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  • So, I have an overlooked but potentially lucrative

    翻訳: Kazunori Akashi 校正: Takafusa Kitazume

  • investment opportunity for you.

    見過ごされがちですが 儲かりそうな

  • Over the past 10 years in the UK,


  • the return on burial plots has outperformed the UK property market


  • by a ratio of around three to one.

    不動産市場における墓地の運用益が およそ3対1の割合で

  • There are private cemeteries being set up with plots for sale to investors,


  • and they start at around 3,900 pounds.

    私営墓地ができつつあり 投資家向けの区画が

  • And they're projected to achieve about 40 percent growth.

    およそ70万円から 販売されていて

  • The biggest advantage is that this is a market with continuous demand.


  • Now, this is a real proposition,

    最大の利点は この市場には 常に需要があるということです

  • and there are companies out there that really are offering this investment,

    さて この事業提案は本物ですし

  • but my interest in it is quite different.

    このような投資を実際に提供する企業も 世の中にありますが

  • I'm an architect and urban designer,

    私は 別のところに関心があります

  • and for the past year and a half,

    私は建築家で 都市計画家です

  • I've been looking at approaches to death and dying


  • and at how they've shaped our cities and the buildings within them.

    死そのもの 死を迎えることの捉え方 そして

  • So in the summer, I did my first exhibition

    死が どのように私たちの街や建築物を 形作るのかを調べてきました

  • on death and architecture in Venice,

    そこで 2014年の夏に 死と建築を扱った展覧会を

  • and it was called "Death in Venice."

    初めて ベニスで開きました

  • And because death is a subject


  • that many of us find quite uncomfortable to talk about,


  • the exhibition was designed to be quite playful,


  • so that people would literally engage with it.


  • So one of our exhibits was an interactive map of London


  • which showed just how much of the real estate in the city

    作品の1つが ロンドンのインタラクティブ・マップで

  • is given over to death.

    この街の不動産のうち どの程度が

  • As you wave your hand across the map,


  • the name of the piece of real estate -- the building or the cemetery --


  • is revealed.


  • And those white shapes that you can see,


  • they're all of the hospitals and hospices


  • and mortuaries and cemeteries in the city.


  • In fact, the majority are cemeteries.


  • We wanted to show that, even though death and burial are things

    ただ実際は 大部分が墓地です

  • that we might not think about,

    私たちが明らかにしたかったのは 葬儀や死は

  • they're all around us, and they're important parts of our cities.


  • So about half a million people die in the UK each year,

    私たちを取り巻く 重要な 街の一部だということです

  • and of those, around a quarter will want to be buried.

    イギリスでは毎年 約50万人が亡くなりますが

  • But the UK, like many Western European countries,

    そのうち4分の1ほどが 埋葬を希望します

  • is running out of burial space,

    ところがイギリスは 他の西欧諸国と同様

  • especially in the major cities.


  • And the Greater London Authority has been aware of this for a while,


  • and the main causes are population growth,

    大ロンドン庁は 以前から この事態を把握しています

  • the fact that existing cemeteries are almost full.

    主な原因は人口増加で 今ある墓地は

  • There's a custom in the UK that graves are considered to be occupied forever,


  • and there's also development pressure -- people want to use that same land

    イギリスでは慣例として 墓は永久に所有されるものとされますが

  • to build houses or offices or shops.


  • So they came up with a few solutions.

    その土地を住宅や事務所や 商業地に利用したい人もいるのです

  • They were like, well, maybe we can reuse those graves after 50 years.


  • Or maybe we can bury people, like, four deep,

    50年経過したら墓地を 再利用できないかとか

  • so that four people can be buried in the same plot,


  • and we can make more efficient use of the land that way,

    同じ区画に4人 埋葬すれば

  • and in that way, hopefully London will still have space to bury people


  • in the near future.

    しばらくは埋葬場所を 確保できるのではという

  • But, traditionally, cemeteries haven't been taken care of


  • by the local authority.

    一方 地元当局は伝統的に 墓地の管理を

  • In fact, the surprising thing is that there's no legal obligation


  • on anyone in the UK to provide burial space.

    意外にもイギリスでは 埋葬場所を確保する

  • Traditionally, it's been done by private and religious organizations,


  • like churches and mosques and synagogues.

