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  • So, indeed, I have spent my life

    翻訳: Takako Sato 校正: Aiko McLean

  • looking into the lives of presidents who are no longer alive.

    私は 今は亡き大統領の

  • Waking up with Abraham Lincoln in the morning,

    人生の研究をしてきました

  • thinking of Franklin Roosevelt when I went to bed at night.

    リンカーンと共に目を覚まし

  • But when I try and think about what I've learned

    ルーズベルトを思いながら寝ています

  • about the meaning in life, my mind keeps wandering back

    でも 私が学んだ人生の意味を思うと

  • to a seminar that I took when I was a graduate student at Harvard

    ハーバードの大学院で受けた―

  • with the great psychologist Erik Erikson.

    心理学者 エリク エリクソンの

  • He taught us that the richest and fullest lives

    講義を思い出します

  • attempt to achieve an inner balance between three realms:

    エリクソンは 充実した人生には

  • work, love and play.

    三つの領域の内面バランスが必要だと言いました

  • And that to pursue one realm to the disregard of the other,

    「仕事」「愛」「遊び」です

  • is to open oneself to ultimate sadness in older age.

    一つの領域しか追求しないと

  • Whereas to pursue all three with equal dedication,

    老いたときに喪失感が生まれるのに対し

  • is to make possible a life filled not only with achievement,

    三つの領域に没頭すると

  • but with serenity.

    達成感だけではなく 心の平静と共に

  • So since I tell stories, let me look back

    人生を全うできるのです

  • on the lives of two of the presidents I've studied to illustrate this point --

    物語るにあたり 私が研究した―

  • Abraham Lincoln and Lyndon Johnson.

    大統領二人の人生を振り返ってみます

  • As for that first sphere of work,

    エイブラハム リンカーン と リンドン ジョンソンです

  • I think what Abraham Lincoln's life suggests

    一つめの「仕事」に関してですが

  • is that fierce ambition is a good thing.

    すさまじい野望を持つのは良いと

  • He had a huge ambition.

    リンカーンの人生が物語っていると思います

  • But it wasn't simply for office or power or celebrity or fame --

    彼には大きな野望がありました

  • what it was for was to accomplish something worthy enough in life

    でも それは任務 権力 名声 評判のためではなく

  • so that he could make the world a little better place for his having lived in it.

    世界を少しでも改善させるために

  • Even as a child, it seemed, Lincoln dreamed heroic dreams.

    人生で価値ある何かを達成したかったのです

  • He somehow had to escape that hard-scrabble farm

    子どもの頃でさえ リンカーンには雄々しい夢がありました

  • from which he was born.

    彼は生家である農家を後にする―

  • No schooling was possible for him,

    必要がありました

  • except a few weeks here, a few weeks there.

    短期間の授業を除き

  • But he read books in every spare moment he could find.

    学校教育は受けられませんでした

  • It was said when he got a copy of the King James Bible

    彼は暇さえあれば読書をしました

  • or "Aesop's Fables," he was so excited he couldn't sleep.

    聖書やイソップ童話が手に入ったとき

  • He couldn't eat.

    興奮して 睡眠も食事も取れなかったと

  • The great poet Emily Dickinson once said,

    言われています

  • "There is no frigate like a book to take us lands away."

    詩人のエミリー ディキンソンが

  • How true for Lincoln.

    “本のように 彼方へ旅させてくれる船は無い” と言ったように

  • Though he never would travel to Europe,

    リンカーンは本にのめり込み

  • he went with Shakespeare's kings to merry England,

    ヨーロッパ旅行をせずとも

  • he went with Lord Byron's poetry to Spain and Portugal.

    シェイクスピアの王と共に陽気なイギリスへ行き

  • Literature allowed him to transcend his surroundings.

    バイロンの詩と共にスペインやポルトガルに行きました

  • But there were so many losses in his early life

    文学で彼の環境は向上したのです

  • that he was haunted by death.

    でも 若い時に多くの死と向き合い

  • His mother died when he was only nine years old;

    死に悩まされました

  • his only sister, Sarah, in childbirth a few years later;

    母は彼が9歳の時に他界

  • and his first love, Ann Rutledge, at the age of 22.

