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  • Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast

    翻訳: Yuko Yoshida 校正: Asako Shimaoka

  • Hey guys.


  • It's funny, someone just mentioned MacGyver,


  • because that was, like, I loved it,

    面白いですね 僕は それが大好きで

  • and when I was seven, I taped a fork to a drill

    7歳のとき フォークをドリルにくくりつけて

  • and I was like, "Hey, Mom, I'm going to Olive Garden."

    「お母さん イタリアンに行ってくる」 と言っていたくらい

  • And -- (Drilling noise) (Laughter)


  • And it worked really well there.


  • And you know, it had a profound effect on me.


  • It sounds silly, but I thought, okay,

    バカみたいだけど 僕は思ったんです

  • the way the world works can be changed,


  • and it can be changed by me in these small ways.

    しかも こうした小さなことで 僕が変えられる

  • And my relationship to


  • especially human-made objects


  • which someone else said they work like this,

    誰かが こう使うんだと言ったものでも

  • well, I can say they work a different way, a little bit.

    僕はほんの少し違った使い方が 出来るって言える

  • And so, about 20 years later,

    そして およそ20年後

  • I didn't realize the full effect of this,


  • but I went to Costa Rica


  • and I stayed with these Guaymí natives there,


  • and they could pull leaves off of trees and make shingles out of them,

    彼らは 木から葉を取り それで 屋根板を作りました

  • and they could make beds out of trees,

    木から ベッドも作れたし

  • and they could -- I watched this woman for three days.

    それに― ある女性を3日間観察しました

  • I was there. She was peeling this palm frond apart,

    彼女は このシュロの葉を割いて バラバラにして

  • these little threads off of it, and she'd roll the threads together

    細い糸状のものを取り出して それを手で転がして

  • and make little thicker threads, like strings,

    ひものような 少し太めの糸にします

  • and she would weave the strings together,

    そして そのひもを一緒に編んで

  • and as the materiality of this exact very bag

    まさに このバッグという形が

  • formed before my eyes over those three days,

    この3日間のうちに 僕の目の前で作り上げられたのです

  • the materiality of the way the world works,

    それと同時に 型にはまった世界の動き方

  • of reality, kind of started to unravel in my mind,

    現実が 僕の心の中で ほどけ始めました

  • because I realized that this bag and these clothes

    というのも このバッグと これらの服

  • and the trampoline you have at home and the pencil sharpener,

    そして 家にあるトランポリンや鉛筆削り

  • everything you have is made out of either a tree or a rock

    あなたが持っている物は すべて木や石

  • or something we dug out of the ground and did some process to,

    もしくは土中から掘り出して 加工した物で出来ています

  • maybe a more complicated one, but still, everything was made that way.

    複雑な加工がされていたとしても 全てそのように作られています

  • And so I had to start studying,

    そこで 私は研究を始めました

  • who is it that's making these decisions?

    こんな風に決めているのは 誰か?

  • Who's making these things? How did they make them?

    これらは 誰が どうやって作ったのか?

  • What stops us from making them?


  • Because this is how reality is created.


  • So I started right away. I was at MIT Media Lab,

    僕はすぐに始めました 当時僕はMITメディア・ラボで

  • and I was studying the maker movement


  • and makers and creativity.


  • And I started in nature, because I saw these Guaymís


  • doing it in nature, and there just seems to be less barriers.

    グアイミ族の人を見ていて その方が障害が少なそうだったから

  • So I went to Vermont to Not Back to School Camp,

    バーモントの「学校に戻らないキャンプ」に 行きました

  • where there's unschoolers who are just kind of hanging out


  • and willing to try anything.


  • So I said, "Let's go into the woods near this stream

    そこで僕は言いました 「小川のほとりの森に行って

  • and just put stuff together, you know, make something,

    何か組み合せて 物を作ろう

  • I don't care, geometrical shapes, just grab some junk from around you.

    幾何学的図形とかどうでもいい そこにある物を使うんだ

  • We won't bring anything with us.


  • And, like, within minutes, this is very easy for adults

    それは 瞬く間にでき 大人にとっても すごく簡単

  • and teens to do.

    子どもにとっても そう

  • Here's a triangle that was being formed underneath a flowing stream,

    これは 小川の下に作られた三角形

  • and the shape of an oak leaf being made


  • by other small oak leaves being put together.


  • A leaf tied to a stick with a blade of grass.

