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  • Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast

    翻訳: Hiroshi Takuma 校正: Maki Sugimoto

  • I grew up in Bihar, India's poorest state,

    私はビハール州で育ちました インドで最も貧しい州です

  • and I remember when I was six years old,

    6歳の時のことを 覚えています

  • I remember coming home one day to find a cart

    ある日 学校から帰ると 玄関の前に

  • full of the most delicious sweets at our doorstep.

    最高においしいお菓子で いっぱいのカートがありました

  • My brothers and I dug in,


  • and that's when my father came home.


  • He was livid, and I still remember how we cried

    激怒され どんなに泣いたか いまでも覚えています

  • when that cart with our half-eaten sweets

    半分食べかけのお菓子を 乗せたままカートは

  • was pulled away from us.


  • Later, I understood why my father got so upset.

    あとで父がなぜ あんなに 怒ったのかわかりました

  • Those sweets were a bribe


  • from a contractor who was trying to get my father


  • to award him a government contract.


  • My father was responsible for building roads in Bihar,


  • and he had developed a firm stance against corruption,


  • even though he was harassed and threatened.

    いやがらせや脅迫があっても 立ち向かっていました

  • His was a lonely struggle, because Bihar

    それは孤独な戦いでした なぜならビハール州は

  • was also India's most corrupt state,

    インドで最も腐敗した州 でもあったからです

  • where public officials were enriching themselves,


  • [rather] than serving the poor who had no means

    貧しい人々の役に 立とうとしませんでした

  • to express their anguish if their children

    むしろ貧しい人々は子供たちが 食物も学校もない苦痛を

  • had no food or no schooling.


  • And I experienced this most viscerally


  • when I traveled to remote villages to study poverty.

    貧困を研究するために 田舎の村を訪ねた時です

  • And as I went village to village,


  • I remember one day, when I was famished and exhausted,

    ある日 空腹と疲れから

  • and I was almost collapsing


  • in a scorching heat under a tree,


  • and just at that time, one of the poorest men in that village

    ちょうどその時 村の 最も貧しい人の一人が

  • invited me into his hut and graciously fed me.

    私を小屋に招き入れ 親切に食物を与えてくれたのです

  • Only I later realized that what he fed me

    後に分かったのですが その食物は

  • was food for his entire family for two days.


  • This profound gift of generosity


  • challenged and changed the very purpose of my life.

    私の心を揺さぶり 生きる目的そのものを変えたのです

  • I resolved to give back.


  • Later, I joined the World Bank, which sought to fight

    その後 私は世界銀行に入りました 富裕国から貧困国へと

  • such poverty by transferring aid from rich to poor countries.

    支援を届けることで 貧困と戦う組織でした

  • My initial work focused on Uganda, where I focused


  • on negotiating reforms with the Finance Ministry of Uganda

    ウガンダの財務省に改革を 促すことに注力し

  • so they could access our loans.


  • But after we disbursed the loans, I remember


  • a trip in Uganda where I found newly built schools

    ウガンダを旅した時にみた 真新しい学校を覚えています

  • without textbooks or teachers,

    そこには教科書も教師も なかったのです

  • new health clinics without drugs,


  • and the poor once again without any voice or recourse.

    貧しい人々はそこでも孤立無援で 訴えも頼るものもありませんでした

  • It was Bihar all over again.


  • Bihar represents the challenge of development:


  • abject poverty surrounded by corruption.


  • Globally, 1.3 billion people live on less than

    世界的に 13億人の人々が

  • $1.25 a day, and the work I did in Uganda

    一日1.25ドル以下の生活をしています ウガンダでの私の仕事は

  • represents the traditional approach to these problems

    この貧困問題への典型的な アプローチでした

  • that has been practiced since 1944,


  • when winners of World War II, 500 founding fathers,

    第二次世界大戦の勝者で 創立の父 500人と

  • and one lonely founding mother,

    創立の母 たった1人が

  • gathered in New Hampshire, USA,

    アメリカのニューハンプシャー州に 集結して

  • to establish the Bretton Woods institutions,


  • including the World Bank.


