中級 882 タグ追加 保存
動画の字幕をクリックしてすぐ単語の意味を調べられます!
単語帳読み込み中…
字幕の修正報告
If I were to ask you what's the largest thing
to have ever lived on planet earth, most people

would say... THE BLUE WHALE OF COURSE! But,
despite popular belief... it's not!

So, what on earth... is or should I say was?
I'm Stu, this is Debunked, and we're here
to sort the truth from the myths and the facts

from the misconceptions.
Okay, so if the Blue Whale sets the benchmark
by which all other living creatures are measured,

it probably makes sense to first establish
just how BIG a Blue Whale can get?

The biggest one ever discovered was found
in the Southern Ocean of Antarctica back in

1947. it weighed in at a hefty 190 metric
tons (209.4 US TONS / 418,878 lb),

which is the equivalent to 104 standard family
SUVs. It also measured a huge 27.6 meters

(90 ft 6 in) long, close to the length of
a short haul airliner (Airbus 318)

and its estimated volume was roughly the size
of 7 fuel trucks, at 223 cubic meters (7875

feet3). Remember that for later…
What could possibly out-size something this
massive?

Well, whales first appeared around 40 million
years ago, so to find out what could possibly

top such a titan,
it would make sense to take a look at this
prehistoric era of Earth's history,

when great monstrous-sized beasts walked the
planet,

plants were the size of VWs and colossal creatures
swam in our oceans.

So, let's start with dinosaurs... or more
accurately Titanosaurs

- a group of four legged veggiesaurus' with
long tails and small heads.

The largest of these dinosaurs to have ever
walked the Earth is believed to be the Argentinosaurus.

Its discovery in the 1990s stunned paleontologists
the world over,

with a length of 35 meters and a weight of
70 metric tons (tonnes / 70,000kg)!

Put this next to most people's common point
of dino sized reference - the T-Rex, and it

dwarfs the goat eating carnivore.
However the title was hotly contended in 2017
by the discovery of the Patagotitan mayorum.

This titanosaur was believed to have a skeleton
10% larger than the Argentinosaurus,

but recent weight estimations put it just
shy at 69 tonnes.

Both Titanosaurs maybe longer than the whale,
but put the Argentinosaurus

and the Patagotitan on a set of scales and
the pair together wouldn't out weigh our

big blue heffer.
----
In fact, Whales are so much larger because
they live in the ocean.

On land, animals suffer the full effect of
gravity, but for sea based organisms;

the water's buoyancy reduces the strain
on their muscles and skeletons, allowing them

to grow to such vast sizes.
When something as huge as a blue whale becomes
beached or stranded on land,

their muscles can't support their body weight
out the water and they will basically be crushed

to death under their own weight.
So with the ocean providing the best environment
for a creature to super-size itself,

let's take a look in to the deep blue, and
more specifically the Cretaceous period to

see what competition there would have been...
Now anyone who's witnessed this scene before
will surely think that this prehistoric monster

offers some competition for a Blue Whale?
That, is a Mosasaur…
and THAT is a GREAT WHITE SHARK serving as
an amuse bouche.

Now, if this is your average sized Great White
then the Mosasaur would make up the length

of about 9 of these sharks.
With your average Great White measuring in
at 5.3 meters, that means the Mosasaur measures

in at nearly 48 METERS!
And this is how our Blue Whale sizes up against
this leviathan!

But here's where Hollywood gets carried away
with itself…

Mosasaurs aren't believed to have grown
any longer than 18 meters,

with the largest one to have been excavated
sitting at a modest 15 meters,

meaning Jurassic World's reptile is grotesquely
inaccurate.

Anyway that's enough science fiction, let's
get back to the science fact.

What is the largest creature to have ever
swam in our oceans?, Fortunately, a discovery

in 2018 may have the answer.
Measuring in at nearly 26 meters, that's
only just short of our largest blue whale,

it's believed that this giant Ichthyosaur
may have been the largest aquatic reptile

ever!
However, with its dolphin-like shape, a long
pointy jaw and streamlined body, it's estimated

weight falls far below that of the Whale,
meaning the Blue Whale still stands as the
largest animal to have ever swam in our planet's

waters.
Let's leave the wet stuff behind now and
head back to land,

where the competition to be crowned largest
living thing is starting to hot up.

