Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

  • Take a look at this work of art.

    翻訳: Kazunori Akashi 校正: Naoko Fujii

  • What is it that you see?


  • At first glance, it looks to be a grandfather clock


  • with a sheet thrown over it

    一見 大きな振り子時計に シーツが被せられていて

  • and a rope tied around the center.


  • But a first look always warrants a second.


  • Look again.

    でも一度見ると 必ず再度見たくなります

  • What do you see now?

    では もう一度

  • If you look more closely,


  • you'll realize that this entire work of art


  • is made from one piece of sculpture.

    この作品全体が 1つの彫刻だということに

  • There is no clock,


  • there is no rope,


  • and there is no sheet.


  • It is one piece of bleached Honduras mahogany.


  • Now let me be clear:

    漂白したホンジュラス・マホガニーの 一木造です

  • this exercise was not about looking at sculpture.

    ただ ここではっきり言っておきます

  • It's about looking

    これは彫刻を鑑賞する 練習ではありません

  • and understanding that looking closely can save a life,


  • change your company

    よく見ることを通して 命を救えたり

  • and even help you understand why your children behave the way they do.


  • It's a skill that I call visual intelligence,

    子供の行動の理由がわかってくることを 理解する練習です

  • and I use works of art to teach everybody,

    私は このスキルを「視覚的知性」と呼び

  • from everyday people to those for whom looking is the job,

    美術作品を通して 様々な人に教えています

  • like Navy SEALs and homicide detectives and trauma nurses.

    教える相手は一般の人々や 見ることを仕事にしている人

  • The fact is that no matter how skilled you might be at looking,

    例えば 米海軍特殊部隊の隊員や 殺人を担当する刑事、外傷看護師です

  • you still have so much to learn about seeing.

    実は どれほど見ることに 長けていたとしても

  • Because we all think we get it in a first glance and a sudden flash,

    見て理解することについて 学ぶことは たくさんあるものです

  • but the real skill is in understanding how to look slowly

    私たちは 一目見れば即座に 理解できると思いがちですが

  • and how to look more carefully.

    本物のスキルは じっくりと より注意深く見る方法を

  • The talent is in remembering --


  • in the crush of the daily urgencies that demand our attention --

    この能力は 日々 急な用事に忙殺され それにばかり気を取られている私たちが

  • to step back and look through those lenses to help us see

    一歩退いて 今まで見逃してきたものを 見せてくれるレンズを覗いてみることを

  • what we've been missing all along.


  • So how can looking at painting and sculpture help?

    では絵画や彫刻を見ることが なぜ役立つのでしょう?

  • Because art is a powerful tool.


  • It's a powerful tool that engages both sight and insight


  • and reframes our understanding of where we are and what we see.

    私たちの立場や見ているものの理解を 再構成する強力な手段なのです

  • Here's an example of a work of art


  • that reminded me that visual intelligence --

    これを見て思い起こすのは 視覚的知性が

  • it's an ongoing learning process


  • and one that really is never mastered.

    本当の意味で マスターはできないということです

  • I came across this quiet, seemingly abstract painting,

    私はこの静かで 一見 抽象的な絵に出会って

  • and I had to step up to it twice,

    二度も三度も 近づいて見なければなりませんでした

  • even three times,

    どうして この絵が心に深く響くのか 知りたかったのです

  • to understand why it resonated so deeply.

    ワシントン記念塔は 自分の目で 何千回も見ていますし

  • Now, I've seen the Washington Monument in person thousands of times,

    下から3分の1のところで 大理石の色合いが 変わっていることもよく知っています

  • well aware of the change in the color of marble a third of the way up,

    でも この記念塔だけを取り出して 美術作品として

  • but I had never really looked at it out of context


  • or truly as a work of art.

    ジョージア・オキーフによる モニュメントを描いた この絵のおかげで

  • And here, Georgia O'Keeffe's painting of this architectural icon made me realize


  • that if we put our mind to it,

    普段目にしているものを まったく新しい 目の覚めるような視点から

  • it's possible to see everyday things

    見ることが可能になると 気づいたのです

  • in a wholly new and eye-opening perspective.

    ただ「アートは美術館に」と信じる 懐疑派もいます

  • Now, there are some skeptics that believe that art just belongs in an art museum.

    アートには美的価値を超える 実用性などないと考える人々です

  • They believe that it has no practical use beyond its aesthetic value.

