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  • Hey everybody, so if you don't know anything about Indonesia,

  • basically, all you have to know is that it's kind of like the Hawaii of the Muslim world, but it's like huge.

  • It's like the biggest state and with orangutans.

  • And that's it just no punchline.

  • Let's just go to the intro song.

  • *Intro song* It's time to learn Geography NOW!

  • Hey everybody, I'm your host Barby.

  • So as some of you know, I've been to Indonesia one time on one island for like three hours

  • I ate one dish, so basically I'm like the Indonesia expert, right?

  • Well, if not I'm kind of like the only guy on YouTube doing full profile videos like this, so for now

  • You'll just have to kind of deal with me for like the next twelve or so minutes. Woohoo, default!

  • Alright, so again if you don't know anything about Indonesia

  • It's basically like if the Middle East and South East Asia had

  • An incredibly colorful, loud, somewhat explosive set of babies, like thousands of them

  • Okay, that doesn't really help

  • First of all Indonesia is the world's largest archipelago nation

  • Located right where the Indian Ocean meets the Pacific Ocean

  • On the incredibly clustered set of islands making six countries

  • Known commonly as Nusantara or the Malay Archipelago

  • Atatatatatat, *Indonesian* Archipelago

  • Sure, whatever makes you happy

  • Indonesia actually has land borders with three of these countries

  • East Timor, Papua New Guinea, and Malaysia, on the biggest island: Borneo or Kalimantan

  • Which is one of the world's only two triple split nation islands

  • The other one being Cyprus *CORRECTION: Actually it isn't the Cyprus (as Cyprus was located in West Asia), but it's Brunei*

  • Although technically if you include the UN Buffer Zone it's kind of like four entities

  • But the UN isn't a country

  • Whatever just watch the Cyprus episode

  • The country is divided into 34 provinces, five of which have special administrative statuses

  • With the capital and most populous city Jakarta located on Java

  • The world's most populous island with nearly half of the entire population of Indonesia in it

  • The largest cities after Jakarta are Surabaya and Bandung both located on Java Island

  • And Medan located on Sumatra

  • Jakarta's Soekarno-Hatta International

  • Bali's Ngurah Rai International in Denpasar

  • And Surabaya's Juanda International

  • Now here's where things get a little speculative

  • Today there are still arguments claimed as to exactly how many islands Indonesia has

  • The National Coordinating Agency for Surveying and Mapping * now named Geospatial Information Agency * says Indonesia has about 13,500

  • The National Institute of Aeronautics and Space Agency says that it has about 18,300

  • Whereas the Indonesian government claims about 17,500

  • But whatever the point is there's a lot of them

  • Over 8,800 have names and over 900 of them are permanently Inhabited

  • You would think they are the country with the most islands, but surprisingly Finland and Canada beat them

  • But a lot of their islands are kind of like boopadoop little islands in the lakes, so does it really count?

  • Uh, I guess?

  • Now let's talk about the five special administrative provinces

  • They are: Aceh, Yogyakarta, West Papua and Papua, and the capital, Jakarta

  • Now, no surprise the capital Jakarta acts as its own political entity

  • Lots of countries do that, but what about the others?

  • First, Aceh. Aceh is kind of like the black sheep of Indonesia

  • It's the only province in which Sharia law is fully implemented

  • Also, they kind of have like a ton of oil

  • So, yeah, they've kind of asserted a very independent ideology

  • That sets them apart as autonomous from the rest of Indonesia

  • Then you have Yogyakarta, which is the only region that is still governed by a pre-colonial monarchy

  • The Sultan of Yogyakarta who acts as a hereditary governor

  • Otherwise we get the two Papuas, which collectively used to be the province called Irian Jaya

  • But then in 2003 they got split into two

  • Basically this is the place that has the least in common with the rest of Indonesia

  • It has a culture and background closer to their cousins across the border in Papua New Guinea

  • So then why is this part of Indonesia, well long story short, Indonesia was basically like:

  • "Well now that we have our full sovereignty, we get everything that the Dutch colonized"

  • But the people of Papua were not too happy so then Indonesia was like:

  • "Alright, we'll give you a vote to stay or leave"

  • "However, we would strongly implore you to make the *right* decision"

  • So they voted to stay in, a lot of people complained, there's still some current opposition

  • And to this day, the area has a relatively high level of autonomy

  • And the government kind of just leaves them alone except for when it comes to mining for resources

  • Oh, and the South Maluku area also kind of has like an independence dispute thing kind of going on

  • But the major opponents to the Indonesian government are primarily based in the Netherlands

  • Then you have the strange Riau Islands which looked like they should belong to Malaysia

  • But they don't even though they have a strong Malay derived culture

  • And you have the Ambalat Sea block which has a ton of oil that both they and Malaysia argue over

  • So that essentially covers most of the administrative divisions of Indonesia

  • Some of the most notable spots of interest in Indonesia might include:

