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  • I'm a marine biologist and an explorer-photographer

    翻訳: Hiroe Humphreys 校正: Takafusa Kitazume

  • with National Geographic,

    私は海洋生物学者です そしてナショナルジオグラフィックの

  • but I want to share a secret.

    エクスプローラーであり 写真家です

  • This image is totally incorrect,


  • totally incorrect.


  • I see a couple of people crying in the back


  • that I've blown their idea of mermaids.

    私が人魚の概念を 台無しにしたので

  • All right, the mermaid is indeed real,


  • but anyone who's gone on a dive

    いいでしょう 人魚は本当にいることにします

  • will know that the ocean looks more like this.


  • It's because the ocean is this massive filter,

    このように見えることは ご存知ですね

  • and as soon as you start going underwater,


  • you're going to lose your colors,


  • and it's going to get dark and blue very quickly.


  • But we're humans -- we're terrestrial mammals.


  • And we've got trichromatic vision,


  • so we see in red, green and blue,


  • and we're just complete color addicts.


  • We love eye-popping color,


  • and we try to bring this eye-popping color


  • underwater with us.


  • So there's been a long and sordid history of bringing color underwater,


  • and it starts 88 years ago with Bill Longley and Charles Martin,

    だから水中に色を持ち込もうという 長くさえない歴史があります

  • who were trying to take the first underwater color photograph.

    それは88年前にビル・ロングレイと チャールズ・マーティンが始めました

  • And they're in there with old-school scuba suits,

    初の水中カラー写真を 撮ろうとしたのです

  • where you're pumping air down to them,

    彼らは旧式の潜水服を着て 水中にいました

  • and they've got a pontoon of high-explosive magnesium powder,


  • and the poor people at the surface are not sure

    そして強力に爆発する マグネシウム粉の浮きを持っていました

  • when they're going to pull the string when they've got their frame in focus,

    かわいそうな水上の人たちには いつ焦点が合って

  • and -- boom! -- a pound of high explosives would go off

    紐が引かれるのか 見当もつきません

  • so they could put a little bit of light underwater

    そして ドーン!と 強烈に爆発しました

  • and get an image like this beautiful hogfish.


  • I mean, it's a gorgeous image, but this is not real.

    このような美しいベラの 写真を撮りました

  • They're creating an artificial environment

    極めて美しい写真ですが 本物ではありません

  • so we can satisfy our own addiction to color.


  • And looking at it the other way, what we've been finding

    私たちのカラー中毒を 満足させたのです

  • is that instead of bringing color underwater with us,


  • that we've been looking at the blue ocean,


  • and it's a crucible of blue,

    青い海を見ていたことに 気が付きました

  • and these animals living there for millions of years


  • have been evolving all sorts of ways to take in that blue light

    生息する動物は 何百万年にも渡って

  • and give off other colors.

    青い光を取り込んで 他の色を放つために

  • And here's just a little sample of what this secret world looks like.

    あらゆる方法で 進化していたのです

  • It's like an underwater light show.

    この秘密の世界が どのようにみえるのかをお見せします

  • (Music)


  • Again, what we're seeing here is blue light hitting this image.


  • These animals are absorbing the blue light


  • and immediately transforming this light.

    これらの動物は 青い光を吸収して

  • So if you think about it, the ocean is 71 percent of the planet,


  • and blue light can extend down to almost a 1,000 meters.

    考えてみると 地球の71%は海です

  • As we go down underwater,

    青い光は 約1,000m下まで届きます

  • after about 10 meters, all the red is gone.


  • So if you see anything under 10 meters that's red,

    約10mを過ぎると 赤い色は全てなくなります

  • it's an animal transforming and creating its own red.

    もし10mよりも深い場所で 赤いものが見えたら

  • This is the largest single monochromatic blue environment on our planet.

    生物が変換して作った 独自の赤い色です

  • And my gateway into this world of biofluorescence begins with corals.

    地球最大で唯一の 単色の青い環境です

  • And I want to give a full TED Talk on corals

    私の生物蛍光の世界への 入口はサンゴでした

  • and just how cool these things are.