    指導していると そういう人はわかります

  • I know who they are in every audience I teach.

    腕を組み 脚も組んで

  • Their arms are crossed, their legs are crossed,

    身振りが こう言っています

  • their body language is saying,

    「絵画や彫刻のことを 早口でまくしたてる この女性が

  • "What am I going to learn from this lady who talks fast


  • about painting and sculpture?"

    では どうすれば 彼らに合った 説明ができるのでしょう?

  • So how do I make it relevant for them?

    そんな人たちには この作品を見てもらいます

  • I ask them to look at this work of art,


  • like this portrait by Kumi Yamashita.


  • And I ask them to step in close,


  • and even closer still,


  • and while they're looking at the work of art,

    自分が目にしているものが何か 問う必要に迫られます

  • they need to be asking questions about what they see.


  • And if they ask the right questions,


  • like, "What is this work of art?

    絵画? 彫刻? 材料は?」といった

  • Is it a painting? Is it a sculpture?


  • What is it made of?" ...


  • they will find out that this entire work of art


  • is made of a wooden board,

    1万本の釘 それと

  • 10,000 nails

    1本の糸からできていることに 気づくでしょう

  • and one unbroken piece of sewing thread.

    中には興味を持った方も いるでしょうが

  • Now that might be interesting to some of you,

    この作品が 人々の仕事に どう結びつくのでしょう?

  • but what does it have to do with the work that these people do?


  • And the answer is everything.

    なぜなら私たちは日常的に いろいろな人と何度も接し

  • Because we all interact with people multiple times on a daily basis,

    自分の見ているものが何かを 問うことに

  • and we need to get better at asking questions


  • about what it is that we see.

    仕事に必要な情報を得られるような 問いを立てる方法を学ぶことは

  • Learning to frame the question in such a way


  • as to elicit the information that we need to do our jobs,

    例えば ある放射線科医は

  • is a critical life skill.


  • Like the radiologist who told me

    MRI画像の目立たない異常を 見つけられるようになると話してくれました

  • that looking at the negative spaces in a painting

    ある警察官は 絵画に描かれた 人々の間にある感情の動きを

  • helped her discern more discreet abnormalities in an MRI.


  • Or the police officer who said that understanding the emotional dynamic

    家庭内暴力の現場で ボディ・ランゲージを読み取れるようになり

  • between people in a painting

    銃を抜いて発砲する前に よく考えるようになったと話してくれました

  • helped him to read body language at a domestic violence crime scene,

    さらに親御さんたちも 絵画に色彩が無いことに気づくことで

  • and it enabled him to think twice before drawing and firing his weapon.

    子供たちが訴えることと 口にしないこととは

  • And even parents can look to see absences of color in paintings


  • to understand that what their children say to them

    さて 私はどうやって

  • is as important as what they don't say.


  • So how do I --

    その方法は 4つの「A」にまとめられます

  • how do I train to be more visually intelligent?

    新たな状況や問題が起こると 私たちは

  • It comes down to four As.


  • Every new situation, every new problem --

    まず 状況を見極めます(assess)

  • we practice four As.


  • First, we assess our situation.


  • We ask, "What do we have in front of us?"


  • Then, we analyze it.

    何が必要で 何が必要でないか考えます

  • We say, "What's important?

    そして会話やメモ、文章、メールの形で 言葉にします(articulate)

  • What do I need? What don't I need?"

    最後に 行動します(act) 決断するのです

  • Then, we articulate it in a conversation, in a memo, in a text, in an email.


  • And then, we act: we make a decision.

    この一連の営みにおいて 見て理解することが果たす役割や

  • We all do this multiple times a day,


  • but we don't realize what a role seeing and looking plays

    どれほど改善するかには 気づかないものです

  • in all of those actions,

    先日 美術館でテロ対策担当者の方々に

  • and how visual intelligence can really improve everything.


  • So recently, I had a group of counterterrorism officials

    エル・グレコの 『神殿から商人を追い払うキリスト』です

  • at a museum in front of this painting.

    画面中央でキリストは 腕を振り暴力的な身振りで

  • El Greco's painting, "The Purification of the Temple,"


  • in which Christ, in the center, in a sweeping and violent gesture,

    テロ対策担当者たちに この絵を5分間眺めてもらいました

  • is expelling the sinners from the temple of prayer.