    草で 棒にくくりつけられた一枚の葉

  • The materiality and fleshiness and meat of the mushroom


  • being explored by how it can hold up different objects being stuck into it.

    キノコの傘が 様々な物を支える様子で表現

  • And after about 45 minutes, you get really intricate projects

    45分後には 本当に複雑なものが 出来上がります

  • like leaves sorted by hue, so you get a color fade

    色分けされた葉 色があせていく感じで

  • and put in a circle like a wreath.


  • And the creator of this, he said,


  • "This is fire. I call this fire."

    「これは火 ぼくはそう呼ぶんだ」

  • And someone asked him, "How do you get those sticks

    誰かが聞いた 「どうやって その棒を

  • to stay on that tree?"


  • And he's like, "I don't know, but I can show you."

    彼は言いました 「分からない でも見せてあげられるよ」

  • And I'm like, "Wow, that's really amazing.

    僕は思いました 「これは すごい

  • He doesn't know, but he can show you."

    分からないのに 見せられる」

  • So his hands know and his intuition knows,

    彼の手 彼の直感が知っているんです

  • but sometimes what we know gets in the way

    時々 僕たちの知識というのは

  • of what could be, especially


  • when it comes to the human-made, human-built world.

    それが人間が作り 築き上げた世界となると 特にそうです

  • We think we already know how something works,

    僕たちは 物の使い方を知っていると 思っています

  • so we can't imagine how it could work.

    だから どう使えるか想像できないのです

  • We know how it's supposed to work,


  • so we can't suppose all the things that could be possible.

    なんだって可能だなんて 思えなくなっている

  • So kids don't have as hard of a time with this,

    子どもたちは そうではないんだ

  • and I saw in my own son, I gave him this book.

    自分の息子を見てもそうだと思って 僕はこの本をあげた

  • I'm a good hippie dad, so I'm like,

    よきヒッピーの父親だから こう言う

  • "Okay, you're going to learn to love the moon.

    「いいかい 月を愛することを学ぶんだ

  • I'm going to give you some building blocks


  • and they're nonrectilinear cactus building blocks,


  • so it's totally legit."

    だから 本物だよ」

  • But he doesn't really know what to do with these.

    息子は これで何をすればいいのか 分かりません

  • I didn't show him.


  • And so he's like, "Okay, I'll just mess around with this."


  • This is no different than the sticks are to the teens in the forest.


  • Just going to try to put them in shapes


  • and push on them and stuff.


  • And before long, he's kind of got this mechanism

    すぐに 息子は仕組みが分かって

  • where you can almost launch and catapult objects around,


  • and he enlists us in helping him.

    そして 僕たちの協力も得ようとします

  • And at this point, I'm starting to wonder,

    そのとき 僕は思い始めたんです

  • what kind of tools can we give people,


  • especially adults, who know too much,

    特に 物事を知りすぎた大人たちに

  • so that they can see the world as malleable,


  • so they see themselves as agents of change

    自らが 日々の生活の中で

  • in their everyday lives.


  • Because the most advanced scientists are really


  • just kind of pushing the way the world itself works,

    世界の仕組みを そのまま 後押ししているだけだから

  • pushing what matter can do,


  • the most advanced artists are just pushing the medium,

    最先端の芸術家のほとんどは それを押し進める

  • and any sufficiently complicated task,

    そして 十分に複雑な仕事―

  • whether you're a cook or a carpenter or you're raising a child --

    コックや大工だろうが 子どもを育てることであろうが―

  • anything that's complicated --


  • comes up with problems that aren't solved in the middle of it,

    それが まだ解けていない問題を 抱えた形で現れる

  • and you can't do a good job getting it done unless you can say,

    こう言えなければ いい仕事なんてできない

  • "Okay, well we're just going to have to refigure this.

    「わかった これを作り直してみよう

  • I don't care that pencils are supposed to be for writing.


  • I'm going to use them a different way."


  • So let me show you a little demo.

    だから 簡単なデモをさせてください

  • This is a little piano circuit right in here,

    ここに 小さなピアノ回路があって

  • and this is an ordinary paintbrush


  • that I smashed it together with. (Beeping)

    一緒に こすってみます (ピー)

  • And so, with some ketchup,


  • — (musical notes) —


  • and then I can kind of


  • — (musical notes) —


  • (Laughter) (Applause)


  • And that's awesome, right?


  • But this is not what's awesome.

