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  • Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast

    翻訳: Wataru Terada 校正: Natsuhiko Mizutani

  • So I want to talk a little bit about seeing the world


  • from a totally unique point of view,


  • and this world I'm going to talk about is the micro world.


  • I've found, after doing this for many, many years,

    長年ミクロの世界を見てきて 現実の中には

  • that there's a magical world behind reality.


  • And that can be seen directly through a microscope,


  • and I'm going to show you some of this today.


  • So let's start off looking at something rather not-so-small,

    まずは さほど小さくないものから

  • something that we can see with our naked eye,


  • and that's a bee. So when you look at this bee,

    ミツバチです ミツバチは

  • it's about this size here, it's about a centimeter.

    だいたいこのサイズ 1cm くらいです

  • But to really see the details of the bee, and really

    でも もっと近づくと

  • appreciate what it is, you have to look a little bit closer.

    その正体が はっきりと見えてきます

  • So that's just the eye of the bee with a microscope,


  • and now all of a sudden you can see that the bee has

    こうなってはじめて ミツバチは

  • thousands of individual eyes called ommatidia,


  • and they actually have sensory hairs in their eyes

    しかも その眼には感覚毛が生えており

  • so they know when they're right up close to something,


  • because they can't see in stereo.


  • As we go smaller, here is a human hair.

    もっと小さくしましょう 人の髪の毛です

  • A human hair is about the smallest thing that the eye can see.


  • It's about a tenth of a millimeter.

    10分の1 mm の大きさです

  • And as we go smaller again,


  • about ten times smaller than that, is a cell.

    さらに10分の1 これは細胞です

  • So you could fit 10 human cells


  • across the diameter of a human hair.


  • So when we would look at cells, this is how I really got


  • involved in biology and science is by looking

    生きた細胞を見て 生物学 自然科学に

  • at living cells in the microscope.


  • When I first saw living cells in a microscope, I was


  • absolutely enthralled and amazed at what they looked like.

    その姿にすっかり心を奪われ 驚かされました

  • So if you look at the cell like that from the immune system,


  • they're actually moving all over the place.


  • This cell is looking for foreign objects,


  • bacteria, things that it can find.


  • And it's looking around, and when it finds something,


  • and recognizes it being foreign,


  • it will actually engulf it and eat it.


  • So if you look right there, it finds that little bacterium,


  • and it engulfs it and eats it.

    飲み込み 食べています

  • If you take some heart cells from an animal,


  • and put it in a dish, they'll just sit there and beat.


  • That's their job. Every cell has a mission in life,

    心臓の細胞はそれが仕事です 細胞には皆 使命があり

  • and these cells, the mission is


  • to move blood around our body.


  • These next cells are nerve cells, and right now,


  • as we see and understand what we're looking at,

    いま 目に映ったものを理解するとき

  • our brains and our nerve cells are actually doing this


  • right now. They're not just static. They're moving around

    彼らはじっとはしておらず あちこち動いて

  • making new connections, and that's what happens when we learn.

    新たな接続を作ります これが学ぶということです

  • As you go farther down this scale here,


  • that's a micron, or a micrometer, and we go


  • all the way down to here to a nanometer


  • and an angstrom. Now, an angstrom is the size

    1オングストロームです このサイズは

  • of the diameter of a hydrogen atom.


  • That's how small that is.


  • And microscopes that we have today can actually see


  • individual atoms. So these are some pictures


  • of individual atoms. Each bump here is an individual atom.

    お見せしましょう この突起がそれぞれ個々の原子です

  • This is a ring of cobalt atoms.


  • So this whole world, the nano world, this area in here


  • is called the nano world, and the nano world,


  • the whole micro world that we see,


  • there's a nano world that is wrapped up within that, and


  • the whole -- and that is the world of molecules and atoms.

    ナノの世界は 分子と原子の世界です

  • But I want to talk about this larger world,

    ですが もう少し大きな世界の話をしますね

  • the world of the micro world.


  • So if you were a little tiny bug living in a flower,

    もしも皆さんが 花の中に棲む小さな虫なら

  • what would that flower look like, if the flower was this big?

