Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

  • This is Wendover Productions. Sponsored by the Great Courses Plus.

  • Here's an interesting question: which city do you think is more denseParis, France

  • or New York, United States?

  • It probably seems obvious: New York, the land of skyscrapers, the Big Appleright?

  • Wrong.

  • New York, in fact, has a population density of less than half that of Paris.

  • Paris's is 56,000 people per square mile (22,000 per square kilometer) while New York's

  • is only 27,000 people per square mile (10,500 per square kilometer.)

  • To find a European city with a comparable population density to New York's—the densest

  • American cityyou have to go all the way down to number six on the list: Lyon France

  • (27,000 per sq/mile; 10,500 per sq/km.)

  • New York of course has a super-dense urban core, but then around it is miles and miles

  • of suburbiajust like almost every other American city.

  • Paris, on the other hand, packs almost its entire population into a compact urban core.

  • There's also another interesting pattern that differs between the two continents: rich

  • Americans live outside the city, rich Europeans live city center.

  • Compare the income map of Paris to that of Philadelphia.

  • Of course it's not perfect, but you can definitely see a pattern.

  • The most commonly cited reason for both these trends is the difference in age.

  • Most European cities have existed for hundreds if not thousands of years, while all but a

  • few American cities only gathered enough population to be called cities in the past one or two

  • hundred years.

  • What that means is that European cities existed when all but the super-rich had to commute

  • to work by foot.

  • In the middle ages, Paris had a population of two to three hundred thousand people, but

  • you could walk from one side to the other in thirty minutes.

  • It was incredibly densely populated.

  • You just had to live within walking distance of work.

  • Therefore, the rich paid more for the houses closest to the center of the city.

  • This is a similar reason to why in historic European hotels, you'll often see the nicest

  • and largest rooms on the lower floorsthe opposite of what you'd see today.

  • Before elevators existed, the rich didn't want to have to walk up as many flights of

  • stairs.

  • Walking distance was not only important to big cities.

  • Small villages across Europe were almost always the same size because their population was

  • dictated by the walkability of the surrounding fields.

  • European farmers tended to live in small towns and walk to their fields during the day rather

  • than the homesteading approach used in America.

  • Therefore, villages would only be as large as the amount of people needed to work the

  • fields within walking distance.

  • American cities, on the other hand, began their period of rapid growth in a more modern

  • era when decentralizing technologies were much more advanced.

  • By the time North American cities grew larger than the distance people could reasonably

  • walk, there was already the technological capability to create public transportation

  • systems.

  • The first major public transportation innovation was the steam train in the mid 19th century.

  • This was a very expensive means of transport and was therefore only for the super rich.

  • Interestingly, because steam trains take an enormous amount of time to reach speed, the

  • towns that the rich commuted from, known as railroad suburbs, were generally not just

  • at the nearest bit of countryside, but separated from the city by a few miles of countryside.

  • The impact of railroad suburbs remains today.

  • On the track of the old Philadelphia Main Line, there's a stretch of super-rich communities

  • with huge estates and country clubs from Ardmore to Malvern.

  • The demographics just never changed from the time of the railroad suburb.

  • A few decades later, streetcars emerged and quickly became an instrumental part of the

  • American commute.

  • Much like steam trains, streetcars also created new communitiesthis time with slightly

  • less rich upper-middle class individuals.

  • In Washington DC, the wealthy suburbs of Tenleytown, Chevy Chase, Bethesda, McLean, Rockville,

  • and more all grew as a result of the streetcar.

  • But once again, walking distance influenced geography.

  • Streetcar commuters had to live within walking distance of a stop, so naturally there would

  • be a radius of civilization about 20 or 30 minutes walking distance from a stop, then

  • past thatnothing.

  • That meant that between the lines, there was all this open space where nobody could commute

  • from.

  • Enter: the automobile.

  • At first the car was only for upper class individuals especially with the distraction

  • of the two World Wars and Great Depression, however, by the time young Americans returned

  • from World War Two, there had been enough technological advances to make the automobile

  • affordable for the middle class.

  • Over 50% of households had cars by 1950.

  • At the same time, the government was offering loans to returning veterans which significantly

  • increased the number of americans who could afford to buy homes.

  • Instead of buying a small central city home, this generation opted to use their new cars

  • to commute from cheaper, nicer, and larger suburban homes.

  • The idea was that the working parents would go downtown each day while the rest of the

  • family would stay to enjoy the suburb.

  • It was the perfect deal.