    伝統的に 埋葬場所の確保は 教会、モスク、シナゴーグといった

  • But there's also occasionally been a for-profit group


  • who has wanted to get in on the act.

    ただ時折 一口乗ろうとする

  • And, you know, they look at the small size of a burial plot


  • and that high cost,

    墓地の区画は小さい上に 価格が高いという点に

  • and it looks like there's serious money to be made.


  • So, actually, if you want to go out and start your own cemetery,


  • you kind of can.


  • There was this couple in South Wales,

    できなくは ありません

  • and they had a farmhouse and a load of fields next to it,


  • and they wanted to develop the land.

    この夫婦は農家で 自宅の隣に広がる土地を

  • They had a load of ideas.


  • They first thought about making a caravan park,

    アイデアは 色々ありました

  • but the council said no.

    最初はトレーラーパークに しようとしましたが

  • And then they wanted to make a fish farm


  • and again the council said no.


  • Then they hit on the idea of making a cemetery


  • and they calculated that by doing this,

    そこで思いついたのが 墓地を作ることでした

  • they could increase the value of their land

    そうすれば 計算上

  • from about 95,000 pounds to over one million pounds.


  • But just to come back to this idea of making profit from cemeteries,

    1億8千万円以上になることが わかりました

  • like, it's kind of ludicrous, right?

    ただ墓地で お金が儲かるなんて

  • The thing is that the high cost of those burial plots


  • is actually very misleading.

    実は 墓地が一見 高額なのは

  • They look like they're expensive,


  • but that cost reflects the fact that you need to maintain the burial plot --


  • like, someone has to cut the grass for the next 50 years.

    実際は 墓地の維持費が 価格に反映されているのです

  • That means it's very difficult to make money from cemeteries.

    例えば 50年先まで 草刈りを続けなければなりません

  • And it's the reason that normally they're run by the council

    つまり 墓地で収益を上げるのは とても難しいのです

  • or by a not-for-profit group.

    だから墓地は主に 地方自治体や非営利団体が

  • But anyway, the council granted these people permission,


  • and they're now trying to build their cemetery.


  • So just to explain to you kind of how this works:


  • If I want to build something in the UK,


  • like a cemetery for example,


  • then I have to apply for planning permission first.


  • So if I want to build a new office building for a client


  • or if I want to extend my home

    だから私がオフィスビルの 建築を請け負う場合や

  • or, you know, if I have a shop and I want to convert it into an office,

    自分の家を増築する場合 —

  • I have to do a load of drawings,

    店舗を事務所に改築する場合などには 認可してもらうために

  • and I submit them to the council for permission.


  • And they'll look at things like how it fits in the surroundings.


  • So they'll look at what it looks like.

    自治体では 建造物が周辺環境に合うか といったことを確認し

  • But they'll also think about things like what impact is it going to have


  • on the local environment?

    さらに自治体は その建造物が 地元の環境に

  • And they'll be thinking about things like,


  • is this thing going to cause pollution

    それから 検討するのは

  • or is there going to be a lot of traffic


  • that wants to go to this thing that I've built?


  • But also good things.


  • Is it going to add local services like shops to the neighborhood


  • that local people would like to use?

    その建造物は 住民が使用したいと思う 店舗などのサービスを

  • And they'll weigh up the advantages and the disadvantages


  • and they'll make a decision.

    このように長所と短所を てんびんにかけて

  • So that's how it works if I want to build a large cemetery.


  • But what if I've got a piece of land


  • and I just want to bury a few people, like five or six?

    では もし私がわずかな土地を持っていて

  • Well, then -- actually, I don't need permission from anyone!

    ほんの5~6人埋葬したいだけなら どうしたらいいでしょう?

  • There's actually almost no regulation in the UK around burial,

    そんな時 実は 許可は必要ありません

  • and the little bit that there is, is about not polluting water courses,

    イギリスには埋葬に関する規制が ほとんどないのです

  • like not polluting rivers or groundwater.

    唯一 存在する規制は 水路汚染 すなわち河川や地下水の

  • So actually, if you want to go and make your own mini-cemetery,


  • then you can.

    だから 自分の小さな墓地を 作ろうと思えば

  • But I mean, like -- really, who does this? Right?


  • Well, if you're an aristocratic family and you have a large estate,

    ただ 実際に作ろうとする人は いるでしょうか? やります?