    でも すごいのは これじゃない

  • What's awesome is what happens


  • when you give the piano circuit to people.

    ピアノ回路を人にあげたときに 起こることです

  • A pencil is not just a pencil.

    鉛筆は もはや鉛筆じゃない

  • Look what it has in the middle of it.


  • That's a wire running down the middle,


  • and not only is it a wire,


  • if you take that piano circuit, you can thumbtack

    鉛筆の中ほどに ピアノ回路を画鋲で付ければ

  • into the middle of a pencil,


  • and you can lay out wire on the page, too,

    そして 紙の上にワイヤーを作ることもでき

  • and get electrical current to run through it.

    そこにも 電流を流せます

  • And so you can kind of hack a pencil,

    ある意味 鉛筆のハッキングです

  • just by thumbtacking into it with a little piano electrical circuit.

    しかも 小さなピアノ電気回路を つけるだけで

  • And the electricity runs through your body too.

    この電気は あなたの体にも流れます

  • And then you can take the little piano circuit off the pencil.


  • You can make one of these brushes just on the fly.

    すぐに この絵筆を作れます

  • All you do is connect to the bristles,


  • and the bristles are wet, so they conduct,

    毛が濡れていれば 電気が流れます

  • and the person's body conducts,


  • and leather is great to paint on,

    レザーも これに使うには最高

  • and then you can start hooking to everything,


  • even the kitchen sink.


  • The metal in the sink is conductive.

    シンクの金属は 電気を通しますから

  • Flowing water acts like a theremin or a violin.

    蛇口から流れ出る水は 電子楽器テレミンやバイオリンのよう

  • (Musical notes)


  • And you can even hook to the trees.


  • Anything in the world is either conductive or not conductive,

    世界にある全てのものは 導電性があるか ないか のどちらか

  • and you can use those together.

    だから 一緒に使えるんです

  • So — (Laughter) —


  • I took this to those same teens, because those teens are

    これを あの青年たちに渡しました 彼らは―

  • really awesome, and they'll try things that I won't try.

    本当にすごい 僕が思いつかないことにも挑戦する

  • I don't even have access to a facial piercing if I wanted to.

    僕の場合 やりたくっても 顔のピアスなんかないですし

  • And this young woman, she made what she called a hula-looper,

    この若い女性は 「フラ・ルーパー」なるものを作りました

  • and as the hula hoop traveled around her body,


  • she has a circuit taped to her shirt right there.


  • You can see her pointing to it in the picture.

    写真で 彼女が指差しているでしょう

  • And every time the hula hoop would smush against her body,


  • it would connect two little pieces of copper tape,


  • and it would make a sound, and the next sound,

    音が鳴り そして すぐにまた鳴る

  • and it would loop the same sounds over and over again.

    何度も ループのように 同じ音を奏でます

  • I ran these workshops everywhere.


  • In Taiwan, at an art museum, this 12-year-old girl

    台湾の美術館では この12歳の女の子は

  • made a mushroom organ out of some mushrooms that were from Taiwan

    台湾にあるキノコと 電気テープと熱接着剤で

  • and some electrical tape and hot glue.


  • And professional designers were making artifacts

    プロのデザイナーも これを使って

  • with this thing strapped onto it.


  • And big companies like Intel


  • or smaller design firms like Ideo or startups like Bump,

    IDEOのような小規模デザイン事務所 Bumpのような新興企業に招かれ

  • were inviting me to give workshops,


  • just to practice this idea of smashing electronics

    電気製品を壊して 日常のものを組み合せる

  • and everyday objects together.


  • And then we came up with this idea

    そして 僕たちは思ったのです

  • to not just use electronics,


  • but let's just smash computers with everyday objects

    コンピュータを 日常のもので壊して

  • and see how that goes over.


  • And so I just want to do a quick demo.


  • So this is the MaKey MaKey circuit,

    これは MaKey Makey回路

  • and I'm just going to set it up from the beginning in front of you.

    ここで 一からセットアップするのをお見せします

  • So I'll just plug it in, and now it's on by USB.

    これを差し込んで 今 USBでつながっています

  • And I'll just hook up the forward arrow.


  • You guys are facing that way, so I'll hook it to this one.

    皆さんの向きに合わせてるんです これをつなげます

  • And I'll just hook up a little ground wire to it.


  • And now, if I touch this piece of pizza,

    さて こっちのピザに触ると

  • the slides that I showed you before should go forward.