    サンゴと その素晴らしさについての

  • One of the things that they do, one of their miraculous feats,


  • is they produce lots of these fluorescent proteins,


  • fluorescent molecules.

    沢山の蛍光タンパク質を 生産することです

  • And in this coral, it could be making up to 14 percent of its body mass --


  • could be this fluorescent protein.

    このサンゴは体重の14%までの 蛍光タンパク質を

  • So you wouldn't be making, like, 14 percent muscle and not using it,


  • so it's likely doing something that has a functional role.

    使わない筋肉を 14%も作らないでしょう

  • And for the last 10, 15 years, this was so special to me,

    だから何か機能的な 役割がありそうです

  • because this molecule has turned out to be one of the most revolutionary tools

    このことは10から15年間 私とって非常に特別なものでした

  • in biomedical science,

    この分子が生物医科学で 最も画期的な道具の一つと判明し

  • and it's allowing us to better see inside ourselves.


  • So, how do I study this?


  • In order to study biofluorescence, we swim at night.

    では これをどのように 調査するのでしょうか?

  • And when I started out,

    生体蛍光の研究をするためには 夜に泳ぎます

  • I was just using these blue duct-tape filters over my strobe,


  • so I could make sure I'm actually seeing the light

    青い粘着テープのフィルターで ストロボをカバーしました

  • that's being transformed by the animals.

    これで実際に 動物が変換した光だと

  • We're making an exhibit for the Museum of Natural History,


  • and we're trying to show off how great the fluorescent corals are on the reef,

    私たちは蛍光のサンゴ礁の 素晴らしさを紹介する

  • and something happened that just blew me away:

    自然史博物館の 展示物を準備していました

  • this.

    そこで心底驚くことが 起こりました

  • In the middle of our corals,


  • is this green fluorescent fish.


  • It's the first time we've ever seen a green fluorescent fish


  • or any vertebrate for that matter.

    緑色蛍光の魚や 脊椎動物を見たのは

  • And we're rubbing our eyes, checking the filters,


  • thinking that somebody's maybe playing a joke on us with the camera,

    目を擦って フィルターを確認しながら

  • but the eel was real.

    カメラを使って 誰かが からかっていると思っていました

  • It was the first green fluorescent eel that we found,


  • and this just changed my trajectory completely.

    緑色蛍光のウナギを 初めて発見したのです

  • So I had to put down my corals and team up

    これで私の方向性が 完全に変わりました

  • with a fish scientist, John Sparks,


  • and begin a search around the world


  • to see how prevalent this phenomenon is.

    これが一般的な 現象であるかを調べるために

  • And fish are much more interesting than corals,

    世界中の調査を始めなくては なりませんでした

  • because they have really advanced vision,

    魚はサンゴより もっと興味深いものでした

  • and some of the fish even have, the way that I was photographing it,


  • they have lenses in their eyes that would magnify the fluorescence.


  • So I wanted to seek this out further.

    蛍光を拡大して捉えるレンズが 目の中にある魚もいたからです

  • So we designed a new set of gear

    だからこれを もっと追及したいと思いました

  • and we're scouring the reefs around the world,


  • looking for fluorescent life.


  • And it's a bit like "E.T. phone home."


  • We're out there swimming with this blue light,

    「E.T.おうち 電話」 に少し似ています

  • and we're looking for a response,

    私たちは青いライトを 持って泳いでいます

  • for animals to be absorbing the light and transferring this back to us.


  • And eventually, we found our photobombing Kaupichphys eel.


  • It's a really shy, reclusive eel that we know almost nothing about.

    ついにイワアナゴが こっそりと写りました

  • They're only about the size of my finger,

    とても内気で 人前に姿を見せず ほぼ何も知られていません

  • and they spend about 99.9 percent of their time hidden under a rock.


  • But these eels do come out to mate under full-moon nights,

    約99.9%の時間を 岩の下に隠れて過ごしています

  • and that full-moon night translates underwater to blue.

