Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

  • Functionalism is a system of thinking

  • based on the ideas of Emile Durkheim that

  • looks at society from a large scale perspective.

  • It examines the necessary structures

  • that make up a society and how each part

  • helps to keep the society stable.

  • According to functionalism, society

  • is heading toward an equilibrium.

  • I know it sounds a bit strange that a society can

  • be at equilibrium, but consider the changes many businesses

  • have had to make in response to companies like Amazon.

  • Local businesses must adapt to find a new way

  • to cater to customers in order to restore the balance.

  • In the theory of functionalism, society

  • is made from a bunch of connected structures.

  • One structure is institutions, which

  • are structures that meet the needs of the society,

  • like education systems, financial institutions,

  • businesses and marriage, laws, mass media,

  • nongovernmental organizations, medicine, religion,

  • the military, police forces, and lots of others, too.

  • Another structure is what Durkheim called social facts.

  • Social facts are ways of thinking and acting

  • formed by the society that existed before any one

  • individual and will still exist after any individual is dead.

  • They are unique objects that cannot be influenced

  • by an individual.

  • They have a coercive effect over the individual that is usually

  • only noticed when we resist against them.

  • So for example, one social fact is the law.

  • It is always there, but we don't notice it

  • until we try and break it or act against it.

  • Some other examples are moral regulations, religious faiths,

  • and social currents like suicide or birth rate.

  • You might wonder how suicide can be a social fact.

  • Well, one person committing suicide has no effect

  • on the presence of suicide in the society .

  • Social facts are a facet of the society itself

  • and, according to Durkheim, are a necessary structure.

  • But society is more than just the sum of its parts.

  • It is dependent on the structures that create it,

  • just like a cell is dependent on all the little parts that

  • make it up.

  • Every part of the cell has a specific vital function

  • that depends on other parts of the cell.

  • Without everything working together smoothly,

  • the cell would die.

  • The same is true of a society.

  • Every structure has a function that

  • meets a need of the society, and all the structures

  • work together to maintain the social equilibrium.

  • So for example, you have schools,

  • which educate students so they can find good jobs

  • and support the community.

  • And businesses provide specialized services.

  • And laws maintain social order.

  • These recognized and intended consequences of institutions

  • are known as manifest functions.

  • But sometimes the institutions have unintended consequences.

  • Schools allow the students and professors

  • to make social connections, and they expose the students

  • to new activities through extracurriculars.

  • Businesses connect people across societies.

  • These unrecognized and unintended consequences

  • are called latent functions and are often indirect effects

  • of the institution.

  • Now, Durkheim's main question was,

  • what holds a society together?

  • How can it remain relatively stable

  • even as traditions disappear and customs change?

  • He thought that small societies were held together

  • by their similarities, and the individual was self-sufficient.

  • But that only works for small societies,

  • and we all know societies change and grow large.

  • The small society would eventually

  • evolve into a large society where the individual

  • was interdependent on others.

  • But what causes the evolution of society to occur?

  • The most basic factor is population growth

  • within a limited space.

  • Suddenly there isn't enough land for everyone

  • to own their own farm and feed themselves.

  • So just a few farmers grow enough food

  • for the entire community.

  • But now the farmers don't have enough time

  • for other necessities like making clothes or teaching

  • their kids.

  • The people who no longer have to grow food

  • now take on different roles like tailoring or education.

  • And everyone becomes dependent on one

  • another for their continued well being.

  • People have become specialized, which

  • forces mutual interdependence.

  • This interdependence helps to ensure

  • that the community won't fall apart.

  • Now that people depend on each other for the production

  • of goods and services there's a need

  • for a method of distribution and a way to control and coordinate

  • that production and distribution.

  • In functionalism, a change to either production, distribution

  • or coordination will force the others to adapt in order

  • to maintain a stable state society.

  • Social change is annoying and upsets the equilibrium

  • and threatens the mutual interdependence of the people

  • within that society.

  • The institutions and structures of the society

  • adapt only just enough to compensate for a change

  • and maintain the stability of mutual interdependence.

  • Phew.

  • All right, that just about covers it.

  • While functionalism is a nice way

  • to look at society with its equilibrium of institutions

  • all filling the needs of the society they create,

  • there are some serious problems here.

  • Functionalism focuses completely on the institution

  • with little regard for the importance of the individual.

  • The individual is acknowledged, but nothing they do really

  • affects the structures of society.

  • Functionalism is also largely unable

  • to explain social change and conflict.

  • We know it happens, but functionalism

  • is so focused on maintaining the equilibrium of the society

  • that little significant change is modeled

  • and no conflict can occur.

  • The structures of a society adapt only just enough

  • to find stability again.

  • Right, so, while there's more to understanding a society

  • than just looking at the stable state of its parts,

  • functionalism is helpful in understanding

  • the workings of society by examining

  • the functions of its integral structures.

Functionalism is a system of thinking

字幕と単語

ワンタップで英和辞典検索 単語をクリックすると、意味が表示されます

B1 中級

機能主義|社会と文化|MCAT|カーンアカデミー (Functionalism | Society and Culture | MCAT | Khan Academy)

  • 52 0
    Man Tung Yip に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
動画の中の単語