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  • It was the dawn of 1863, and London's not-yet-opened subway system, the first of its kind in the world, had the city in an uproar.

    1863 年の初めでした。まだ開通していなかった、ロンドン地下鉄。それは世界初のものであり、ロンドンを混乱に巻き込みました。

  • Digging a hole under the city and putting a railroad in it seemed the stuff of dreams.


  • Pub drinkers scoffed at the idea and a local minister accused the railway company of trying to break into hell.


  • Most people simply thought the project, which cost more than 100 million dollars in today's money, would never work.

    大半の人々は単に、今日で言えば 1 億ドル以上をかけたこのプロジェクトなど成功しないだろうと考えていました。

  • But it did.


  • On January 10, 1863, 30,000 people ventured underground to travel on the world's first subway on a four-mile stretch of line in London.

    1863 年 1 月 10 日、3 万人が地下へ下りて世界初の地下鉄に乗り、4 マイルの線路上を旅しました。

  • After three years of construction and a few setbacks, the Metropolitan Railway was ready for business.

    施工には 3 年と少しの挫折を要しましたがメトロポリタン鉄道は始動の準備が整いました。

  • The city's officials were much relieved.


  • They'd been desperate to find a way to reduce the terrible congestion on the roads.


  • London, at the time the world's largest and most prosperous city, was in a permanent state of gridlock, with carts, costermongers, cows, and commuters jamming the roads.


  • It'd been a Victorian visionary, Charles Pearson, who first thought of putting railways under the ground.


  • He'd lobbied for underground trains throughout the 1840s, but opponents thought the idea was impractical since the railroads at the time only had short tunnels under hills.

    彼は 1840 年代の間、地下鉄賛成運動を行いましたが反対派は彼の意見が実現困難だと考えました。

  • How could you get a railway through the center of a city?


  • The answer was a simple system called "cut and cover."


  • Workers had to dig a huge trench, construct a tunnel out of brick archways, and then refill the hole over the newly built tunnel.


  • Because this was disruptive and required the demolition of buildings above the tunnels, most of the line went under existing roads.


  • Of course, there were accidents.


  • On one occasion, a heavy rainstorm flooded the nearby sewers and burst through the excavation, delaying the project by several months.


  • But as soon as the Metropolitan Railway opened, Londoners rushed in to ride the new trains.


  • The Metropolitan quickly became a vital part of London's transport system.


  • Additional lines were soon built, and new suburbs grew around the stations.


  • Big department stores opened next to the railroad, and the railway company even created attractions, like a 30-story Ferris wheel in Earls Court to bring in tourists by train.

    線路の隣には大きなデパートが開店し鉄道会社はアトラクションも作りました。30 階の高さの観覧車をアールズコートに作り、電車で観光客誘致を試みました。

  • Within 30 years, London's subway system covered 80 kilometers, with lines in the center of town running in tunnels, and suburban trains operating on the surface, often on embankments.

    30 年経たぬ内にロンドンの地下鉄は 80km の距離をカバーし町の中心を通る列車はトンネルを走り郊外の列車は地上、時に土手沿いを走りました。

  • But London was still growing, and everyone wanted to be connected to the system.


  • By the late 1880s, the city had become too dense with buildings, sewers, and electric cables for the "cut and cover" technique, so a new system had to be devised.

    1880 年代後半までにはロンドンは建物、下水管、電線が混み入りすぎて開削式工法ができなくなり新たな工法を生み出さねばなりませんでした。

  • Using a machine called the Greathead Shield, a team of just 12 workers could bore through the earth, carving deep underground tunnels through the London clay.

    グレートヘッド・シールドという機械を使うことで 12 人の作業員だけで地面に穴を開けてロンドンの土の中深い、地下トンネルを掘ることができました。

  • These new lines, called tubes, were at varying depths, but usually about 25 meters deeper than the "cut and cover" lines.

    これら新しい線は「チューブ」と呼ばれ、地面から様々な深さにありますが通常は、「開削式」による線より約 25m 深いものです。

  • This meant their construction didn't disturb the surface, and it was possible to dig under buildings.


  • The first tube line, the City and South London, opened in 1890 and proved so successful that half a dozen more lines were built in the next 20 years.

    最初のチューブ線であるシティ・アンド・サウスロンドンは 1890 年に開通し、大きな成功を収めたためその後 20 年の間に、追加で 6 線分が作られました。

  • This clever new technology was even used to burrow several lines under London's river, the Thames.


  • By the early 20th century, Budapest, Berlin, Paris, and New York had all built subways of their own.

    20 世紀初めまでにはブダペスト、ベルリン、パリ、ニューヨークで地下鉄が作られました。

  • And today, with more than 160 cities in 55 countries using underground rails to combat congestion.

    今日、55 カ国における 160 都市以上で地下鉄が使われ、渋滞に立ち向かっています。

  • We can thank Charles Pearson and the Metropolitan Railway for getting us started on the right track.


It was the dawn of 1863, and London's not-yet-opened subway system, the first of its kind in the world, had the city in an uproar.

1863 年の初めでした。まだ開通していなかった、ロンドン地下鉄。それは世界初のものであり、ロンドンを混乱に巻き込みました。


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B1 中級 日本語 TED-Ed ロンドン トンネル 地下鉄 鉄道 チューブ

世界初の地下鉄-ロンドン地下鉄の物語(How the world's first subway system was built - Christian Wolmar)

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    Jenny に公開 2018 年 04 月 19 日