    イワアナゴは満月の夜 交尾のために出てきます

  • Perhaps they're using this as a way to see each other,

    満月の夜には 水中も青く照らされます

  • quickly find each other, mate,

    多分 これでお互いを見て

  • go back into their hole for the next long stint of time.


  • But then we started to find other fluorescent marine life,

    自分の穴に戻って また長い時間を過ごすのです

  • like this green fluorescent bream,

    それから この緑色蛍光のタイのような

  • with its, like, racing stripes along its head and its nape,

    蛍光の海洋生物を 発見し始めました

  • and it's almost camouflaged and fluorescing at the same intensity


  • as the fluorescent coral there.

    そこにあるサンゴの蛍光と 同じ明るさに光って

  • After this fish,


  • we were introduced to this red fluorescent scorpionfish


  • cloaked and hidden on this rock.

    この赤色蛍光のオニカサゴを 知りました

  • The only time we've ever seen this, it's either on red fluorescent algae


  • or red fluorescent coral.

    唯一これを見たのは 赤色蛍光の藻の上か

  • Later, we found this stealthy green fluorescent lizardfish.


  • These lizardfish come in many varieties,

    その後 このコソコソした 緑色蛍光のエソを発見しました

  • and they look almost exactly alike under white light.

    このエソには色々な 模様がありますが

  • But if you look at them under fluorescent light,

    白色光の下では ほとんど同じに見えます

  • you see lots of patterns,


  • you can really see the differences among them.


  • And in total -- we just reported this last year --


  • we found over 200 species of biofluorescent fish.


  • One of my inspirations is French artist and biologist Jean Painlevé.

    合計200種以上の 生物蛍光の魚を発見しました

  • He really captures this entrepreneuring, creative spirit in biology.

    私はフランスの芸術家で生物学者の ジャン・パンルヴェに影響を受けました

  • He would design his own gear, make his own cameras,

    生物学において まさに起業的で 創造的な精神を持つ人で

  • and he was fascinated with the seahorse, Hippocampus erectus,

    彼は自分で装置を設計し カメラを作りました

  • and he filmed for the first time the seahorse giving birth.


  • So this is the male seahorse.

    タツノオトシゴの出産を 初めて撮影しました

  • They were one of the first fish to start swimming upright


  • with their brain above their head.


  • The males give birth,


  • just phenomenal creatures.


  • So he stayed awake for days.


  • He even put this electrical visor on his head that would shock him,


  • so he could capture this moment.

    頭に 自分にショックを与える 電気バイザーを被ることまでして

  • Now, I wish I could have shown Painlevé


  • the moment where we found biofluorescent seahorses

    彼が研究していたのと 全く同一の種に

  • in the exact same species that he was studying.

    生体蛍光のタツノオトシゴを 私たちがみつけた瞬間を

  • And here's our footage.


  • (Music)


  • They're the most cryptic fish.


  • You could be swimming right on top of them and not see the seahorse.


  • They would blend right into the algae, which would also fluoresce red,

    タツノオトシゴの真上を 泳いでも姿は見えません

  • but they've got great vision,

    まさに赤色蛍光の藻に 溶け込んでいます

  • and they go through this long mating ritual,


  • and perhaps they're using it in that effect.


  • But things got pretty edgy

    恐らく 蛍光が求愛に 効果的なのでしょう

  • when we found green fluorescence in the stingray,

    それから とてもゾッとする展開がありました

  • because stingrays are in the Elasmobranch class,

    エイにも緑色蛍光を みつけたのです

  • which includes ...

    どういうことかというと エイは軟骨魚類の仲間ですが

  • sharks.


  • So I'm, like, a coral biologist.


  • Somebody's got to go down and check to see if the sharks are fluorescent.

    私は まあ サンゴの生物学者なんです

  • And there I am.

    誰かが潜って サメは蛍光か 確かめる必要があります

  • (Laughter)


  • And I was like, "Maybe I should go back to corals."


  • (Laughter)

    「サンゴに戻った方が良いかも」 という感じです

  • It turns out that these sharks are not fluorescent.


  • And then we found it.

    このサメは 蛍光ではないと分りました

  • In a deep, dark canyon off the coast of California,


  • we found the first