  • And that traditional approach to development


  • had three key elements. First, transfer of resources

    3つ要素が鍵でした まず資源の移転すること

  • from rich countries in the North


  • to poorer countries in the South,


  • accompanied by reform prescriptions.

    改革の処方箋をつけて 移転させます

  • Second, the development institutions that channeled

    2番目に 資源の移転を 仲介する開発機関が

  • these transfers were opaque, with little transparency


  • of what they financed or what results they achieved.

    投資目的と成果が 不透明でした

  • And third, the engagement in developing countries

    そして3番目は 開発途上国での関与が

  • was with a narrow set of government elites


  • with little interaction with the citizens, who are

    まさに開発援助の恩恵を 受けるべき市民との

  • the ultimate beneficiaries of development assistance.


  • Today, each of these elements is opening up

    今日 これらの要素が 明らかになってきました

  • due to dramatic changes in the global environment.


  • Open knowledge, open aid, open governance,

    オープンな知識 オープンな援助 オープンな意思決定

  • and together, they represent three key shifts

    またこれらと共に 3つの要素は変わり

  • that are transforming development


  • and that also hold greater hope for the problems

    ウガンダやビハールで 私が見た問題に対し

  • I witnessed in Uganda and in Bihar.


  • The first key shift is open knowledge.

    最初の変化の鍵は オープンな知識です

  • You know, developing countries today will not simply

    ご存知のように 今日の 開発途上国は単純に

  • accept solutions that are handed down to them

    米国やヨーロッパや世界銀行に 与えられた解決策を

  • by the U.S., Europe or the World Bank.


  • They get their inspiration, their hope,

    彼らは創造性と 自身の希望と

  • their practical know-how,


  • from successful emerging economies in the South.

    南側諸国の経済発展の 成功によって得られたものです

  • They want to know how China lifted 500 million people

    彼らが知りたいのは 中国の5億人もの人々が

  • out of poverty in 30 years,

    30年前の貧困から いかに離脱できたのか

  • how Mexico's Oportunidades program

    メキシコにおける貧困政策 (Oportunidades)が

  • improved schooling and nutrition for millions of children.

    いかに数百万人の子供達の教育と 栄養状態を改善できたのか

  • This is the new ecosystem of open-knowledge flows,

    これはオープンな知識による 新たなエコシステム(生態系)であり

  • not just traveling North to South, but South to South,

    単に北から南でなく 南から南へ

  • and even South to North,


  • with Mexico's Oportunidades today inspiring New York City.

    メキシコの貧困政策はいま ニューヨークでも注目されています

  • And just as these North-to-South transfers are opening up,


  • so too are the development institutions


  • that channeled these transfers.


  • This is the second shift: open aid.

    この2つ目の変化は オープンな援助です

  • Recently, the World Bank opened its vault of data

    最近 世界銀行はデータを公開し

  • for public use, releasing 8,000 economic and social indicators

    200ヶ国で50年以上にわたる 8000もの経済・社会指標の

  • for 200 countries over 50 years,


  • and it launched a global competition to crowdsource

    さらにデータを利用した革新的アプリの 開発をクラウドソース(業務委託)する

  • innovative apps using this data.


  • Development institutions today are also opening

    今さらに 開発機関は

  • for public scrutiny the projects they finance.

    投資計画を公開調査できるよう 公表しています

  • Take GeoMapping. In this map from Kenya,

    ジオマッピングで ケニアの地図を見ると

  • the red dots show where all the schools financed by donors

    赤い点のように資金提供で 建設された学校と

  • are located, and the darker the shade of green,


  • the more the number of out-of-school children.

    未就学児童が多い地域が 一目で分かります

  • So this simple mashup reveals that donors

    この簡単なマッシュアップ技術で 資金援助者は

  • have not financed any schools in the areas

    この地域の学校はまだ 資金援助がなく

  • with the most out-of-school children,


  • provoking new questions. Is development assistance


  • targeting those who most need our help?