What stands taller than the largest dinosaurs
and doesn't suffer the effect of gravity

like other living, breathing organisms?
The trees…
As we travel to the coast of California, we'll
find the Redwoods National Park,

and here you'll see, Hyperion!
Even fantasy doesn't top this living behemoth,
take a recent incarnation of Godzilla and

put it next to the Sequoia,
and it stands around 10% taller at a staggering
115.85 meters!

And if Godzilla's not your thing then take
a look at how the Statue Of Liberty sizes

up!
Yet, height isn't everything, we're after
the largest and that doesn't necessarily

mean the tallest, so for that we need to travel
down the coast to meet General Sherman,

a 2,100 year old Giant Sequoia. He may stand
at a humble 82.6 meters (271 ft) tall by comparison,

but has a whopping volume of 1,487 cubic meters
(52,513 cubic feet),

blowing old Bluey out of the water! Because
in fact you could squeeze around 7 blue whales

inside this tree.
When the General's root system is taken
in to account it's believed that this single

organism would weigh 1,814 tonnes (4,000,000
lb)!

And, as astounding as those stats are, there
was once a tree larger than the General

, measuring 1,727 cubic meters, but it was
sadly cut down in the 1940s.

However, even with these giants of the forest,
believe it or not we've still not found
the largest thing to have ever lived on our

planet…
To find what we're looking for, we need
to travel to the Blue Mountains Of Eastern

Oregon,
and here you won't find the largest living
organism towering over the forest,

swimming through the lakes or stomping around
the mountains.

Instead, we need to look below our feet. Under
the forest floor of the Malheur National Forest,

you'll find something that you may not have
expected to come out on top in this video.

While we've been looking at all the relevant
Kingdoms of Life on planet earth,

there's one we're forgetting… Fungi
(Fun-gee), OR Fungi (Fun-guy) or Fungi (Fun-jei),

depending on where you're from!
Here, on the ground, we find the Armillaria
ostoyae, or more commonly known as the Honey

Fungus.
All that we generally see is the fruiting
body, what we would consider a mushroom or

toadstool.
But this is often only 10% of a fungus, the
rest of the organism, the vegetative part,

is below the earth.
To make this concept more familiar, imagine
this as a fruit tree, and you'd see the

leaves,
branches and stems all below ground with only
the fruit appearing above.

This fungus however is no ally to trees. The
Honey Fungus is actually devouring the forest

from the ground up.
Now most people won't think of fungi as
tree killers,

as they are in fact a cornerstone to the entire
ecosystem of a forest,

usually breaking down organic debris like
fallen leaves and transferring essential minerals

to the plants.
Here, however, the Armillaria ostoyae has
a much more parasitic purpose.

It attaches itself to the forest's conifer
trees and begins to feed off of their roots,

killing the tree in the process.
Nicknamed the Humongous Fungus, the wealth
of trees in this area has enabled it to spread

far and wide,
and currently this fungi stretches across
2,200 acres or 8.9 square kilometers (3.4

square miles) below the soil!
To put what you are seeing here in to perspective,
that is the equivalent...

of around 1,700 NFL football fields, or 36,500
tennis courts.

Now, the discovery of the Humongous Fungus
sparked debate as to what constitutes a 'single

living organism'.
But it can be succinctly summed up by Biology
Professor Tom Volk...

Which is exactly what the Honey Fungus is,
meaning this is indeed a single living organism,

just like the Giant Sequoia or the Blue Whale.
And it's not just the extensive area it
covers that makes the Armillaria ostoyae so

huge,
it's discoverer James B. Anderson from the
University of Toronto recently surveyed the

site, and now estimates
that if the entire fungus were dug up out
of the ground and weighed,

it would top the scales at 400 tonnes, more
than double the heft of a Blue Whale!

