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  • In October 2010,

    翻訳: Jarred Tucker 校正: Masaki Yanagishita

  • the Justice League of America will be teaming up with The 99.


  • Icons like Batman,

    “The 99” が “ジャスティス・リーグ・オブ・アメリカ”と コラボします

  • Superman, Wonder Woman and their colleagues

    お馴染みのヒーロー ― バットマン

  • will be teaming up with icons Jabbar, Noora,


  • Jami and their colleagues.


  • It's a story of intercultural intersections,


  • and what better group


  • to have this conversation

    この交流には それぞれの歴史と地理のもとで

  • than those that grew out of fighting fascism


  • in their respective histories and geographies?


  • As fascism took over Europe in the 1930s,


  • an unlikely reaction came out of North America.

    1930年代にファシズムが ヨーロッパを席巻すると

  • As Christian iconography got changed,


  • and swastikas were created out of crucifixes,


  • Batman and Superman were created by Jewish young men


  • in the United States and Canada,

    アメリカとカナダでは ユダヤ系の若者が

  • also going back to the Bible.

    これまた 聖書に立ち返って

  • Consider this:


  • like the prophets, all the superheroes


  • are missing parents.

    このスーパーヒーローたちは 予言者と同じく

  • Superman's parents die on Krypton


  • before the age of one.


  • Bruce Wayne, who becomes Batman,


  • loses his parents at the age of six in Gotham City.


  • Spiderman is raised


  • by his aunt and uncle.


  • And all of them, just like the prophets who get their message


  • from God through Gabriel,


  • get their message from above.


  • Peter Parker is in a library in Manhattan


  • when the spider descends from above


  • and gives him his message through a bite.

    マンハッタンの図書館にいる時 天井からクモが下りて

  • Bruce Wayne is in his bedroom

    彼を噛み 使命を与えます

  • when a big bat flies over his head,


  • and he sees it as an omen to become Batman.


  • Superman is not only sent to Earth


  • from the heavens, or Krypton,

    スーパーマンは天 つまりクリプトン星から送られ

  • but he's sent in a pod, much like Moses was on the Nile.

    その上 ナイル川に流された―

  • (Laughter)


  • And you hear the voice of his father, Jor-El,


  • saying to Earth, "I have sent to you my only son."


  • (Laughter)

    語る声も聞こえます 「我が一人息子を送った」

  • (Applause)


  • These are clearly biblical archetypes,


  • and the thinking behind that was to create

    いずれも 明らかに聖書をひな形としており

  • positive, globally-resonating storylines


  • that could be tied to the same things

    前向きで 世界が共感できるストーリーを 創ろうという狙いがありました

  • that other people were pulling mean messages out of

    そのひな形として 一部の連中に

  • because then the person that's using religion for the wrong purpose

    ひどく悪用されているものを 敢えて選ぶことで

  • just becomes a bad man with a bad message.


  • And it's only by linking positive things

    悪意ある考えを抱いた ただの悪人にすぎないことになるからです

  • that the negative can be delinked.

    そして 前向きなつながりだけが

  • This is the kind of thinking that went into


  • creating The 99.


  • The 99 references the 99 attributes of Allah in the Koran,

    “The 99”の創作のきっかけでした

  • things like generosity and mercy and foresight and wisdom

    “The 99”のネーミングは コーランに書かれている―

  • and dozens of others that no two people in the world would disagree about.


  • It doesn't matter what your religion is;

    それはすなわち 寛大さ、慈悲、洞察力、知恵など

  • even if you're an atheist, you don't raise your kid telling him, you know,


  • "Make sure you lie three times a day."

    たとえ無神論者であっても 子育てのときに

  • Those are basic human values.

    「毎日3回 嘘をつけ」とは言いません

  • And so the backstory of The 99


  • takes place in 1258,

    “The 99”の背景には

  • which history tells us the Mongols invaded Baghdad and destroyed it.


  • All the books from Bait al-Hikma library,

    この年 モンゴル軍は バグダッドに侵入して破壊しました

  • the most famous library in its day, were thrown in the Tigris River,

    当時最も有名な図書館であった バイト・アルヒクマの本が

  • and the Tigris changes color with ink.


  • It's a story passed on generation after generation.

    川は そのインクで黒く染まりました

  • I rewrote that story,

    この話は 代々語り継がれてきました

  • and in my version, the librarians find out that this is going to happen --


  • and here's a side note:

    私の物語では 司書たちは この展開を察知し―

  • if you want a comic book to do well, make the librarians the hero. It always works well.