    花はどう見えるでしょうね 花はこれくらいのサイズです

  • It wouldn't look or feel like anything that we see

    花を見ても 私たちが知っているものとは

  • when we look at a flower. So if you look at this flower here,

    違って見えることでしょう 皆さんが小さな虫で

  • and you're a little bug, if you're on that surface

    花の表面から 花を見ると

  • of that flower, that's what the terrain would look like.


  • The petal of that flower looks like that, so the ant


  • is kind of crawling over these objects, and if you look


  • a little bit closer at this stigma and the stamen here,


  • this is the style of that flower, and you notice


  • that it's got these little -- these are like little jelly-like things

    ここに小さな ゼリー状の突起がありますね

  • that are what are called spurs. These are nectar spurs.

    これは距(きょ)というもので 中に蜜が入っています

  • So this little ant that's crawling here, it's like


  • it's in a little Willy Wonka land.

    小さな 『夢のチョコレート工場』 であり

  • It's like a little Disneyland for them. It's not like what we see.

    小さな 『ディズニーランド』 です 私たちとは見え方が違います

  • These are little bits of individual grain of pollen


  • there and there, and here is a --

    そこにも ここにも

  • what you see as one little yellow dot of pollen,


  • when you look in a microscope, it's actually made

    顕微鏡で見ると 実は

  • of thousands of little grains of pollen.


  • So this, for example, when you see bees flying around

    たとえば それらの小さな惑星の中を

  • these little plants, and they're collecting pollen,

    ミツバチは飛び回って 花粉を集め

  • those pollen grains that they're collecting, they pack


  • into their legs and they take it back to the hive,


  • and that's what makes the beehive,


  • the wax in the beehive. And they're also collecting nectar,

    また 集めた蜜は

  • and that's what makes the honey that we eat.


  • Here's a close-up picture, or this is actually a regular picture

    大写しになっているのは 実は普通に撮ったホテイアオイの写真です

  • of a water hyacinth, and if you had really, really good vision,

    皆さんの目が 本当に良ければ

  • with your naked eye, you'd see it about that well.


  • There's the stamen and the pistil. But look what the stamen


  • and the pistil look like in a microscope. That's the stamen.

    しかし これらは 顕微鏡で見たかのようですね

  • So that's thousands of little grains of pollen there,

    これが雄しべ 無数の小さな花粉がそこにありますね

  • and there's the pistil there, and these are the little things

    これが雌しべ 毛状体という小さい毛が生えています

  • called trichomes. And that's what makes the flower give


  • a fragrance, and plants actually communicate

    作っており 草花は実のところ

  • with one another through their fragrances.


  • I want to talk about something really ordinary,

    では ごく普通の ごく平凡な砂の話を

  • just ordinary sand.


  • I became interested in sand about 10 years ago,


  • when I first saw sand from Maui,


  • and in fact, this is a little bit of sand from Maui.


  • So sand is about a tenth of a millimeter in size.


  • Each sand grain is about a tenth of a millimeter in size.


  • But when you look closer at this, look at what's there.

    何があるのか 近づいて見てみましょう

  • It's really quite amazing. You have microshells there.

    実に驚きです 小さな貝が見えますね

  • You have things like coral.


  • You have fragments of other shells. You have olivine.

    他の貝の欠片や カンラン石が見えます

  • You have bits of a volcano. There's a little bit

    小さな火山のようです 噴火口に棲む

  • of a volcano there. You have tube worms.


  • An amazing array of incredible things exist in sand.

    砂の中に 信じられないものがズラリです

  • And the reason that is, is because in a place like this island,

    その原因は この島の場所にあります

  • a lot of the sand is made of biological material

    砂の多くは 生物由来の物質です

  • because the reefs provide a place where all these

    それは サンゴ礁が 微小生物から巨大生物まで

  • microscopic animals or macroscopic animals grow,


  • and when they die, their shells and their teeth


  • and their bones break up and they make grains of sand,


  • things like coral and so forth.


  • So here's, for example, a picture of sand from Maui.