    数年後 姉も出産中に亡くなり

  • Moreover, when his mother lay dying,

    初恋の相手は22歳で他界しています

  • she did not hold out for him the hope

    さらに彼の母は死に際に

  • that they would meet in an afterworld.

    あの世で再会する―

  • She simply said to him,

    望みには触れず

  • "Abraham, I'm going away from you now, and I shall never return."

    ただ言いました

  • As a result he became obsessed with the thought

    “別れの時が来た もう戻りはしないよ”

  • that when we die our life is swept away -- dust to dust.

    その結果 亡くなると人生は

  • But only as he grew older did he develop

    微塵に消えるという考えに取りつかれました

  • a certain consolation from an ancient Greek notion --

    でも彼は歳を重ねるにつれて

  • but followed by other cultures as well --

    古代ギリシャの概念や

  • that if you could accomplish something worthy in your life,

    他の文化から ある慰みを得ました

  • you could live on in the memory of others.

    人生で価値ある何かを達成すれば

  • Your honor and your reputation would outlive your earthly existence.

    他者の記憶に生き続けるという考えです

  • And that worthy ambition became his lodestar.

    名誉や評判で 後世に名を残すのです

  • It carried him through the one significant depression that he suffered

    その立派な野望が彼の目標になりました

  • when he was in his early 30s.

    30代初めに患った鬱を克服できたのも

  • Three things had combined to lay him low.

    目標があったからです

  • He had broken his engagement with Mary Todd,

    彼を圧倒した三つの出来事がありました

  • not certain he was ready to marry her,

    メリートッドとの婚約破棄は

  • but knowing how devastating it was to her that he did that.

    結婚する心構えがなかったからですが

  • His one intimate friend, Joshua Speed, was leaving Illinois

    彼女には打撃だとわかっていました

  • to go back to Kentucky because Speed's father had died.

    無二の親友 スピードが父の死去で

  • And his political career in the state legislature

    イリノイからケンタッキーへ帰って行きました

  • was on a downward slide.

    リンカーンの州議会での

  • He was so depressed that friends worried he was suicidal.

    政治的キャリアは低下していました

  • They took all knives and razors and scissors from his room.

    落ち込んだ彼が自殺を図る心配をした友人は

  • And his great friend Speed went to his side and said,

    彼の部屋から刃物を取り除きました

  • "Lincoln, you must rally or you will die."

    親友のスピードが戻り 言いました

  • He said that, "I would just as soon die right now,

    “元気を出さなきゃ死んじゃうよ”

  • but I've not yet done anything to make any human being

    リンカーンは “今すぐにでも死ぬとも

  • remember that I have lived."

    でも 私を覚えていてもらうには

  • So fueled by that ambition, he returned to the state legislature.

    まだ何もやり遂げていない”

  • He eventually won a seat in Congress.

    その野望に刺激され 彼は議会へと戻り

  • He then ran twice for the Senate, lost twice.

    遂に議会の座を勝ち取りました

  • "Everyone is broken by life," Ernest Hemingway once said,

    そして上院議員に2回立候補し 2回落選

  • "but some people are stronger in the broken places."

    へミングウェイは “誰でもくじけることはあるが

  • So then he surprised the nation with an upset victory

    弱ったときに強くなる人もいる” と言っています

  • for the presidency over three far more experienced,

    その後 自分より経験や教養があり

  • far more educated, far more celebrated rivals.

    世に知られた3人のライバルを

  • And then when he won the general election,

    大統領選で打ち破り 世間を驚かせました

  • he stunned the nation even more

    彼は総選挙で当選した際

  • by appointing each of these three rivals into his Cabinet.

    そのライバルを閣僚として迎え

  • It was an unprecedented act at the time because everybody thought,

    更に世間を驚かせました

  • "He'll look like a figurehead compared to these people."

    前代未聞の行為に 誰もが思いました

  • They said, "Why are you doing this, Lincoln?"

    “彼はあの3人に比べて表看板のようだ”

  • He said, "Look, these are the strongest

    “なぜ こんなことをする?” と尋ねられると

  • and most able men in the country.

    リンカーンは答えました “我が国で

  • The country is in peril. I need them by my side."