    最も必要な人々に向いているか と問いかけます

  • In this manner, the World Bank has now GeoMapped

    このように世界銀行は 143ヶ国 3万のプロジェクトを

  • 30,000 project activities in 143 countries,


  • and donors are using a common platform


  • to map all their projects.

    全ての援助プロジェクトを 確認するようになりました

  • This is a tremendous leap forward in transparency


  • and accountability of aid.


  • And this leads me to the third, and in my view,


  • the most significant shift in development:


  • open governance. Governments today are opening up

    3番目のオープンなガバナンス (意思決定)です

  • just as citizens are demanding voice and accountability.

    政府は今日 市民が求める声明と 説明責任を開示しています

  • From the Arab Spring to the Anna Hazare movement in India,

    アラブの春からインドの アンナハザレア運動まで

  • using mobile phones and social media


  • not just for political accountability


  • but also for development accountability.

    開発の説明責任をも 追及しています

  • Are governments delivering services to the citizens?

    では政府は国民にサービスを 提供しているのか?

  • So for instance, several governments in Africa

    例えば アフリカと東ヨーロッパの いくつかの政府は

  • and Eastern Europe are opening their budgets to the public.


  • But, you know, there is a big difference between a budget

    しかしご存じのように 公表されている予算と

  • that's public and a budget that's accessible.

    利用できる予算に 大きな差があります

  • This is a public budget. (Laughter)

    これは公表されている予算です (笑)

  • And as you can see, it's not really accessible


  • or understandable to an ordinary citizen

    一般市民には その資源の

  • that is trying to understand how the government is spending its resources.

    政府の利用計画が 理解されないのです

  • To tackle this problem, governments are using new tools

    そこで解決策として 政府は新たに

  • to visualize the budget so it's more understandable

    予算を可視化して 一般に分かりやすくするツールを

  • to the public.


  • In this map from Moldova, the green color shows


  • those districts that have low spending on schools


  • but good educational outcomes,


  • and the red color shows the opposite.


  • Tools like this help turn a shelf full of inscrutable documents

    このようなツールは 不可解な書類で いっぱいの棚を

  • into a publicly understandable visual,

    だれでも見て わかるようにし

  • and what's exciting is that with this openness,

    さらに素晴らしいことに この公開によって

  • there are today new opportunities for citizens


  • to give feedback and engage with government.


  • So in the Philippines today, parents and students

    フィリピンでも 親たちや生徒達が

  • can give real-time feedback on a website,

    ウェブサイト上でリアルタイムに フィードバックできます

  •, or using SMS, whether teachers

    「」や SMS(ショートメッセージサービス)で

  • and textbooks are showing up in school,

    学校に先生や教科書が 整備されているかどうか

  • the same problems I witnessed in Uganda and in Bihar.

    これはまさに私が目撃した ウガンダやビハール州の問題です

  • And the government is responsive. So for instance,


  • when it was reported on this website that 800 students

    このサイトに報告された 800名の生徒が

  • were at risk because school repairs had stalled

    学校の修理が汚職で中断し 危険な状況だ

  • due to corruption, the Department of Education


  • in the Philippines took swift action.

    フィリピンの教育省は 素早く行動しました

  • And you know what's exciting is that this innovation

    素晴らしいことに この革新は

  • is now spreading South to South, from the Philippines

    今や南側諸国から南へ フィリピンから

  • to Indonesia, Kenya, Moldova and beyond.

    インドネシア、ケニア、モルドバ、さらにその先まで 広がり続けています

  • In Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, even an impoverished


  • community was able to use these tools

    貧困コミュニティでさえ これらのツールで

  • to voice its aspirations.


  • This is what the map of Tandale looked like

    これは(ダルエスサラームの) タンデール地区の2011年8月の地図です

  • in August, 2011. But within a few weeks,


  • university students were able to use mobile phones


  • and an open-source platform to dramatically map

    オープンソースなプラットフォームを使い 全てのコミュニティ の

  • the entire community infrastructure.

    インフラが描かれた飛躍的な地図に することができました

  • And what is very exciting is that citizens were then

    エキサイティングなことに 市民がそこで

  • able to give feedback as to which health or water points