventing infection. The saliva also contains a protein called tissue factor. Which promotes blood clotting and thus stops bleeding. Besides this, licking also removes dirt from the wound. So, dogs should always lick their wounds. No. Excess licking is not beneficial. This is because a dog's saliva can also contain harmful pathogens. They could aggravate the wound and make it more painful. Hence, nowadays, dogs are made to wear an Elizabethan collar to prevent them from licking. Why do we have different time zones? Bcause we have different watches. No. Our earth rotates on its own axis. Due to this rotation, different parts of the earth receive different amounts of sunlight, Thus causing morning, noon, evening and night. Now, if we had one time zone, then 12 pm would be noon at some places, but it would be night. Or evening at other places which would be inconvenient. Hence, scientists made different time zones according to the earth's rotation with respect to the sun. But how? The earth makes one full 360 degrees rotation in 24 hours. This means in one hour, the earth moves by 15 degrees. Using this information, scientist divided the planet into 24 sections or time zones. Each section or region was about 15 degrees wide and had a specific standard time. This helped us know the proper time of the day in that part of the earth.