Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

  • On the outside, it may seem like we haven't changed much from our early ancestors.


  • But take a closer look and you'll discover that humans are still evolving in some fascinating new ways.


  • Holding your breath.


  • The average person can hold their breath for 30 seconds.

    平均的に、私達は 30 秒ほど息を止めていられます。

  • But Bajau people in Southeast Asia can hold it up to 12 minutes, which comes in handy when they free dive over 230 feet for food.

    しかし、東南アジアのバジャウ族の人々は 12 分まで息を止めることが出来、食糧を求めて 230 フィート以上フリーダイブする時に役立ちます。

  • Part of the reason is simply training and experience since they spend over half their workday underwater.

    働く日の半分以上は水中で過ごすことから、12 分も息が続く理由は単にトレーニングだったり、経験であることに由来します。

  • But it turns out, the Bajau also have a genetic mutation that makes their spleens 50% larger than average.

    しかしバジャウ族は彼らの脾臓は、平均的なものよりも 50 %以上大きくする遺伝子突然変異を持っていることがわかりました。

  • Our spleens are what filter and store oxygen-rich red blood cells.


  • So, when the Bajau dive underwater, their larger spleens contract, which boosts oxygen levels in the blood by up to 10%, allowing them more time to collect food.

    ですから、バジャウ族が水中に潜る時、彼らのより大きな脾臓は収縮し、それによって血中の酸素レベルを 10 % まで押し上げます。

  • It's a handy adaptation that probably came from living on houseboats for the last 1,000 years.

    おそらく過去 1000 年間に渡るハウスボートでの生活から来たであろう便利な適応です。

  • Drinking milk.


  • About 35% of the world's population has the equivalent of a genetic superpower.

    おおよそ全人口の 35 % がジェネティックスーパーパワーと同じものを持っています。

  • They can digest milk as adults.


  • Not impressed?


  • Then consider this.


  • Humans are among the only mammals on the planet with this ability.


  • Thanks to a genetic mutation that popped up in Europe around 5,000 - 10,000 years ago.

    ヨーロッパで 5000 - 10000 年前に突然現れた遺伝子の突然変異のおかげです。

  • Those with the mutation produce lactase throughout their lives.


  • That's the enzyme that breaks down milk sugars for easy digestion.


  • And for most of history, humans stopped producing lactase after childhood.


  • But once those lucky few Europeans could drink milk as adults, that suddenly meant extra nutrition and ultimately healthier, longer lives so that they could pass their superpower on to future generations.


  • Today, roughly 95% of northern Europeans have the mutation.

    今日、おおよそ 95 % の北ヨーロッパ人が突然変異を持っています。

  • Fending off disease.


  • The human body has an estimated 20,000 - 30,000 genes.

    人間の体は 20000 - 30000 の遺伝子を持っていると言われています。

  • And while some mutations can change our spleens and diet, others can protect us against deadly conditions, like AIDS.


  • Nearly 50% of women in parts of South Africa have HIV.

    南アフリカのいくつかの地域では、50 %近くの女性がHIVに感染しています。

  • But researchers found that some show stronger resistance to the virus, taking longer to develop AIDS or sometimes never getting it at all.


  • Turns out, these women also share a mutation in the gene called HLA-B27 that the others lack.

    研究からわかったのは、これらの女性は他の人々にはない HLA-B27 と呼ばれる突然変異を遺伝子中に共有しているということです。

  • Are we going to evolve our way to HIV immunity?

    私達は HIV に対する免疫を自分たちで進化させていくのでしょうか?

  • It's too early to say.


  • But one thing's clear.


  • Evolution's not done with us yet.


On the outside, it may seem like we haven't changed much from our early ancestors.



ワンタップで英和辞典検索 単語をクリックすると、意味が表示されます