  • The group of counterterrorism officials had five minutes with that painting,


  • and in that short amount of time, they had to assess the situation,

    自分たちが この場面にいたとしたら

  • analyze the details,


  • articulate what, if anything,

    お察しの通り 観察と 本質を見抜くことは異なります

  • they would do if they were in that painting.


  • As you can imagine, observations and insights differed.


  • Who would they talk to?


  • Who would be the best witness?


  • Who was a good potential witness?


  • Who was lurking?

    私が一番気に入ったコメントは ある熟練の警官のものでした

  • Who had the most information?

    画面中央の人物を見て こう言ったんです

  • But my favorite comment came from a seasoned cop


  • who looked at the central figure and said,


  • "You see that guy in the pink?" --

    「私なら彼を逮捕する 彼が騒ぎの原因だからね」

  • referring to Christ --


  • he said, "I'd collar him, he's causing all the trouble."

    アートを見れば テクノロジーに頼らず 問題を解決する方法を考え直す—

  • (Laughter)


  • So looking at art gives us a perfect vehicle to rethink how we solve problems

    フェリックス・ゴンザレス=トレスの 作品を見ると

  • without the aid of technology.

    まったく同時に動いている 2つの時計に気づきます

  • Looking at the work of Felix Gonzalez-Torres,

    時針、分針、秒針は 完璧に揃っています

  • you see two clocks in perfect synchronicity.

    時計は横に並んで くっついています

  • The hour, minute and second hand perfectly aligned.


  • They are installed side by side and they're touching,


  • and they are entitled "'Untitled' (Perfect Lovers)."

    2台とも電池式の時計ということに 気づくでしょう

  • But closer analysis makes you realize

    そして 理解するのです

  • that these are two battery-operated clocks,


  • which in turn makes you understand --

    いつか片方の電池は もう1つより先に無くなる

  • "Hey, wait a minute ...

    片方の時計は いつか 先に遅れていき 止まってしまう

  • One of those batteries is going to stop before the other.

    すると この作品の対称性は 崩れるだろう」

  • One of those clocks is going to slow down and die before the other

    思考過程を 言葉にするということには

  • and it's going to alter the symmetry of the artwork."

    緊急時に必要な対策を 考えることも含まれます

  • Just articulating that thought process

    予見不能なこと 思いがけないこと—

  • includes the necessity of a contingency plan.


  • You need to have contingencies for the unforeseen,

    そういう事態が いつ いかに起ころうと必要なものです

  • the unexpected and the unknown,

    アートを活用して 視覚的知性を高めると

  • whenever and however they may happen.


  • Now, using art to increase our visual intelligence


  • involves planning for contingencies,


  • understanding the big picture and the small details


  • and noticing what's not there.


  • So in this painting by Magritte,


  • noticing that there are no tracks under the train,

    燭台にはロウソクがないと 気づくということは

  • there is no fire in the fireplace

    仮に「暖炉から汽車が出てきて 暖炉の上に燭台がある」と

  • and there are no candles in the candlesticks


  • actually more accurately describes the painting

    この絵をより正確に 描写したことになります

  • than if you were to say, "Well, there's a train coming out of a fireplace,

    無いものを挙げると言っても ピンとこないかもしれませんが

  • and there are candlesticks on the mantle."


  • It may sound counterintuitive to say what isn't there,

    ノースカロライナ州で 視覚的知性について学んだ ある刑事が

  • but it's really a very valuable tool.


  • When a detective who had learned about visual intelligence


  • in North Carolina

    目撃者の話によれば ボートが転覆して 乗っていた人は

  • was called to the crime scene,


  • it was a boating fatality,

    犯罪捜査官は 本能的に 目に見えるものを探しますが

  • and the eyewitness told this detective that the boat had flipped over


  • and the occupant had drowned underneath.

    無いものを探したのです こちらの方が より難しいことです

  • Now, instinctively, crime scene investigators look for what is apparent,


  • but this detective did something different.

    もし そのボートが 目撃者の証言どおり

  • He looked for what wasn't there, which is harder to do.


  • And he raised the question:

    どうしてボートの端に 保管されていた書類が

  • if the boat had really tipped flipped over --


  • as the eyewitness said that it did --

    この小さいけれど 重要な 1つの観察によって

  • how come the papers that were kept at one end of the boat

    捜査方針は死亡事故から 殺人事件に変わりました

  • were completely dry?

    無いものを挙げることと 同じくらい重要なのが

  • Based on that one small but critical observation,

    視覚的なつながりが明確ではない場面で それを見出す力です

  • the investigation shifted from accidental death to homicide.

