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  • James Joyce is one of the most revered writers in the English language and a central figure in the history of the novel

  • he is still hugely important to us because of his devotion to some crucial themes the idea of the grandeur of

  • Ordinary Life his determination to portray what actually goes on through our heads moment by moment

  • what we now know partly thanks to him as the stream of consciousness and

  • His determination to capture on the page. What language really sounds like in our own minds

  • Born in 1882 James Joyce Spent the first 20 [years] of his [life] in and around

  • Dublin and the rest wandering in and between the European cities of trieste Zurich and Paris in

  • Three decades he published two books of poetry one collection of short stories one play and three novels

  • All of them different in scope and scale, but sharing one thing in common

  • Dublin a city he loved and hated

  • Each of my books he once explained to a friend is a book about Dublin Dublin is a city of scarcely

  • 300,000 but it has become the universal [city] in my work at the end of the nineteenth century

  • Dublin was the second city of the British Empire

  • Like his father Joyce was fiercely opposed to Ireland's status as a british colony and supported the cause of Irish independence

  • Joyce was educated by the Jesuits [and] early on at school began to reveal his knack for foreign languages

  • By the time he arrived at University college Dublin

  • Joyce was writing book reviews poems and short stories

  • But he also needed to find a career. He tried medical school in Paris, but spent more time in brothels and bars than the library

  • In 1904 he met a young woman from Galway named, Nora barnacle who was uneducated

  • But highly erotic and compelling [to] Joyce when she first saw him

  • She thought he [was] a nordic Seaman with electric blue eyes a yachting cap and plimsolls, but when he spoke well

  • Then I knew him at once for just another word Phylis Dublin boaster trying to chat up a country girl

  • But Nora fell in love with him nevertheless and remained devoted through all their difficult years of life together

  • After a few months [noir] agreed to follow Joyce to Europe for a self-imposed exile

  • free from the morality of the Catholic church and the subjugation of the British Empire

  • They eventually landed in trieste an austro-Hungarian port town where they would spend the next [10] years

  • raising two [children] both of them given Italian names Lucia and Giorgio

  • Joyce eked out a meager existence as a language teacher at the Berlitz school and

  • translating Irish writers like Yeats and Oscar wilde into Italian

  • 1914 turned out to be Joyce's year of breakthrough when a publisher in London finally decided to bring out his book of short stories

  • Dubliners which had been rejected 22 times and the American poet Ezra pound arranged to get his novel a portrait of the artist

  • [serialized] this was followed by the serialization of

  • Ulysses in 1918 the novel which made Joyce's name around the world

  • For the next 23 years Joyce's reputation grew and he took his experiments with language and literary form ever further

  • Until his unexpected and sudden death in zurich in 1941. He was buried in Fronton Cemetery just near Zurich smen [Zoo]

  • Joyce's Principal work ulysses is named after the most dramatic adventure story the ancient Greeks handed down to western Civilization

  • It is seen as a pinnacle of high culture and tells the story of the long wanderings of the hero

  • Ulysses on his journey back [from] the siege of Troy death occur his home

  • But the major character of Joyce's novel is not a warrior King or a grand hero

  • He is instead a very flawed quite Kindly and quite foolish man

  • Named leopold bloom he works as a minor player in the advertising industry

  • He's married, but his wife is having an affair

  • He's been sacked from a string of jobs

  • And he's very much given to daydreaming about all the things he would love to go right in his life

  • But which we know won't happen he farts he likes looking at women in the street

  • He dreams of winning competitions in weekly magazines and of owning a cottage by the sea

  • Being Jewish he's a bit of an outsider in Catholic Dublin

  • And there are various little humiliations which he has to put [up] with all the time

  • [bloom] is very unlike a traditional hero, but he is representative of our average unimpressive

  • Fragile but still rather likable everyday selves

  • Joyce Lavishes attention on Leopold bloom he treats him as deeply worthy of respect and immense interest

  • He someone joyce suggests that we should learn [from] and try in certain ways to be [liked] just as in the ancient world

  • Ulysses was held up as an inspiring model of resourceful and brave conduct

  • We follow bloom for a whole day as he wanders around Dublin. We see him having lunch buying a supper drinking coffee and cocoa

  • He worries about his relationship with his wife and daughter. He goes to work he listens to someone singing he has various conversations

  • Joyce is saying that the apparently little things that happen in daily life eating feeling sorry for someone feeling sorry for oneself

  • Putting the washing on the clothes line these aren't really little things at all if we look at them through the right lens

  • they are revealed as beautiful serious deep and

  • Fascinating our own lives are just as interesting as those of the traditional heroes

  • It's just with less good at appreciating them the helpful lens is supplied initially by Joyce's novel

  • But ideally we should internalize it and make it our own. We should accept ourselves as minor

  • legitimate heroes of our own

  • dignified lives

  • Traditionally novels like most films today show us people speaking in well-formulated

  • clear and relevant sentences

  • And we tend to suppose without really thinking about it that this is a fair reflection of their inner life

  • They speak thoughts and feelings that they have but this isn't Joyce's way at all

  • Joyce takes us into our minds and tries to show us. What thinking actually?