  • The National Monument and Museum

  • Royal Kraton Ngayogyakarta Palace

  • Ratu Boko

  • The Magelang Chicken Shaped Church

  • Borobudur, disputably the largest Buddhist temple in the world

  • Maimun Palace

  • The Taman Sari Underground Mosque

  • The Equator Monument

  • The Pura Ulun Danu Bratan Lake Temples

  • Yeah, try to say that five times fast: "Pura Ulun Danu Bratan Lake"

  • The Millennium Bridge

  • The Sacred Monkey Temple

  • The Hellmouth or Elephant Cave

  • The Seven Story Pagoda of Sibu *CORRECTION: This is in Malaysia*

  • The Smoked Mummy Villages of Aikim and Jiwika in Papua

  • Or if you're lazy you can just go to The Taman Mini Indonesia Indah Park

  • Which kinda has like a bunch of replicas of all the famous sites in Indonesia

  • Oh, and keep in mind there's Dutch colonial style buildings all over

  • Too many ancient temples and pagodas to list

  • And no matter how many buildings and landmarks are built

  • They will never compare to what mother nature has done, which brings us to:

  • Indonesia's land is like that one ex we all had back in our 20's

  • That we trusted a stupid friend to hook us up with

  • Super attractive, but almost killed you a few times

  • Indonesia lies on what is labeled as the prehistoric continental shelf known as Sundaland

  • Which during the ice age times pretty much connected all of the islands together before the Wallace Line

  • Until the ice melted and filled in the gaps

  • Now that's where things get incredibly messed up

  • Not only is indonesia right in the worst part of the ring of fire

  • But the country is basically smashed between three converging major continental plates

  • The Eurasian, the Pacific, and the Australian plates

  • With dozens of minor plates and rifts like the Sunda, Timor, Banda, Malucca, and so on

  • This in return gives Indonesia over 400 volcanoes disputably more than any in the world

  • With over 150 active ones making it the most volcanically active country in the world as well

  • This means on a daily basis Indonesia experiences on average about four earthquakes a day

  • Ranging anywhere between the small timid three to a noticeable six on the richter scale

  • And you never know where or when they will happen

  • Hmm... *clap clap clap* Impressive...

  • Nonetheless, volcanoes can be a good thing especially when concentrated close to the equator

  • As the warmer humid climate allows moisture and minerals to coalesce

  • Creating some of the most fertile land on the planet

  • This is why places like Hawaii And Iceland are so radically different despite both being volcanic islands

  • In the end, Indonesia got blessed with a flourishing abundance of flora and fauna

  • The second highest concentration in the world after Brazil

  • Many of which being endemic species, like the Rafflesia arnoldii and the Titan arum

  • The largest flowers in the world, which each smell like rotting corpses

  • And at over 180, they also have the highest concentration of mammals out of anywhere in the world

  • Nonetheless, the national animal is actually a reptile, the largest in the world

  • At three metres long, the famous Komodo Dragon which you can find a bunch of on Komodo Island

  • Which is where they get their name from, and they can kill people!

  • Just a heads up

  • And the surprisingly not national animal even though everybody knows and loves them

  • The only great ape in Asia, Orangutans, are only found on this archipelago as well

  • By the way, they look docile and quiet, but orangutans can rip off your arm if you anger them

  • So don't...

  • Otherwise, the largest mountain Puncak Jaya is located in the east, in Papua

  • The longest River, the Kapuas, flows on Kalimantan or Borneo Island

  • Starting in the east emptying into the South China Sea

  • The largest lake, as well as the largest volcanic lake in the world, Lake Toba can be found on Sumatra

  • This is also the site of the largest speculated volcanic explosive eruption on Earth

  • That essentially created a worldwide volcanic winter

  • The eruption was so big that you can literally observe ashes from the explosion

  • That went as far as Malawi in East Africa

  • Remember guys mother nature is beautiful, but if she wants she can kill you

  • Close to Puncak Jaya is Grasberg, the largest gold and copper mine in the world

  • And on Mount Ijen on Java which spews up blue lava

  • All over you can find Intrepid sulphur miners that literally go into the base of the volcanic craters

  • Risking health just to get raw sulphur ores

  • Otherwise you have other anomalies like the Sidoarjo mud volcanoes

  • The three-colored Lake Kelimutu in Flores

  • And the Kakaban Island Jellyfish Lake - too many strange places

  • To this day, Indonesia is the number one producer of palm oil, cloves, cinnamon, nutmeg, coconut, and vanilla

  • Some national dishes might include things like:

  • Rendang

  • Satay - or Saté *Correct pronunciation: Saté*

  • Gado-gado

  • Lontong

  • Ketupat

  • Papeda

  • Ikan bakar

  • Pempek

  • Tumpeng

  • Lemang

  • And the national dish: Nasi goreng which basically just means fried rice which has no exact recipe

  • You can mix it up and kind of do whatever you want to it

  • Oh and keep in mind Malaysia might argue that some of these dishes belong to them

  • But that's a whole other story tied in with history and culture. Yeah, we got time why not talk about it

  • Now there's a lot of curious mysteries when it comes to Indonesia's people like:

  • How did they become predominantly muslim?