    たとえば マウイの砂の写真を見てください

  • This is from Lahaina,


  • and when we're walking along a beach, we're actually

    海岸沿いを歩くことで 実は

  • walking along millions of years of biological and geological history.

    何百万年もの生物学的 地質学的な 歴史を歩いています

  • We don't realize it, but it's actually a record

    見過ごしがちですが 海岸はつまり

  • of that entire ecology.


  • So here we see, for example, a sponge spicule,

    たとえば 海綿の骨針

  • two bits of coral here,


  • that's a sea urchin spine. Really some amazing stuff.

    これはウニのとげ 本当に面白いものばかりです

  • So when I first looked at this, I was -- I thought,

    初めてこれを見たとき 思いました

  • gee, this is like a little treasure trove here.

    おお これは宝の山だ 信じられない

  • I couldn't believe it, and I'd go around dissecting


  • the little bits out and making photographs of them.

    片っ端から写真に収めたい と

  • Here's what most of the sand in our world looks like.

    世界の砂の大半は こんな感じです

  • These are quartz crystals and feldspar,

    石英の結晶と 長石です

  • so most sand in the world on the mainland


  • is made of quartz crystal and feldspar. It's the erosion of granite rock.

    石英の結晶と 長石です それらは花こう岩が侵食されて できました

  • So mountains are built up, and they erode away by water

    山ができ 水や 雨や 氷などによって

  • and rain and ice and so forth,


  • and they become grains of sand.


  • There's some sand that's really much more colorful.


  • These are sand from near the Great Lakes,

    グレート湖 近辺の砂です

  • and you can see that it's filled with minerals


  • like pink garnet and green epidote, all kinds of amazing stuff,

    ピンクのガーネット 緑色の緑れん石 素晴らしいもので一杯です

  • and if you look at different sands from different places,


  • every single beach, every single place you look at sand,

    浜辺ごとに 場所ごとに みな 砂が

  • it's different. Here's from Big Sur, like they're little jewels.

    違っているのです これはビッグ・サーの砂ですが 宝石みたいです

  • There are places in Africa where they do the mining


  • of jewels, and you go to the sand where the rivers have


  • the sand go down to the ocean, and it's like literally looking

    海に出ます そうして 顕微鏡で見ると

  • at tiny jewels through the microscope.


  • So every grain of sand is unique. Every beach is different.

    だから砂の粒はどれも独特です 浜辺ごとにみな違います

  • Every single grain is different. There are no two grains

    粒ごとにみな違います 世界に同じ砂粒なんて

  • of sand alike in the world.


  • Every grain of sand is coming somewhere and going somewhere.

    砂の粒はみな どこかで生まれ どこかに運ばれます

  • They're like a snapshot in time.

    今たまたま ここにあるのです

  • Now sand is not only on Earth, but sand is


  • ubiquitous throughout the universe. In fact, outer space


  • is filled with sand, and that sand comes together

    事実 宇宙は 砂で溢れており 砂が集まって

  • to make our planets and the Moon.


  • And you can see those in micrometeorites.


  • This is some micrometeorites that the Army gave me,


  • and they get these out of the drinking wells in the South Pole.


  • And they're quite amazing-looking, and these are the

    それらは とても面白いもので

  • tiny constituents that make up the world that we live in --

    この小さな物質が 私たちの住む惑星や月を

  • the planets and the Moon.


  • So NASA wanted me to take some pictures of Moon sand,

    NASAから 月の砂を撮影してほしいと

  • so they sent me sand from all the different landings


  • of the Apollo missions that happened 40 years ago.

    40年前のアポロ計画で 着陸した色々な場所の砂です

  • And I started taking pictures with my three-dimensional microscopes.


  • This was the first picture I took. It was kind of amazing.

    これが1枚目の写真です わりといい感じです

  • I thought it looked kind of a little bit like the Moon, which is sort of interesting.