  • And now if I hook up this wire just by connecting it


  • to the left arrow, I'm kind of programming it by where I hook it up,

    つなげたところで プログラムしているので

  • now I have a left arrow and a right arrow,

    左と 右向きの矢印ができて

  • so I should be able to go forwards and backwards

    前に送ったり 戻したり

  • and forwards and backwards. Awesome.

    繰り返しできます すごいよね

  • And so we're like, "We gotta put a video out about this."

    で 僕たちは「ビデオを作らなきゃ」 となったんです

  • Because no one really believed that this was important

    この重要性や意義を 誰も信じようとしなかったから

  • or meaningful except me and, like, one other guy.

    僕と あと一人を除いてはね

  • So we made a video to prove that

    ビデオを作って たくさんのことが―

  • there's lots of stuff you can do.


  • You can kind of sketch with Play-Doh

    粘土で スケッチをして

  • and just Google for game controllers.


  • Just ordinary Play-Doh, nothing special.

    普通の粘土で 何も特別なことはない

  • And you can literally draw joysticks

    文字通り ジョイスティックを描いて

  • and just find Pacman on your computer and then just hook it up. (Video game noises)

    パソコンでパックマンを探して つなげればよい (ビデオゲーム音)

  • And you know the little plastic drawers you can get at Target?

    この小さなプラスチックの入れ物 量販店で手に入りますよね

  • Well, if you take those out, they hold water great,

    外に出せば 水がたくさん入ります

  • but you can totally cut your toes,


  • so yeah, just be careful.


  • You know the Happiness Project, where the experts


  • are setting up the piano stairs, and how cool that is?

    専門家がピアノの鍵盤を作ります カッコいいでしょう?

  • Well, I think it's cool,

    僕は カッコいいと思う

  • but we should be doing that stuff ourselves.

    でも 僕たちも自分でできるべきなんです

  • It shouldn't be a set of experts engineering the way the world works.

    世界の動き方を決めるのは 専門家じゃなくっていいんです

  • We should all be participating

    僕たち 皆が参加して

  • in changing the way the world works together.

    一緒に 世界の動き方を変えて行けばいい

  • Aluminum foil. Everybody has a cat.

    アルミホイル 猫は飼っていますね

  • Get a bowl of water. This is just Photo Booth on your Mac OS.

    水を置くと Mac OSの写真撮影装置になります

  • Hover the mouse over the "take a photo" button,

    「撮影」ボタンの上に マウスを持っていけば

  • and you've got a little cat photo booth.


  • And so we needed hundreds of people to buy this.

    数百人の人に これを買ってもらわないといけなかった

  • If hundreds of people didn't buy this, we couldn't put it on the market.

    そうでないと 市場に出せないから

  • And so we put it up on Kickstarter,

    だから 資金調達プラットフォームKickstarterを利用

  • and hundreds of people bought it in the first day.

    発売初日に 何百人もの人が購入して

  • And then 30 days later,

    そして 30日後には

  • 11,000 people had backed the project.


  • And then what the best part is, we started getting


  • a flood of videos in of people doing crazy things with it.

    それを使ってクレージーなことしてる人たちから たくさんビデオが届いたこと

  • So this is "The Star-Spangled Banner" by eating lunch,

    これは「アメリカ国歌」の演奏 ランチしながらで

  • including drinking Listerine.


  • And we actually sent this guy materials.

    実際 僕たちはこの人に素材を提供

  • We're like, "We're sponsoring you, man.


  • You're, like, a pro maker."

    君は プロの造り手なんだ」って

  • Okay, just wait for this one. This is good.

    ちょっと これを見てみてください

  • (Laughter)


  • (Applause)


  • And these guys at the exploratorium are

    彼らは 体験型の科学教育施設で

  • playing house plants as if they were drums.


  • And dads and daughters are completing circuits in special ways.

    お父さんと娘は 特別な形で 回路をオンにしています

  • And then this brother -- look at this diagram.

    このお兄ちゃんは― この設計図を見てください

  • See where it says "sister"?


  • I love when people put humans on the diagram.


  • I always add humans to any technical --

    僕は いつも人間を入れますよ

  • if you're drawing a technical diagram, put a human in it.

    技術的な設計図を描くとき 人間を入れてください

  • And this kid is so sweet. He made this trampoline slideshow advancer for his sister

    とてもかわいいんです 妹のために トランポリン・スライドショーを作って

  • so that on her birthday, she could be