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  • Hi, this is Kate from MinuteEarth.

  • In 1903, an unprecedented flood struck Kansas, wreaking havoc on homes, farmland, infrastructure,

  • and an entire trainload of butter.

  • The creamery sued the rail company for its lost cargo, but the railroad argued that they

  • shouldn't be responsible, since the flood had been completely out of their control.

  • The court agreed, ruling that the flood had been anact of god.”

  • Courts around the world have actually been using the term since the 1500's to describe

  • unprecedented events that seem to come out of nowhere.

  • Today, you'll seeacts of godmentioned in contracts, insurance policies, and a few

  • US environmental laws.

  • And, like in the butter case, you might hear a lawyer milking the term as a defense in

  • court.

  • To use theact of goddefense, you don't have to prove that a god actually caused the

  • event, you just have to prove two things: one, that taking reasonable precautions couldn't

  • have prevented the damage, and two, that the damage was caused by a natural force with

  • no human influence.

  • But it's getting harder and harder to meet these criteria, starting with the reasonable

  • precautions.

  • Thanks to improving technology and scientific knowledge, we're increasingly able to predict

  • the size, scope, and path of destructive events, which raises the bar for what kind ofreasonable

  • precautionsmight be required to stave off damage.

  • For instance, back in 1903, the railway had put the butter car on what seemed like high

  • enough ground to keep it safe, but they had little way of knowing how severe the flood

  • would be.

  • Today, with a lot more flood knowledge, they'd have to better prepare the butter for the

  • act of god defense to stick.

  • And the second criteria is also harder to meet because we're finding that an increasing

  • number of natural disasters do have human fingerprints on them.

  • For instance, human activities have led to the warming and rising of the ocean, which

  • almost certainly intensified Hurricane Sandy in 2012 and likely exacerbated Europe's 2015

  • heat wave.

  • In fact, scientists estimate that some of Sandy's catastrophic effects - like the

  • flooding of vital transit tunnels, which added more than ten billion dollars of damage - might

  • not have happened without the effects of human activity.

  • Since natural events like floods, droughts, and wildfires are happening more often and

  • doing more damage than they used to, we may actually be seeing more Act of God cases pop

  • up in court in the future.

  • But because we're becoming butter...I mean...better at predicting those eventsand recognizing

  • our own contributions to them - the success of the act of god defense may soon be relegated

  • fully to the margarines.

  • Hey there!

  • 2017 has been the best year for MinuteEarth so far.

  • We made more videos than ever for more viewers than ever.

  • And on July 20th, you guys combined to watch the most MinuteEarth content ever seen in

  • one dayyou watched about 4 and a half years' worth of our videos!!

  • Whether you're a brand-new viewer or someone who's been tuning in since the very beginning,

  • we just want to say thank you for joining us!

  • And to our Patreon patrons and YouTube Sponsors, thanks for making *us* possible!

  • We'd love to hear from all our viewers - what were some of your favorite MinuteEarth moments

  • of the year?

  • What would you like to see more of - or less of - next year?

  • Let us know in the comments or on Twitter or Facebook - and thanks for watching!

Hi, this is Kate from MinuteEarth.


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B1 中級

神の行為」は消滅しているのか? (Are "Acts of God" Disappearing?)

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    Zoe に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日