But, as with anything at this scale, it brings
with it some controversy.

There is another single organism spread over
a vast area that is touting for the same title

of Largest Living Organism.
Head down to Utah and you'll find this huge
tree…

...nope back out a little… there. This,
is one, tree.

Known as the 'Trembling Giant' OR 'Pando'
(Latin for “I, Spread.”)

this entire grove of 47,000 Quaking Aspen
trees has grown from a single root system.

You see, Aspens find most success in regenerating
'vegetatively',

meaning sprouting from roots (not from seedlings),
this results in what's termed a 'clone'.

Just like the Honey Fungus, this forest is
genetically identical and it behaves as one

organism.
With the changing seasons, the whole forest
changes color and sheds all its leaves in

unison.
And, most fascinatingly, as an old tree dies
in the clonal grove, signals are sent from

the tree out to the network of roots,
which then stimulate new growth for the next
generation to replace the old.

Now this colony may look substantially more
impressive than the humble honey Fungus,

but... we're only looking at 106 acres.
Less than 5%, of the area covered by the Fungus.
So surely there's no competition? Well,
the complications come when weight is included

in the criteria.
As we've learnt the Humongous Fungus weighs
in at 400 tonnes, where as it's estimated

that Pando smashes through that record weighing
a colossal six… thousand tonnes!

In fact the 'United States Department Of
Agriculture' list the both Pando and the

Humongous Fungus as the 'Largest Organism
On Earth'

So, surely the only way that this can be settled
is to confirm it with the great holders of

such titles,
over at the Guinness World Records.
Well no, the record for 'Largest Living
Organism' seems so controversial that even

Guiness haven't yet declared it.
According to their records, Pando is confirmed
as the 'Most Massive Plant'

while the Honey Fungus holds the record for
'Largest Fungi'.

The most common criteria, however, that declares
anything as 'Largest' is specified under

'Area Covered'.
And under this, the Humungus Honey Fungus
is the outright winner.

Even if you took into account the total estimated
volume of the two contenders

then the Armillaria Ostoyae decimates the
Quaking Aspen at more than double its size.

Pando is however, believed to hold the slightly
less grandiose record for

'Largest Known Organism On Earth In Terms
Of Dry-Weight Mass'

as fungi are around 92% water. (Trees = 50%
Water)

On the other hand, the Humongous Fungus has
increased in size with subsequent surveys,

where as, sad but true, Pando is dying.
It has substantially reduced over the past
70 years due to human interference.

And, it's thought that within the next 10
to 20 years, up to 80% of the entire grove

could collapse.
Dr Paul Rogers, an Ecologist who recently
led a conservation effort to protect Pando,

has said...
コツ:単語をクリックしてすぐ意味を調べられます!

読み込み中…

What's The Largest Thing To Ever Live On Earth? DEBUNKED

882 タグ追加 保存
Peter 2019 年 2 月 28 日 に公開
お勧め動画
  1. 1. クリック一つで単語を検索

    右側のスプリクトの単語をクリックするだけで即座に意味が検索できます。

  2. 2. リピート機能

    クリックするだけで同じフレーズを何回もリピート可能!

  3. 3. ショートカット

    キーボードショートカットを使うことによって勉強の効率を上げることが出来ます。

  4. 4. 字幕の表示/非表示

    日・英のボタンをクリックすることで自由に字幕のオンオフを切り替えられます。

  5. 5. 動画をブログ等でシェア

    コードを貼り付けてVoiceTubeの動画再生プレーヤーをブログ等でシェアすることが出来ます!

  6. 6. 全画面再生

    左側の矢印をクリックすることで全画面で再生できるようになります。

  1. クイズ付き動画

    リスニングクイズに挑戦!

  1. クリックしてメモを表示

  1. UrbanDictionary 俚語字典整合查詢。一般字典查詢不到你滿意的解譯,不妨使用「俚語字典」,或許會讓你有滿意的答案喔