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  • In the ocean's depths, two titans wage battle: the sperm whale and the colossal squid.


  • Sperm whales use echolocation to hunt these squid for food, but even against this gigantic animal, squid can put up an impressive fight.

    マッコウクジラは食糧のためにこれらのイカを狩るためにエコーロケーションを使用していますが、この巨大な動物に対しても、イカは<a href="#post_comment_1"><strong>put up</strong><i class="icon-star"></i>印象的な戦いをすることができます</a>。

  • Scientists know this because on the bodies of washed-up whales, they frequently find huge, round suction scars, emblazoned there by large, grasping tentacles.


  • Ranging in size from this giant's impressive 14 meters to the 2.5 centimeters of the southern pygmy squid, these creatures fall into the group of animals known as cephalopods.


  • There are about 500 squid species worldwide, and they live in all the world's oceans, making them a reliable food source for whales, dolphins, sharks, seabirds, fish, and even other squid.


  • Indeed, squid themselves are fearsome ocean predators.


  • But their most extraordinary adaptations are those that have evolved to help them thwart their predators.


  • Squid, which can be found mainly in estuarine, deep-sea, and open-water habitats, often swim together in shoals.


  • Being out in the open without anywhere to hide makes them vulnerable, so as a first line of defense, they rely on large, well-developed eyes.


  • In the colossal squid, these are the size of dinner plates, the largest known eyes in the animal kingdom.


  • When it's dark or the water is murky, however, squid rely on a secondary sensory system, made from thousands of tiny hair cells that are only about twelve microns long and run along their heads and arms.


  • Each of these hair cells is attached to axons in the nervous system.


  • Swimming animals create a wake, so when the hairs on the squid's body detect this motion, they send a signal to the brain, which helps it determine the direction of the water's flow.


  • This way, a squid can sense an oncoming predator in even the dimmest waters.


  • Aware of the threat, a squid can then mask itself from a predator.


  • Squid skin contains thousands of tiny organs called chromatophores, each made of black, brown, red or yellow pigments and ringed in muscle.


  • Reflecting cells beneath the chromatophores mirror the squid's surroundings, enabling it to blend in.


  • So, when the muscles contract, the color of the pigment is exposed, whereas when the muscles relax the colors are hidden.


  • Each of these chromatophores is under the individual control of the squid's nervous system, so while some expand, others remain contracted.


  • That enables countershading, where the underside of the squid is lighter than the top, to eliminate a silhouette that a predator might spy from below.


  • Some predators, however, like the whales and dolphins, get around this ruse by using sound waves to detect a squid's camouflaged form.


  • Not to be outfoxed, the squid still has two more tricks up its sleeves.

    追い越されないように、イカはまだその<a href="#post_comment_2"><strong>袖</strong><i class="icon-star"></i>の上に2つのトリックを持っています。

  • The first involves ink, produced inside its mantle.


  • Squid ink is made mostly of mucus and melanin, which produces its dark coloring.


  • When squid eject the ink, they either use it to make a large smokescreen that completely blocks the predator's view or a blob that roughly mimics the size and shape of the squid.

    イカがインクを排出するとき、それを利用して捕食者の視界を完全に遮る大きな煙幕を作るか、または大まかに<a href="#post_comment_3"><strong>模倣</strong><i class="icon-star"></i>イカの大きさと形をしたブロブを作るかのどちらかです。

  • This creates a phantom form, called a pseudomorph, that tricks the predator into thinking it's the real squid.


  • As a final touch, squid rely on jet propulsion to rapidly shoot away from their hunters, reaching speeds of up to 25 miles per hour and moving meters away in mere seconds.


  • This makes them Earth's fastest invertebrates.


  • Some squid species have also developed unique adaptive behaviors.


  • The deep-sea vampire squid, when startled, uses its webbed arms to make a cape it hides behind.


  • The tiny bobtail, on the other hand, tosses sand over its body as it burrows away from prying eyes.


  • The Pacific flying squid uses jet propulsion for another purpose: to launch itself right out of the water.

    <a href="#post_comment_4"><strong>打ち上げ</strong><i class="icon-star"></i><i>自分自身を水の外に出すことです。

  • Squids' inventive adaptations have allowed them to proliferate for over 500 million years.


  • Even now, we're still uncovering new species.


  • And as we do, we're bound to discover even more about how these stealthy cephalopods have mastered survival in the deep and unforgiving sea.

    そして、私たちは<a href="#post_comment_5"><strong>bound to</strong><i class="icon-star"></i>これらのステルス性頭足類が、深くて容赦のない海でどのようにサバイバルをマスターしてきたかについて、さらに多くのことを発見しています。

In the ocean's depths, two titans wage battle: the sperm whale and the colossal squid.


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