  • Or what's the whole deal with them in Malaysia?

  • Or wait, this guy is considered an Indonesian? What?!

  • First of all, the country has about 263 million people, making it the fourth most populous country in the world

  • With the largest population of Muslims as well

  • Now here's the thing in a sense. Yes, 95% of the population is considered native Indonesian

  • That's an incredibly broad term, considering that Indonesia has about 300 different ethno-linguistic groups

  • Split up across all the island regions of the country

  • If you look at a map with the actual ethnic group breakdown, it kinda looks something like this

  • Nonetheless the two largest parent ethnic groups are the Javanese that make up about 40%

  • The Sudanese that make about 15%

  • Otherwise, the rest of the population is primarily made up of smaller groups and tribes

  • That have only around 2 to 3 percent each like the Batak, the Sulawesi, the Balinese

  • Minangkabau, Betawi, Papuan, Dayak, and so on

  • Finally about 5% are non-indigenous Indonesians like Chinese, Arabs, Indians, and even a few Europeans

  • They also use the Indonesian Rupiah as their currency, they use the type-C plug outlet

  • And they drive on the left side of the road

  • And here's where things get a little confusing: culture and language

  • The one thing that kind of unites all Indonesians is that they share the national language Bahasa Indonesia

  • Which means the Indonesian language

  • However Bahasa Indonesia is actually kind of like a lingua franca to many of the people

  • As Indonesia is the world's largest trilingual country

  • In addition to Bahasa indonesia most people speak their own mother tongue as well as English

  • Yep, English. They caught on quick when they realized it was the money language

  • The funny thing, is even though the Javanese make up the largest people group

  • The Javanese language is not an official language

  • Technically it could have been, but then that would have favored one people group over all the others

  • Which would have caused tension, so they kind of had to choose like a neutral default

  • Plus, Javanese is like really hard to learn

  • And the original writing system, although very beautiful is incredibly difficult to write

  • Nonetheless, at nearly 100 million speakers this makes Javanese the largest non-official minority language in the world

  • And that's why the Bahasa Indonesia language is so strange

  • It's not even technically indigenous to Indonesia, but more Malay derived

  • To this day, people who speak Bahasa Indonesia can understand

  • Somewhere around 60 to 70% of what their neighbors are saying in Malaysia

  • The biggest difference though would be the loan words as Indonesia took quite a bit of influence from the Dutch back in colonial times

  • For example kantoor versus kantor, dokter versus dokter, Mantel/mantel, Oma, Opa, Wortel/wortel

  • Speaking of the Dutch, quick history lesson:

  • Hindu kingdoms

  • Buddhist kingdoms

  • Islamic kingdoms

  • The Portuguese come in quickly

  • But then the dutch flock in

  • Japan comes in for a couple of years and decimates a huge chunk of the population

  • Independence

  • Republic

  • The Suharto Years

  • Controversial incidents and fights with ethnic Chinese, Timorese, and Papuan peoples

  • Suharto falls

  • Reformation period begins

  • And here we are today

  • In Indonesia, all citizens are required to register under one of six recognized religion categories:

  • Islam, Protestant, Catholic, Hindu, Buddhist and Confucianism

  • If you don't identify with either, then sorry...

  • Prior to Islam entering around the 13th century, Indonesia was actually primarily Hindu and Buddhist

  • It's disputed on how exactly Indonesia became prevalently Muslim

  • Some people say that it's because of the Arab traders that came by in the early first millennium

  • Others will say that maybe it had to do with the Malacca Sultanate conquest

  • That fought against the Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms and the truth is, both might be right

  • Inevitably, Bali became like the last sort of haven for whatever Hindus were left

  • The Eastern Nusa Tenggara region and the Papuas remained predominantly Christian

  • As the Dutch and Portuguese share the gospel

  • Islamic culture in Indonesia is a little different from what it looks like in the Middle East

  • For one, most mosques don't have the typical dome structure

  • And actually many of them resemble Hindu temples like the Demak Great Mosque

  • When a family member dies their relatives might often come together and pray for a whole week

  • Then again on the fortieth day, and then on the year anniversary, and then on the 500th day and so on

  • Also, the night before Eid Al-Fitr, the youth might gather and go around neighborhoods reciting the takbir

  • Those are some things you don't really typically find in the Middle East

  • Clothing modesty customs are pretty loose

  • Not all muslim women wear hijabs, however the ones that do might also complement it with Western clothing

  • Like branded t-shirts with skin tight sleeves and jeans