Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

  • I have a question.

    翻訳: Megumi Miki 校正: Takashi Kawasaki

  • Can a computer write poetry?


  • This is a provocative question.

    コンピュータに 詩は書けるでしょうか

  • You think about it for a minute,


  • and you suddenly have a bunch of other questions like:


  • What is a computer?

    するとたちまち 多くの疑問が浮かんでくるでしょう

  • What is poetry?


  • What is creativity?


  • But these are questions


  • that people spend their entire lifetime trying to answer,


  • not in a single TED Talk.


  • So we're going to have to try a different approach.


  • So up here, we have two poems.

    だから今日は やり方を変えたほうが良さそうです

  • One of them is written by a human,


  • and the other one's written by a computer.


  • I'm going to ask you to tell me which one's which.


  • Have a go:


  • Poem 1: Little Fly / Thy summer's play, / My thoughtless hand / Has brush'd away.


  • Am I not / A fly like thee? / Or art not thou / A man like me?

    詩1: 小さなハエよ/お前の夏の遊びを/ 思慮のない私の手が/叩き潰してしまった

  • Poem 2: We can feel / Activist through your life's / morning /

    私とて そうではないのか/お前と同じハエでは? お前とて そうではないのか/私と同じ人間では?

  • Pauses to see, pope I hate the / Non all the night to start a / great otherwise (...)

    詩2: 我らは感じる/活動家は 君らの青き/時代の中にいると

  • Alright, time's up.

    立ち止まり法王を見ては嫌うのさ/ 今夜始めよう/別の素晴らしい事を(...)

  • Hands up if you think Poem 1 was written by a human.


  • OK, most of you.

    1番が人間の書いた詩だと思う人は 手を挙げてください

  • Hands up if you think Poem 2 was written by a human.


  • Very brave of you,


  • because the first one was written by the human poet William Blake.


  • The second one was written by an algorithm

    1番は詩人の ウィリアム・ブレイクが書いた詩

  • that took all the language from my Facebook feed on one day


  • and then regenerated it algorithmically,

    そのアルゴリズムは ある日の私のFacebookのフィードから

  • according to methods that I'll describe a little bit later on.

    言葉をかき集め アルゴリズムで生成しなおしたものです

  • So let's try another test.


  • Again, you haven't got ages to read this,


  • so just trust your gut.


  • Poem 1: A lion roars and a dog barks. It is interesting / and fascinating


  • that a bird will fly and not / roar or bark. Enthralling stories about animals

    詩1: ライオンはうなり 犬は吠える

  • are in my dreams and I will sing them all if I / am not exhausted or weary.

    興味深きはうならず吠えずただ飛ぶ鳥よ 動物たちが紡ぐ面白き物語は私の夢の中

  • Poem 2: Oh! kangaroos, sequins, chocolate sodas! / You are really beautiful!

    今度は私が歌ってあげようか/ そんな元気さえあるならば

  • Pearls, / harmonicas, jujubes, aspirins! All / the stuff they've always talked about (...)

    詩2: あぁ!カンガルー スパンコール チョコレートにソーダ!/実に美しいものたちよ!

  • Alright, time's up.

    真珠/ハーモニカ ナツメ それからアスピリン! どれもみな/こいつらの話をしているのさ(...)

  • So if you think the first poem was written by a human,

    はい ここまで

  • put your hand up.

    では 最初の詩が 人間の書いた詩だと思う人

  • OK.


  • And if you think the second poem was written by a human,


  • put your hand up.

    では 次の詩が 人間の書いた詩だと思う人

  • We have, more or less, a 50/50 split here.


  • It was much harder.


  • The answer is,


  • the first poem was generated by an algorithm called Racter,

    では 答え合わせです

  • that was created back in the 1970s,

    1番の詩の書き手は ラクターというアルゴリズムです

  • and the second poem was written by a guy called Frank O'Hara,


  • who happens to be one of my favorite human poets.

    2番が フランク・オハラという 男性が書いた詩

  • (Laughter)


  • So what we've just done now is a Turing test for poetry.


  • The Turing test was first proposed by this guy, Alan Turing, in 1950,

    このテストは 詩における チューリングテストです

  • in order to answer the question,

    チューリングテストは1950年に アラン・チューリングにより発案されました

  • can computers think?

    コンピュータは思考できるのか という問いへの答です

  • Alan Turing believed that if a computer was able

    もし コンピュータと人間との間に

  • to have a to have a text-based conversation with a human,


  • with such proficiency such that the human couldn't tell

    しかもそれが 人間が気付かないほどに自然で

  • whether they are talking to a computer or a human,


  • then the computer can be said to have intelligence.

    コンピュータに知能があると言える そう考えました

  • So in 2013, my friend Benjamin Laird and I,

    2013年に私は 友人のベンジャミン・レアードと

  • we created a Turing test for poetry online.

    詩のチューリングテストを ネットに公開しました

  • It's called bot or not,


  • and you can go and play it for yourselves.

    誰でも使えて 自分で遊べます

  • But basically, it's the game we just played.