  • Sounds like at one point in ulysses leopold muses on the cycle of life while he's watching the tram cars and people in the street

  • This is [what] it sounds like through Joyce's microphone

  • trams past one another [in] going out going clanging clanging useless words

  • Things go on the same day after day squads of police marching out back trams in out

  • Those two loonies mooching about Dignam carted off

  • Minor purefoy swollen belly on a bed groaning to have a child tugged out of her one born every second somewhere other

  • Dying every second since I fed the birds five minutes

  • 300 kicked the bucket other 300 born washing the blood off all I washed in the blood of the [lamb] bawling [man]

  • It's a strange and yet actually perhaps rather familiar muddle of high and low concerns

  • Bloom is thinking about birth and death and the random shortness of life and the idea of religion

  • but he's also thinking about how he fed some birds the ordinary rhythms of Daily life the noisy trams and

  • the fundamental oddity of language in which sounds we make with our mouths

  • Stand for things in the world if we could slice the top of people's heads and get a view into the diverse thoughts that

  • Circulate and cut across one another

  • Contradicting and confusing we have a much more

  • [accurate] picture of our fellow humans and one radically at odds with the image

  • We typically have that people are

  • psychological monoliths with clear definite and fixed views who are very certain what they believe [and] care about

  • Joyce like other Modernists describers of stream of consciousness thoughts and feelings is

  • Suggesting that if we knew more [about] what others in ourselves

  • Really thought and felt. We'd have a clearer sense of what it means to be human

  • And we'd perhaps also be slower to Anger quicker to forgive we'd love more and hate less

  • We'd be more curious about the apparently strange by ways of our own and others minds

  • the more Joyce went beneath the surface of our

  • Utterances to reveal the cacophony of our minds the more he felt the need [to] twist and remould language itself

  • To capture how he sound to [ourselves] in his last and truly puzzling novel Finnegan's wake

  • Joyce decided to create his own [version] of English a tower of babel

  • He called it by mixing together bits and pieces of more than 40 languages

  • Sometimes the words on the page look entirely foreign, but if you sound them out you can often find the sense here

  • We are again means what it says. It's just that the words are jammed together to reflect the speed of the mind in action

  • Joyce went in for many

  • Portmanteau words two more words stuck together to create a new one [a]

  • fun for all is a fun funeral or a fun for all a bisects cycle is a

  • bisexual or a bicycle for sex

  • Joyce twisted prestigious names so shakespeare became shake his beard and Denty alligator was Dante alighieri

  • The plot insofar as there is one in Finnegan's wake is about a man called Tim

  • Finnegan who falls from a ladder dies and comes back to life when someone spills whiskey on his face during the wake

  • It's intended as a universal story about the fall of mankind and the character of Tim Finnegan is also meant to be simultaneously

  • Adam, Noah Richard the third Napoleon and the Irish nationalists Charles Parnell there is indeed a plot in this book

  • it's just not one joyce explained sarcastically that can be rendered sensible by the use of

  • Wide-awake language cut and dry grammar and go ahead plot in attempting to be completely faithful to real life in all its true

  • Confusion and complexity Joyce ended up writing a book that is fascinating Lee

  • instructively unreadable the fourth sentence of the first chapter runs like this

  • Rot a peg of pars malt had gem or [shen] brewed by arclight and Rory end to the [regan] brow was to be seen ring

  • 'some on the Aqua face

  • It's a reminder of how [much] fiction when it seemed logical and understandable is always necessarily a drastic

  • [foreshortening] of what is actually going on in the world and the minds of characters Joy's pushed one possibility of the realistic novel as

  • Far as it could [possibly] go into a realm as mysterious haunting and perplexing as the dreams of a stranger

  • Joy Spent the greater part of his life writing. What was he hoping to achieve through his art

  • What is art for in his novel the portrait of the [artist] as a young man?

  • Joyce Gets his spokesman Stephen to have a go at spelling out an answer

  • He follows a surprisingly traditional route using two terms from the medieval Philosopher, Sim, Thomas aquinas

  • But the first is integra toss this means that an artist is [someone] who attempts to grasp with unusual vigor the true

  • integrity and identity of what is being studied it might be a tree a

  • Moment of history or the life of a fictional character in 20th Century Dublin, we don't normally do this

  • We don't really concentrate on what a person [is] saying or doing or what objects around us really are and look like

  • we don't normally isolate and study carefully art [has] the job of doing this for [us] and teaching us to do so

  • habitually

  • the second step for an artist in Joyce's view is to bring clarity or

  • Clarity to things which means shining the light of reason [into] [the] murkier parts of experience and life

  • The Paradox is that Joyce did just this but it is attempt to be utterly clear about what being human is actually like?

  • He created works which are in places. Uh Turley baffling to a reader in a hurry that

  • Shouldn't surprise us too long though artist Joyce sees it should be a corrective to unnatural

  • but dangerous blindness and inattention to

  • cliche an over Rapid summary if art sometimes puzzles us

  • We know says joyce that it's doing its job properly. It's really killing us to the mysteries

  • We have to quickly grown blind to

  • you

James Joyce is one of the most revered writers in the English language and a central figure in the history of the novel

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文学 - ジェームズ・ジョイス (LITERATURE - James Joyce)

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    Jerry Liu に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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