    一番強くて出来の良い男たちだ

  • But perhaps my old friend Lyndon Johnson

    この国は危険にさらされている 彼らの力が必要だ”

  • might have put it in less noble fashion:

    リンドン ジョンソンだったら

  • "Better to have your enemies inside the tent pissing out,

    そんな表現はしなかったでしょう

  • than outside the tent pissing in."

    “外にいる自分の敵にテントの中へ小便をされるより

  • (Laughter)

    中から外へされるほうがましだ”

  • But it soon became clear that Abraham Lincoln

    (笑)

  • would emerge as the undisputed captain of this unruly team.

    しかし リンカーンがこの面倒な陣容の

  • For each of them soon came to understand

    明白な司令塔であると 間もなくしてわかります

  • that he possessed an unparalleled array of

    外見上の経歴の薄さよりも ずっと大切な

  • emotional strengths and political skills

    無比の感情的な力と

  • that proved far more important than the thinness of his externalsumé.

    政治的知恵を 持ち合わせた―

  • For one thing, he possessed an uncanny ability

    リンカーンに ライバルは気づきます

  • to empathize with and to think about other peoples' point of view.

    まず 彼には人と共感したり

  • He repaired injured feelings that might have escalated

    他者の観点を思いやる超人的な力がありました

  • into permanent hostility.

    もつれが生じると

  • He shared credit with ease,

    不和を修復しました

  • assumed responsibility for the failure of his subordinates,

    喜んで功績を分かち合い

  • constantly acknowledged his errors and learned from his mistakes.

    部下の失敗には責任を肩代わりし

  • These are the qualities we should be looking for in our candidates in 2008.

    常に間違いを認め 間違いから学びました

  • (Applause)

    2008年の候補者に求めるべき素質があります

  • He refused to be provoked by petty grievances.

    (拍手)

  • He never submitted to jealousy or brooded over perceived slights.

    些細なことで怒ることはせず

  • And he expressed his unshakeable convictions

    決して嫉妬や軽蔑にも振り回されなかったのです

  • in everyday language, in metaphors, in stories.

    そして彼は不動の信念を

  • And with a beauty of language -- almost as if

    日頃から談話や演説で表現しました

  • the Shakespeare and the poetry he had so loved as a child

    彼が使う言葉の美しさは

  • had worked their way into his very soul.

    大好きだったシェイクスピアや詩が

  • In 1863, when the Emancipation Proclamation was signed,

    彼の心に入りこんだようでした

  • he brought his old friend, Joshua Speed, back to the White House,

    1863年に奴隷解放宣言が調印されたとき

  • and remembered that conversation of decades before, when he was so sad.

    旧友のスピードをホワイトハウスに連れ戻し

  • And he, pointing to the Proclamation, said,

    彼が惨めだった何十年も前の会話を思い出しました

  • "I believe, in this measure, my fondest hopes will be realized."

    そして 宣言書を指して言いました

  • But as he was about to put his signature on the Proclamation

    “この法令によって私の一番の願いが実現するんだね”

  • his own hand was numb and shaking

    しかし彼が宣言書に署名しようとした時

  • because he had shaken a thousand hands that morning at a New Year's reception.

    手が震えていました

  • So he put the pen down.

    大勢の人と握手をしていたからです

  • He said, "If ever my soul were in an act, it is in this act.

    彼はペンを置き 言いました

  • But if I sign with a shaking hand,

    “精魂を込めるとは このことだ

  • posterity will say, 'He hesitated.'"

    でも震える手で署名すれば

  • So he waited until he could take up the pen

    躊躇したと言い継がれるだろう”

  • and sign with a bold and clear hand.

    彼はペンを持てるまで待ち

  • But even in his wildest dreams,

    力強くはっきりとした手で署名したのです

  • Lincoln could never have imagined

    しかし リンカーンには

  • how far his reputation would reach.

    自らの評判の成長ぶりは

  • I was so thrilled to find an interview with the great Russian writer,

    想像もつきませんでした

  • Leo Tolstoy, in a New York newspaper in the early 1900s.