    例えばマリー・ワットによる 毛布のトーテムポールです

  • Now, equally important to saying what isn't there

    この作品は普段使うものの中に 隠れたつながりを見出すことが

  • is the ability to find visual connections where they may not be apparent.


  • Like Marie Watt's totem pole of blankets.

    彼女は自分のコミュニティの 実に様々な人たちから

  • It illustrates that finding hidden connections in everyday objects


  • can resonate so deeply.

    持ち主に頼んで その毛布が 自分の家族にとって どんな意義があるか

  • The artist collected blankets from all different people


  • in her community,


  • and she had the owners of the blankets write, on a tag,


  • the significance of the blanket to the family.


  • Some of the blankets had been used for baby blankets,


  • some of them had been used as picnic blankets,


  • some of them had been used for the dog.

    同様に 私は新人の医師たちに こう伝えています

  • We all have blankets in our homes


  • and understand the significance that they play.


  • But similarly, I instruct new doctors:


  • when they walk into a patient's room,


  • before they pick up that medical chart,


  • just look around the room.

    医師はそこから 外の世界との つながりがあることがわかります

  • Are there balloons or cards,

    もし患者に 手を貸して 助けてくれる人が

  • or that special blanket on the bed?


  • That tells the doctor there's a connection to the outside world.

    医師はそのつながりを念頭に置いて 最良のケアができます

  • If that patient has someone in the outside world

    医療の現場で人々は 医師や患者である以前に

  • to assist them and help them,


  • the doctor can implement the best care with that connection in mind.

    ただ 知覚を鋭くする この方法は

  • In medicine, people are connected as humans


  • before they're identified as doctor and patient.

    見方を全面的に変える 必要もありません

  • But this method of enhancing perception --

    ホルヘ・メンデス・ブレイクの彫刻は カフカの小説『城』の上に

  • it need not be disruptive,


  • and it doesn't necessitate an overhaul in looking.

    鋭い観察眼とは 繊細ですが 重要なものでもあることを示しています

  • Like Jorgendez Blake's sculpture of building a brick wall


  • above Kafka's book "El Castillo"

    その本が 真上に積まれたレンガの

  • shows that more astute observation can be subtle and yet invaluable.


  • You can discern the book,

    でも この彫刻の端まで移動すると

  • and you can see how it disrupted the symmetry


  • of the bricks directly above it,


  • but by the time you get to the end of the sculpture,

    本がレンガにもたらす乱れは わずかですが

  • you can no longer see the book.


  • But looking at the work of art in its entirety,


  • you see that the impact of the work's disruption on the bricks


  • is nuanced and unmistakable.

    1つのイノベーションが アプローチに変化をもたらし

  • One thought,


  • one idea,


  • one innovation can alter an approach,

    私は15年以上に渡って 視覚的知性を教えていますが

  • change a process


  • and even save lives.

    しかも この先もずっと 驚き続けるだろうと思っているのは

  • I've been teaching visual intelligence for over 15 years,

    批判的にアートを見ることが 世界という未知の領域で

  • and to my great amazement and astonishment --

    私たちが居場所を定めることに 役立つのを見てきたからです

  • to my never-ending astonishment and amazement,


  • I have seen that looking at art with a critical eye

    介護に従事する人や医師 母親であろうとです

  • can help to anchor us in our world of uncharted waters,

    というのも 物事は うまくいかないものですから

  • whether you are a paramilitary trooper,


  • a caregiver, a doctor or a mother.


  • Because let's face it, things go wrong.


  • (Laughter)

    私なら そのドーナツは すぐに食べるでしょう

  • Things go wrong.


  • And don't misunderstand me,

    ただ 私たちは自分が観察したことの 成り行きを理解したり

  • I'd eat that doughnut in a minute.

    観察可能な細部を 実践可能な知識に変換する必要があります

  • (Laughter)

    例えばジェニファー・オデムによる テーブルの彫刻は

  • But we need to understand the consequences of what it is that we observe,


  • and we need to convert observable details into actionable knowledge.


  • Like Jennifer Odem's sculpture of tables standing sentinel

    ハリケーン・カトリーナの時のような 洪水の再来を警戒し

  • on the banks of the Mississippi River


  • in New Orleans,


  • guarding against the threat of post-Katrina floodwaters


  • and rising up against adversity,