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  • - [Professor Tyler Cowen] I love economics. I began studying economics when I was 13 and I

    経済学への招待

  • haven't stopped yet. Economics really has changed my life and the whole way I see

    私は経済学が好きだ

  • the world. What's so powerful about the discipline is just how much it shapes how

    13の時からずっと勉強している

  • you understand everything around you.

    経済学は私の世界に対する見方を変えた

  • - [Professor Alex Tabarrok] But perhaps you're asking, what's my incentive to learn

    その強力な理論には

  • economics? Well, that's a great question. You've already hit on a key economic

    人の世界観を変える力がある

  • insight, incentives. For example, why is the service at a local restaurant

    なぜ経済学を学ぶのかって?

  • typically so much better than from the cable company?

    良い質問だ そこにもう経済学がある

  • - Or why do laws which supposedly protect endangered species,

    インセンティブだ

  • sometimes end up with more of those animals being killed?

    例えば

  • - Or why do big toy companies sometimes advocate for

    なぜレストランのサービスは

  • regulations which raise their costs? Incentives are the key.

    テレビ局のサービスよりいいのか?

  • - Another example might help us explain. Way back in 1787, the British

    なぜ動物を保護するための法律は

  • government hired sea captains to ship convicted felons to Australia.

    かえって多くの動物を殺すのか?

  • The conditions on those ships were just awful. On one voyage, more than one-third of the

    なぜ大きなおもちゃ会社は

  • men died and the rest arrived beaten, starved and sick. The public was outraged,

    コストの上がる規制を歓迎するのか?

  • newspapers called for better conditions, the clergy appealed to the captain's sense

    インセンティブが鍵だ

  • of humanity, and British Parliament passed regulations requiring better treatment of

    例を挙げて説明しよう

  • these prisoners. Unfortunately, those attempted solutions simply didn't work.

    18世紀 イギリス政府は船を使い

  • The death rate remained shockingly high.

    重罪犯をオーストラリアに送っていたが

  • - So Tyler, as a good economist. How would you solve this problem?

    その船旅はひどいもので

  • - Well, there was one economist at the time who came up with a

    途中で3人に1人が死に

  • novel solution. It was implemented and it basically worked. Instead of paying the

    残りも多くが病気になった

  • captains for each prisoner who embarked to Australia, the government would pay the

    社会問題となり 改善が求められた

  • captains only for the prisoners who arrived alive. Overnight, the incentives

    聖職者は船長に人道を訴え

  • of the sea captains changed. The survival rate of the prisoners shot up to 99%.

    議会は囚人の扱いに規制を設けた

  • As one observer put it, economy beat sentiment and benevolence.

    だがこの策は意味をなさなかった

  • - So what's your incentive to learn economics? People hear that I'm

    死亡率は高いままだった

  • an economist and they ask me about managing their money. And economics does

    経済学者ならこれを解決できるね

  • have some lessons for investing in the stock market, but economics is much

    当時の一流経済学者ノーベルは

  • broader than that. It's the study of human action, how people make choices and how

    この問題を一瞬で解決した

  • they should make choices under scarcity. Economics will help you with your choices,

    船の船長の給料を

  • whether picking a career, parenting a child, or deciding how much education is a

    乗せる囚人の数に応じて払うのではなく

  • truly worthwhile investment. Overall, economics will give you a deeper

    生きて到着した囚人の数に応じて

  • understanding of the key issues of our time.

    払うように変えたのだ

  • - Economics can be hard. Retraining your brain to look at the world

    これで船長のインセンティブが変わった

  • in a different way isn't always easy.

    囚人の生存率は99%まで上がった

  • - But the reward is a new set of eyes to see the world.

    経済学の完全勝利である

  • So are you ready to begin?

    なぜ経済学を学ぶか

- [Professor Tyler Cowen] I love economics. I began studying economics when I was 13 and I

経済学への招待

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B1 中級 日本語 経済 囚人 船長 インセンティブ 世界 払う

経済学入門 (Introduction to Economics)

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    kstmasa に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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