    作家のトルストイを1900年代初頭に取材した記事を

  • And in it, Tolstoy told of a trip that he'd recently made

    私はニューヨークの新聞で見つけて興奮しました

  • to a very remote area of the Caucasus,

    その記事でトルストイは外に出たことのない―

  • where there were only wild barbarians,

    野蛮人だけが住むロシアの

  • who had never left this part of Russia.

    人里離れた場所に行ったと

  • Knowing that Tolstoy was in their midst,

    語っていました

  • they asked him to tell stories of the great men of history.

    トルストイを知っていた彼らは

  • So he said, "I told them about Napoleon

    歴史上の偉大な人物の話をして欲しいと頼みました

  • and Alexander the Great and Frederick the Great

    トルストイ曰く “ナポレオンや

  • and Julius Caesar, and they loved it.

    フリードリヒ大王や シーザーの

  • But before I finished, the chief of the barbarians stood up and said,

    話をしたら 彼らは喜んだ

  • 'But wait, you haven't told us about the greatest ruler of them all.

    話し終える前に野蛮人のボスが立ち上がり言った

  • We want to hear about that man who spoke with a voice of thunder,

    ‘待ってくれ 一番偉大な支配者のことを聴いていない

  • who laughed like the sunrise,

    雷の声で話し 日の出のように笑う男

  • who came from that place called America, which is so far from here,

    若者が旅したならば

  • that if a young man should travel there,

    到着するころには年寄りになるほど

  • he would be an old man when he arrived.

    遠く離れたアメリカという場所から

  • Tell us of that man. Tell us of Abraham Lincoln.'"

    来た男の話が聴きたい

  • He was stunned.

    リンカーンの話をしてくれないか’”

  • He told them everything he could about Lincoln.

    トルストイは驚くも

  • And then in the interview he said, "What made Lincoln so great?

    知っている事は全て話しました

  • Not as great a general as Napoleon,

    トルストイは取材の中で

  • not as great a statesman as Frederick the Great."

    ナポレオンやフリードリヒ大王ほど

  • But his greatness consisted, and historians would roundly agree,

    リンカーンは卓越していなかった と言っています

  • in the integrity of his character

    しかし 歴史学者が口をそろえて言うように

  • and the moral fiber of his being.

    彼の偉大さとは 誠実さや

  • So in the end that powerful ambition

    気骨稜稜とした本質にありました

  • that had carried Lincoln through his bleak childhood had been realized.

    ですから 侘しい子供時代を通して駆り立てた―

  • That ambition that had allowed him to laboriously educate himself by himself,

    強力な意思が 最終的に現れたのです

  • to go through that string of political failures

    苦心して独学し 一連の政治上の失敗や

  • and the darkest days of the war.

    戦時中の暗い日々を

  • His story would be told.

    耐え抜かせた野望です

  • So as for that second sphere, not of work, but of love --

    語り継がれる彼の話です

  • encompassing family, friends and colleagues --

    家族や友達や同僚を含む―

  • it, too, takes work and commitment.

    二つめの「愛」に関しても

  • The Lyndon Johnson that I saw in the last years of his life,

    仕事やコミットメントが必要です

  • when I helped him on his memoirs,

    私がジョンソンの回顧録作成に関わり

  • was a man who had spent so many years in the pursuit of

    最期までに見た彼は

  • work, power and individual success,

    仕事の追求 権力 功名に何年も費やし

  • that he had absolutely no psychic or emotional resources left

    大統領引退後には

  • to get him through the days

    日々を切り抜いていく魂や意欲は

  • once the presidency was gone.

    まったく

  • My relationship with him began on a rather curious level.

    残っていませんでした

  • I was selected as a White House Fellow when I was 24 years old.

    彼とはユニークな出会い方をしました

  • We had a big dance at the White House.

    24歳の時 私はホワイトハウスフェローに選ばれました

  • President Johnson did dance with me that night.

    ホワイトハウスでパーティーがあり

  • Not that peculiar --

    私は彼と踊ったのです

  • there were only three women out of the 16 White House Fellows.

    女は3人だけだったので

  • But he did whisper in my ear that he wanted me

    不思議ではありませんが

  • to work directly for him in the White House.

    彼は官邸で彼の下で働いてほしいと

  • But it was not to be that simple.