    しかし基本的には 先ほどのゲームと一緒です

  • You're presented with a poem,


  • you don't know whether it was written by a human or a computer

    人間が書いたか コンピュータが書いたか

  • and you have to guess.


  • So thousands and thousands of people have taken this test online,


  • so we have results.


  • And what are the results?

    さて どんな結果でしょう?

  • Well, Turing said that if a computer could fool a human

    チューリングは コンピュータが

  • 30 percent of the time that it was a human,

    人間の30%を騙す ことができれば

  • then it passes the Turing test for intelligence.

    知能があると 考えました

  • We have poems on the bot or not database

    一方で「ボットかヒトか」の 詩のデータベースでは

  • that have fooled 65 percent of human readers into thinking


  • it was written by a human.


  • So, I think we have an answer to our question.

    もう何を言いたいか わかったはずです

  • According to the logic of the Turing test,


  • can a computer write poetry?


  • Well, yes, absolutely it can.

    ええ 書けます 間違いなく書けます

  • But if you're feeling a little bit uncomfortable

    しかし そう聞いて 違和感があっても

  • with this answer, that's OK.


  • If you're having a bunch of gut reactions to it,


  • that's also OK because this isn't the end of the story.

    大丈夫です まだ話は続きます

  • Let's play our third and final test.

    3回目 最後のテストです

  • Again, you're going to have to read


  • and tell me which you think is human.


  • Poem 1: Red flags the reason for pretty flags. / And ribbons.

    詩1: 赤い旗 なぜ可愛い旗があるのか/ そしてリボン

  • Ribbons of flags / And wearing material / Reasons for wearing material. (...)

    そう 旗のリボン/装飾品よ/ なぜ身を飾るのか(...)

  • Poem 2: A wounded deer leaps highest, / I've heard the daffodil

    詩2: 傷負う鹿が高々と飛ぶ/ ラッパズイセンの花が言うには

  • I've heard the flag to-day / I've heard the hunter tell; /

    旗が言うには/ そして狩人が言うには/

  • 'Tis but the ecstasy of death, / And then the brake is almost done (...)

    それこそが 死の絶頂/ 憩いの終わりは近い(...)

  • OK, time is up.

    はい 時間です

  • So hands up if you think Poem 1 was written by a human.

    では 1番が人間の詩だと思う人

  • Hands up if you think Poem 2 was written by a human.


  • Whoa, that's a lot more people.


  • So you'd be surprised to find that Poem 1


  • was written by the very human poet Gertrude Stein.

    そう これはれっきとした人間 ガートルード・スタインの詩です

  • And Poem 2 was generated by an algorithm called RKCP.

    2番がRKCPという アルゴリズムの詩です

  • Now before we go on, let me describe very quickly and simply,

    では進む前に 少し簡単に説明します

  • how RKCP works.


  • So RKCP is an algorithm designed by Ray Kurzweil,

    RKCPはレイ・カーツワイルが 考えました

  • who's a director of engineering at Google

    Googleの開発責任者の 一人で

  • and a firm believer in artificial intelligence.


  • So, you give RKCP a source text,


  • it analyzes the source text in order to find out how it uses language,

    RKCPは文章を分析し 文体を学びます

  • and then it regenerates language


  • that emulates that first text.


  • So in the poem we just saw before,


  • Poem 2, the one that you all thought was human,


  • it was fed a bunch of poems


  • by a poet called Emily Dickinson


  • it looked at the way she used language,


  • learned the model,


  • and then it regenerated a model according to that same structure.

    同じ構造に従って 型を生成しなおしました

  • But the important thing to know about RKCP

    しかし RKCPは驚くべきことに

  • is that it doesn't know the meaning of the words it's using.

    言葉の意味を 全く理解していないのです

  • The language is just raw material,


  • it could be Chinese, it could be in Swedish,

    中国語でも スウェーデン語でも

  • it could be the collected language from your Facebook feed for one day.

    言語が混ざった フィードでもいい

  • It's just raw material.


  • And nevertheless, it's able to create a poem

    それにもかかわらず RKCPには詩が書けます

  • that seems more human than Gertrude Stein's poem,

    ガートルード・スタインという 人間の詩よりも

  • and Gertrude Stein is a human.

    より「人間らしい」と思わせる ような詩を書けるのです

  • So what we've done here is, more or less, a reverse Turing test.

    先ほどやっていただいたのは チューリングテストの逆バージョンといったところです

  • So Gertrude Stein, who's a human, is able to write a poem

    ガートルード・スタインは人間で 詩を書くことができます

  • that fools a majority of human judges into thinking

    しかし それは大多数の人を欺き

  • that it was written by a computer.

    コンピュータによって書かれた詩だと 思わせました

  • Therefore, according to the logic of the reverse Turing test,

    つまり逆チューリングテスト によれば

  • Gertrude Stein is a computer.

    詩人スタインは コンピュータです

  • (Laughter)


  • Feeling confused?


  • I think that's fair enough.


  • So far we've had humans that write like humans,

    さて ここまでのおさらいです 人間らしい詩を書く人間と

  • we have computers that write like computers,


  • we have computers that write like humans,


  • but we also have, perhaps most confusingly,

    しかし それに加えて たいへんややこしいことに

  • humans that write like computers.