  • then there's a chance that you'll have a mausoleum on it,

    もし 皆さんが貴族で 広大な敷地を所有しているなら

  • and you'll bury your family there.

    霊廟を建てて 一族を埋葬することも

  • But the really weird thing


  • is that you don't need to have a piece of land of a certain size

    ところが 奇妙なことに

  • before you're allowed to start burying people on it.

    埋葬の許可を受ける上で 一定の面積の土地を

  • And so that means that, technically,


  • this applies to, like, the back garden of your house in the suburbs.

    つまり 理論上は

  • (Laughter)

    郊外の自宅の裏庭に 作ってもいいのです

  • So what if you wanted to try this yourself at home?


  • Well, there's a few councils that have guidance on their website

    本気で作ろうとすると どうなるでしょう?

  • which can help you.

    自治体によっては ウェブサイトに ガイドを掲載していていますから

  • So, the first thing that they tell you


  • is that you need to have a certificate of burial before you can go ahead --


  • you're not allowed to just murder people and put them under the patio.

    実際に埋葬する前に 埋葬許可証が必要ということです

  • (Laughter)

    勝手に人を殺して テラスの下に埋めてはいけません

  • They also tell you that you need to keep a record of where the grave is.


  • But that's pretty much it for formal requirements.

    それから 墓の位置を 記録に残す必要があります

  • Now, they do warn you that your neighbors might not like this,

    でも 形式上の要件は これだけです

  • but, legally speaking, there's almost nothing that they can do about it.

    近所から苦情が来る可能性は 指摘されていますが

  • And just in case any of you still had that profit idea in your mind

    だからといって法律上 隣人にできることは ほとんどありません

  • about how much those burial plots cost

    また仮に 埋葬地がいくらで どのくらい収益を上げられるかといった

  • and how much money you might be able to make,


  • they also warn that it might cause the value of your house


  • to drop by 20 percent.


  • Although, actually, it's more likely


  • that no one will want to buy your house at all after that.

    ただ 実際には

  • So what I find fascinating about this

    墓地を作ると 家を買う人は いなくなるでしょう

  • is the fact that it kind of sums up many of our attitudes towards death.

    私が こういうことに関心があるのは

  • In the UK, and I think that the figures across Europe are probably similar,

    私たちの死に対する態度を 端的に表しているからです

  • only about 30 percent of people have ever talked to anyone

    おそらくヨーロッパならどこでも 似ているでしょうが イギリスでは

  • about their wishes around death,

    自分が死ぬ時 どうしたいか 人に伝えた経験がある人は

  • and even for people over 75,


  • only 45 percent of people have ever talked about this.


  • And the reasons that people give ... you know,


  • they think that their death is far off


  • or they think that they're going to make people uncomfortable


  • by talking about it.

    それを口にすると 周りの人が気まずくなるような

  • And you know, to a certain extent,


  • there are other people out there who are taking care of things for us.

    ただ 私たちに代わって

  • The government has all this regulation and bureaucracy around things

    ある程度 それを引き受けてくれる人々がいます

  • like burying a death, for example,

    政府は 死者を葬ることなどに関する

  • and there's people like funeral directors


  • who devote their entire working lives to this issue.

    また 職業人として 死の問題に

  • But when it comes to our cities


  • and thinking about how death fits in our cities,

    でも 私たちの都市には

  • there's much less regulation and design and thought

    街に死が どう調和するかを 考える場合

  • than we might imagine.

    想像以上に 規制やデザインや思想が

  • So we're not thinking about this,


  • but all of the people we imagine are thinking about it --

    私たちは このことを考えていませんし

  • they're not taking care of it either.


  • Thank you.


  • (Applause)


So, I have an overlooked but potentially lucrative

翻訳: Kazunori Akashi 校正: Takafusa Kitazume


動画の操作 ここで「動画」の調整と「字幕」の表示を設定することができます

B1 中級 日本語 TED 墓地 埋葬 自治 イギリス 建築

TED】アリソン・キリング。街が死者のために部屋を使い果たしたときに起こること (街が死者のために部屋を使い果たしたときに起こること|アリソン・キリング) (【TED】Alison Killing: What happens when a city runs out of room for its dead (What happens when a city runs out of room for its dead | Alison Killing))

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    Zenn に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日