    私の耳元で囁きました

  • For in the months leading up to my selection,

    厄介なことに

  • like many young people, I'd been active

    私は その何か月も前から

  • in the anti-Vietnam War movement,

    他の若者のように

  • and had written an article against Lyndon Johnson,

    反ベトナム戦争運動に積極的で

  • which unfortunately came out in The New Republic

    私の書いたジョンソン批判の記事が

  • two days after the dance in the White House.

    不幸にもパーティーの

  • (Laugher)

    二日後に新聞に載ったのです

  • And the theme of the article was how to remove Lyndon Johnson from power.

    (笑)

  • (Laughter)

    ジョンソンを いかに政権から降ろすか という記事でした

  • So I was certain he would kick me out of the program.

    (笑)

  • But instead, surprisingly, he said,

    彼に嫌われると思いましたが

  • "Oh, bring her down here for a year,

    驚くことに彼は言ったのです

  • and if I can't win her over, no one can."

    “彼女を一年ここに連れて来なさい

  • So I did end up working for him in the White House.

    彼女を説得できるのは 私だけだ”

  • Eventually accompanied him to his ranch to help him on those memoirs,

    それで 官邸で仕えることになり

  • never fully understanding why he'd chosen me to spend so many hours with.

    採用された理由を理解しないまま

  • I like to believe it was because I was a good listener.

    回顧録作成のため 彼の牧場について行きました

  • He was a great storyteller.

    私が聞き上手だったからだと信じたいです

  • Fabulous, colorful, anecdotal stories.

    彼の話には

  • There was a problem with these stories, however,

    人を引き込む力がありました

  • which I later discovered, which is that half of them weren't true.

    でも 話の半分は

  • But they were great, nonetheless.

    尾ひれがついていたと 後でわかりました

  • (Laughter)

    それでも

  • So I think that part of his attraction for me was that I loved listening to his tall tales.

    素晴らしかったのです

  • But I also worried that part of it was that I was then a young woman.

    ですから 彼の話に魅了された私に惹かれたのだと思いますが

  • And he had somewhat of a minor league womanizing reputation.

    私の若さも理由かと心配しました

  • So I constantly chatted to him about boyfriends,

    彼が女たらしだという噂もあったので

  • even when I didn't have any at all.

    私は恋人がいない時でさえ

  • Everything was working perfectly,

    常に彼には恋人の話をしていました

  • until one day he said he wanted to discuss our relationship.

    彼が我々の関係について

  • Sounded very ominous when he took me nearby to the lake,

    話をしたいと言った日まで 全ては完璧でした

  • conveniently called Lake Lyndon Baines Johnson.

    都合良く リンドンBジョンソン湖と名づけられた

  • And there was wine and cheese and a red-checked tablecloth --

    湖に連れていかれたときは 変な予感がしました

  • all the romantic trappings.

    ワインやチーズなどが

  • And he started out,

    ロマンチックに並んだ中で

  • "Doris, more than any other woman I have ever known ... "

    彼は言いました

  • And my heart sank.

    “ドリス 私が知るどんな女性よりも…”

  • And then he said,

    私の心は沈みました

  • "You remind me of my mother."

    そのときです

  • (Laughter)

    “君はオフクロを思い出すよ”

  • It was pretty embarrassing, given what was going on in my mind.

    (笑)

  • But I must say, the older I've gotten,

    私が想像していた事を考えると恥ずかしい話ですが

  • the more I realize what an incredible privilege it was

    晩年の名士と何時間も

  • to have spent so many hours with this aging lion of a man.

    過ごせたのは光栄だったと

  • A victor in a thousand contests,

    年齢を重ねるに連れて感じます

  • three great civil rights laws, Medicare, aid to education.

    数々の争いの勝者であり

  • And yet, roundly defeated in the end by the war in Vietnam.

    三大公民権 老人医療保障制度 教育援助を確立させた男です

  • And because he was so sad and so vulnerable,

    しかしベトナム戦争で支持率は急落

  • he opened up to me in ways he never would have

    彼はあまりの悲しさと弱さから

  • had I known him at the height of his power --

    権力者として絶頂期にいたときには