    なんとなく月に似ているような気がしました 興味深いです

  • Now, the way my microscopes work is, normally


  • in a microscope you can see very little at one time,

    通常 実に狭いものなので

  • so what you have to do is you have to refocus the microscope,


  • keep taking pictures, and then I have a computer program

    写真を撮るのです そうして コンピュータ・プログラムで

  • that puts all those pictures together


  • into one picture so you can see actually what it looks like,


  • and I do that in 3D. So there, you can see,


  • is a left-eye view. There's a right-eye view.

    これが左目用で これが右目用

  • So sort of left-eye view, right-eye view.

    左目用 右目用です

  • Now something's interesting here. This looks very different

    面白いことがあるのです これまで見た地球の砂とは

  • than any sand on Earth that I've ever seen, and I've


  • seen a lot of sand on Earth, believe me. (Laughter)

    地球の砂だって見たことあります 本当に(笑)

  • Look at this hole in the middle. That hole was caused

    真ん中の穴に注目してください この穴を開けたのは

  • by a micrometeorite hitting the Moon.


  • Now, the Moon has no atmosphere, so micrometeorites

    月に大気はありませんから 微小隕石が絶えず

  • come in continuously, and the whole surface of the Moon

    降り注いでいます 月の表面が

  • is covered with powder now, because for four billion years

    粉末で覆われているのは 微小隕石が

  • it's been bombarded by micrometeorites,

    40億年間 降り注いだせいです

  • and when micrometeorites come in at about

    微小隕石は 時速3~10万キロの

  • 20 to 60,000 miles an hour, they vaporize on contact.

    速度で衝突し 蒸発します

  • And you can see here that that is --


  • that's sort of vaporized, and that material is holding this

    蒸発した際に その原石と 小さな砂粒の一塊が

  • little clump of little sand grains together.


  • This is a very small grain of sand, this whole thing.

    これ全体は とても小さな砂の粒です

  • And that's called a ring agglutinate.


  • And many of the grains of sand on the Moon look like that,

    月の砂は大抵 このようになっていますが

  • and you'd never find that on Earth.


  • Most of the sand on the Moon,


  • especially -- and you know when you look at the Moon,

    特に ―月を見ると判りますが―

  • there's the dark areas and the light areas. The dark areas


  • are lava flows. They're basaltic lava flows,

    暗いところは溶岩流です それらは玄武岩の溶岩流で

  • and that's what this sand looks like, very similar

    その砂は マウイの火山の砂よりも

  • to the sand that you would see in Haleakala.


  • Other sands, when these micrometeorites come in,


  • they vaporize and they make these fountains,


  • these microscopic fountains that go up into the --


  • I was going to say "up into the air," but there is no air --

    とは言え 空気はありませんが―

  • goes sort of up, and these microscopic glass beads

    上空に巻き上がり 顕微鏡サイズのガラス玉になり

  • are formed instantly, and they harden, and by the time


  • they fall down back to the surface of the Moon,


  • they have these beautiful colored glass spherules.


  • And these are actually microscopic;


  • you need a microscope to see these.


  • Now here's a grain of sand that is from the Moon,

    これが 月の砂です

  • and you can see that the entire


  • crystal structure is still there.


  • This grain of sand is probably about


  • three and a half or four billion years old,


  • and it's never eroded away like the way we have sand

    地球の砂のように 侵食されていません

  • on Earth erodes away because of water and tumbling,

    水も 空気もありませんし 転がることも

  • air, and so forth. All you can see is a little bit of erosion

    ないからです わずかな侵食は

  • down here by the Sun, has these solar storms,

    太陽 つまり太陽風によるもので

  • and that's erosion by solar radiation.


  • So what I've been trying to tell you today is

    私が今日 皆さんに伝えたいのは

  • things even as ordinary as a grain of sand

    砂粒ような ありきたりの物でさえ

  • can be truly extraordinary if you look closely

    近づいて 新しい視点で見てみると

  • and if you look from a different and a new point of view.

    実に素晴らしいものになりうる ということです

  • I think that this was best put by William Blake when he said,

    ウィリアム・ブレイクが うまく言い表した言葉があります

  • "To see a world in a grain of sand


  • and a heaven in a wild flower,


  • hold infinity in the palm of your hand,