  • So what do we take from all of this?


  • Do we take that William Blake is somehow more of a human


  • than Gertrude Stein?


  • Or that Gertrude Stein is more of a computer than William Blake?

    逆にスタインは コンピュータ的?

  • (Laughter)


  • These are questions I've been asking myself

    私はこの点を 考えてきました

  • for around two years now,


  • and I don't have any answers.


  • But what I do have are a bunch of insights


  • about our relationship with technology.

    テクノロジーと人間の 関係について気づいた点です

  • So my first insight is that, for some reason,

    1つめの知見ですが どういうわけか 私たちは

  • we associate poetry with being human.

    詩を書くことと 人間であることを 結び付けています

  • So that when we ask, "Can a computer write poetry?"

    だから 「コンピュータに詩は書けるか」と

  • we're also asking,


  • "What does it mean to be human


  • and how do we put boundaries around this category?

    人間以外とはどう 線引きするか?

  • How do we say who or what can be part of this category?"

    どうすれば それが人間だと言い切れるのか」 と考えるのです

  • This is an essentially philosophical question, I believe,

    これは かなり哲学的な質問だと 思います

  • and it can't be answered with a yes or no test,

    はい・いいえでは 答えられません

  • like the Turing test.


  • I also believe that Alan Turing understood this,


  • and that when he devised his test back in 1950,


  • he was doing it as a philosophical provocation.

    哲学的な挑戦の意を込めて テストを発明したのだと思います

  • So my second insight is that, when we take the Turing test for poetry,

    2つめの知見ですが 詩のチューリングテストは

  • we're not really testing the capacity of the computers

    実はコンピュータの能力を 計っているわけではありません

  • because poetry-generating algorithms,


  • they're pretty simple and have existed, more or less, since the 1950s.

    非常にシンプルで 1950年代から存在していたのですから

  • What we are doing with the Turing test for poetry, rather,


  • is collecting opinions about what constitutes humanness.

    人間らしさを構成するものは何か 意見を集めることです

  • So, what I've figured out,


  • we've seen this when earlier today,

    今日このトークで みなさんは

  • we say that William Blake is more of a human


  • than Gertrude Stein.


  • Of course, this doesn't mean that William Blake


  • was actually more human

    実際に より人間らしく

  • or that Gertrude Stein was more of a computer.

    ガートルード・スタインのほうが コンピュータらしいわけではありません

  • It simply means that the category of the human is unstable.

    人間か否かという線引きは あいまいなのです

  • This has led me to understand

    私は この結果を踏まえこう理解しました

  • that the human is not a cold, hard fact.

    人間とは かっちりした事実をもって 定義できるものではなく

  • Rather, it is something that's constructed with our opinions

    むしろ 人々の意見のなかに 築かれる概念なのです

  • and something that changes over time.


  • So my final insight is that the computer, more or less,

    そして最後の知見は コンピュータはいわば鏡のように

  • works like a mirror that reflects any idea of a human


  • that we show it.


  • We show it Emily Dickinson,


  • it gives Emily Dickinson back to us.


  • We show it William Blake,


  • that's what it reflects back to us.


  • We show it Gertrude Stein,


  • what we get back is Gertrude Stein.

    世の中にテクノロジーは 数多く存在しますが

  • More than any other bit of technology,

    コンピュータは 教える人の考えを反映する鏡です

  • the computer is a mirror that reflects any idea of the human we teach it.

    近頃は 人工知能について

  • So I'm sure a lot of you have been hearing


  • a lot about artificial intelligence recently.


  • And much of the conversation is,


  • can we build it?


  • Can we build an intelligent computer?


  • Can we build a creative computer?


  • What we seem to be asking over and over


  • is can we build a human-like computer?

    しかし お分かりのように

  • But what we've seen just now


  • is that the human is not a scientific fact,

    絶え間なく変化し続け 思考を重ねる 概念なのです

  • that it's an ever-shifting, concatenating idea


  • and one that changes over time.


  • So that when we begin to grapple with the ideas


  • of artificial intelligence in the future,


  • we shouldn't only be asking ourselves,


  • "Can we build it?"

    こんなことも 問うべきなのです

  • But we should also be asking ourselves,


  • "What idea of the human do we want to have reflected back to us?"


  • This is an essentially philosophical idea,

    しかも ソフトウェアには 到底答えが出せない疑問です

  • and it's one that can't be answered with software alone,

    しかし 人間にとっても 人類全体で存在意義を問うことなのです

  • but I think requires a moment of species-wide, existential reflection.


  • Thank you.


  • (Applause)

I have a question.

翻訳: Megumi Miki 校正: Takashi Kawasaki


ワンタップで英和辞典検索 単語をクリックすると、意味が表示されます

B1 中級 日本語 TED コンピュータ テスト ブレイク アルゴリズム 書ける

TED】オスカー・シュワルツコンピュータは詩を書けるのか?(コンピュータは詩を書けるか?|オスカー・シュワルツ) (【TED】Oscar Schwartz: Can a computer write poetry? (Can a computer write poetry? | Oscar Schwartz))

  • 28 5
    Zenn に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日