  • So that whole history was absolutely true, but it doesn't entirely explain why European

  • cities didn't experience suburbanization as well.

  • In Germany, for example, many, if not most, cities were bombed to rubble during World

  • War Two.

  • They had the opportunity to rebuild in any way they wanted, but then chose to keep their

  • compact design.

  • Today, the average metropolitan population density in Germany is four times higher than

  • the US's.

  • At the same time, other cities across Europe that survived the war experienced enormous

  • population influxes and still maintained their mammoth population densities.

  • Perhaps the least commonly cited reason for suburbanization in the US is crime.

  • It's a bit of an ugly period in American history that we sometimes forget, but crime

  • levels were absolutely insane in the 70's, 80's, and 90's.

  • There are a ton of different theories for why this wasperhaps the most interesting

  • being the that the rise in gasoline emitted lead caused lower IQ's and higher aggressively.

  • New York had an astronomical 2,245 murders in 1990.

  • London didn't even have that many in the entire 90's decade.

  • Violent crime rates are still consistently 10 or more times higher in the US.

  • In 1992, a poll was conducted asking departing New Yorkers why they were moving to the suburbs,

  • and the most commonly cited reason was crime at 47%.

  • Cost and quality of living were way down at lower than 10% each.

  • Crime rates are significantly lower in suburbs as they are typically havens for higher-income

  • individuals.

  • Europeans don't have to worry as much about inter-city crime so they're much more willing

  • to live downtown.

  • Land for suburban housing is also readily available in the US because farmers have always

  • been quick to sell their relatively unprofitable land to developers.

  • By contrast, In France, for example, agricultural subsidies are 12 times higher per acre of

  • land than the US.

  • That's a big reason why large European cities are still closely surrounded by small farms.

  • In many European cities, you can literally take the city bus to farms.

  • Lastly, all sorts of energy are cheaper in the US.

  • A gallon of gas costs as much as $7 in some parts of Europe compared to the US average

  • of $2.20.

  • It's significantly more expensive to commute by car in Europe so there's more motivation

  • to live closer to work where either the drive is shorter or you can take public transportation.

  • Also, big suburban homes aren't as attractive in Europe because electricity and heating

  • costs are higher.

  • Suburban life really didn't live up to expectations.

  • Americans now spend an average of 4.25 hours per week sitting in cars, buses, or trains

  • traveling to and from work.

  • That's 2.5% of their entire lives.

  • It's also been scientifically proven that commuting from the suburbs is linked to higher

  • blood pressure, lower frustration tolerance, and higher rates of anxiety.

  • Also, the suburbs are no longer the countryside havens that they once were.

  • They're just a continuation of the urban sprawl.

  • Rich Americans are therefore beginning to return to the city.

  • With lower crime rates, higher fuel costs, and an overall shift in attitude, urban cores

  • are having a second renaissance.

  • So that's why we live where we do.

  • It's a complicated, controversial, and surprisingly political history.

  • I hope you enjoyed this Wendover Production video.

  • I first need to thank my amazing sponsorthe Great Courses Plus.

  • The Great Courses Plus is a subscription on-demand video learning service where you can watch

  • unlimited top-notch courses from Ivy League Professors, National Geographic Scientists,

  • Culinary Institute of America Chefs, and hundreds more highly qualified individuals.

  • If you enjoyed this video, I highly recommend the course on Cultural and Human Geography.

  • It's a super-interesting topic, and this course absolutely does it justice.

  • You can watch this or any other of the hundreds of courses for free when you sign up for a

  • 30-day free trial using the link www.thegreatcoursesplus.com/wendover or the link is also in the description.

  • I also recently started a Patreon which you can go to by clicking here.

  • There are a bunch of great rewards like early access to videos, stickers, t-shirts, and

  • best of all, every dollar contributed over there goes right back into the channel.

  • Aside from that, please follow me on Twitter @WendoverPro, watch my last video on the story

  • behind the 787 and a380 planes, check out my fan-moderated subreddit at www.Reddit.com/WendoverProductions,

  • and most of all, subscribe to this channel.

  • Thanks again for watching, and I'll see you in two weeks for another Wendover Productions

  • video.

This is Wendover Productions. Sponsored by the Great Courses Plus.

字幕と単語

動画の操作 ここで「動画」の調整と「字幕」の表示を設定することができます

B1 中級

都市地理。なぜ私たちはこの場所に住んでいるのか (Urban Geography: Why We Live Where We Do)

  • 206 21
    ping に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
動画の中の単語