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  • (Music)

  • Everything is everywhere these days.

  • Check out the supermarket -- orange juice from China, nuts from India,

  • swordfish from Japan, lagers from Czechoslovakia,

  • scores of European cheeses.

  • You name it, it's there. Not when I was growing up.

  • You'd never taste a range of French cheeses

  • or Bohemian lager beer.

  • At least, you couldn't unless you were very rich

  • and could go anywhere when the fancy took you. All that has changed.

  • But it's not just foods. Got an iPhone?

  • Everyone knows it was invented and designed at Cupertino

  • in California, but who knows where

  • the complex bits and pieces of its innards are made or assembled?

  • Apple doesn't say.

  • The industry credits China, Japan, Germany, South Korea

  • and, of course, the United States itself.

  • Just think for a moment of the trillions of parts

  • and finished goods moving cheaply around the world

  • every second, a small portion by air,

  • but most by sea.

  • We call it globalization,

  • but the man who basically made globalization a reality in our lives

  • is too little known. This is his story.

  • The story of the man who makes your day.

  • In the Great Depression of the '30s,

  • when millions of Americans were out of work, worse than now,

  • Malcolm McLean was a 24-year-old truck driver.

  • He got a job to take cotton bales

  • from Fayetteville in North Carolina all the way

  • to a pier in Hoboken, New Jersey for shipping overseas.

  • He was glad of the work, but when he arrived

  • he got bored out of his mind, sitting in his truck

  • waiting and waiting and waiting on the docks

  • as the worker ants muscled crates and bundles off other trucks

  • and into slings that lifted the goods into the hold of the ship.

  • On board the ship itself,

  • with much yelling and arm waving,

  • the stevedores then unloaded each sling

  • and saw its contents placed in a designated position

  • in the hold.

  • Malcolm wasn't just bored, he was fuming.

  • His income depended on getting back to North Carolina

  • to pick up more loads in his truck.

  • Out of the frustration, inspiration struck.

  • Wouldn't it be great, he thought,

  • if my trailer could be lifted

  • and placed on the ship

  • without its cotton bales being touched. Yes, it would be great.

  • It would be revolutionary. For centuries,

  • general non-bulk cargo had been shipped in the process he watched.

  • It was called break bulk shipping.

  • Boxes, bales, crates handled piece by piece.

  • What Malcolm envisaged would have saved him only a day,

  • but it would have saved everyone else

  • something like two weeks in loading and unloading the ship.

  • On average, it was eight days

  • to haul and distribute break bulk shipments in the hold,

  • plus another eight days at the other end

  • to retrieve and distribute.

  • All that time would have been saved

  • if Malcolm McLean could have just driven his truck onto the ship

  • and at the other end, driven it off.

  • Well, today that concept is a reality.

  • The concept that occurred to Malcolm

  • is known as containerization.

  • It has done more than just save a great deal of time.

  • It's the reason why we have a thriving global marketplace,

  • offering us that infinite variety of things,

  • and it's the reason we can move cargo

  • from remote parts of the world at minimal cost.

  • Malcolm had his idea in 1937.

  • The 24-year-old truck driver sitting in his truck in Hoboken

  • was 40 before he did anything about it.

  • By then, he'd built his one truck

  • into a big trucking company. He borrowed money

  • from an enterprising vice president at Citibank in New York,

  • and set about designing the steel boxes and the decks of the ships

  • to carry them stacked one on top of another.

  • A lot of people thought he was crazy.

  • Inventors always attract armies of naysayers

  • who can never remember how critical they were.

  • For our part, we should remember Malcolm McLean.

  • His first container ship, the Ideal X,

  • sailed from Shed 154

  • at Marsh Street, Port Newark

  • with 58 well-filled boxes.

  • It was the beginning of the container era,

  • shrinking our world

  • and enlarging human choice.

(Music)

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B1 中級

TED-Ed】コンテナ化はいかにして現代世界を形作ったか - ハロルド・エヴァンス卿 (【TED-Ed】How containerization shaped the modern world - Sir Harold Evans)

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    Yu Syuan Luo に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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