    ちなみに ヒットコミックのコツですが

  • (Laughter)

    司書をヒーロー役にすると 必ずヒットします

  • (Applause)


  • So the librarians find out


  • and they get together a special solution, a chemical solution called King's Water,


  • that when mixed with 99 stones


  • would be able to save all that culture and history in the books.


  • But the Mongols get there first.

    本に収められていた歴史と文化を 救おうとしました

  • The books and the solution get thrown in the Tigris River.


  • Some librarians escape, and over the course of days and weeks,


  • they dip the stones into the Tigris and suck up that collective wisdom

    何人かの司書たちが脱出し 何週間もかけて

  • that we all think is lost to civilization.

    石をチグリス川に浸し 文明と共に失われたと―

  • Those stones have been smuggled as three prayer beads

    誰もが 考えた知恵を吸わせました

  • of 33 stones each

    33個ずつの石で 数珠を3つ作り

  • through Arabia into Andalusia in Spain, where they're safe for 200 years.


  • But in 1492, two important things happen.

    運び出され そこで200年間無事に保管されます

  • The first is the fall of Granada,

    しかし1492年に 2つの重要な出来事が起きます

  • the last Muslim enclave in Europe.


  • The second is Columbus finally gets funded to go to India, but he gets lost.


  • (Laughter)

    2つ目はコロンブスが インドへ行く資金を得たが迷子になった

  • So 33 of the stones are smuggled


  • onto the Nina, the Pinta and the Santa Maria

    こうして 石のうち33個は

  • and are spread in the New World.

    ニーニャ号、ピンタ号 サンタ・マリア号(コロンブスの船)に

  • Thirty-three go on the Silk Road to China, South Asia and Southeast Asia.


  • And 33 are spread between Europe, the Middle East and Africa.

    33個がシルクロードを通って 中国、南アジア、東南アジアへ

  • And now it's 2010, and there are 99 heroes

    33個がヨーロッパ、中東、そして アフリカへ渡りました

  • from 99 different countries.

    さて 今2010年になって 99の国から

  • Now it's very easy to assume


  • that those books, because they were from a library called Bait al-Hikma, were Muslim books,


  • but that's not the case because the caliph that built that library,

    バイト・アルヒクマの図書館にあった 本は全部が―

  • his name was al-Ma'mun -- he was Harun al-Rashid's son.

    イスラム教のもの ではなかったのです

  • He had told his advisers, "Get me all the scholars

    なぜなら 図書館を建てたカリフの マアムーンは

  • to translate any book they can get their hands onto into Arabic,

    ― ハールーン・アッラシードの息子でしたが

  • and I will pay them its weight in gold."

    こう命令しました 「学者にあらゆる本をアラビア語に訳させよ

  • After a while, his advisers complained.


  • They said, "Your Highness, the scholars are cheating.

    しばらくすると 顧問が訴えました

  • They're writing in big handwriting to take more gold."

    「殿下 学者がごまかしています

  • To which he said, "Let them be, because what they're giving us

    報酬金を増やすために 字を大きく書いています」

  • is worth a lot more than what we're paying them."


  • So the idea of an open architecture, an open knowledge,


  • is not new to my neck of the desert.

    つまり 知識のオープン化である オープンアーキテクチャは

  • The concept centers on something called the Noor stones.


  • Noor is Arabic for light.


  • So these 99 stones, a few kind of rules in the game:


  • Number one, you don't choose the stone; the stone chooses you.


  • There's a King Arthur element to the storyline, okay.

    一つ目は石を選べません 石が選びます

  • Number two, all of The 99,


  • when they first get their stone, or their power, abuse it;

    二つ目は“The 99”の誰もが

  • they use it for self-interest.

    石を初めて手にして 力を得ると その能力を乱用して

  • And there's a very strong message in there that when you start abusing your stone,


  • you get taken advantage of


  • by people who will exploit your powers, okay.


  • Number three, the 99 stones all have within them


  • a mechanism that self-updates.

    三つ目に 99個の石は 自動的に

  • Now there are two groups that exist within the Muslim world.


  • Everybody believes the Koran is for all time and all place.

    さて イスラム教世界には二つのグループがあります

  • Some believe that means that the original interpretation


  • from a couple thousand years ago is what's relevant today.


  • I don't belong there.


  • Then there's a group that believes the Koran is a living, breathing document,


  • and I captured that idea within these stones that self-update.

    もう1つのグループは コーランは生きているものだと信じます

  • Now the main bad guy, Rughal,

    この概念を 石のアップデートで表現しました

  • does not want these stones to update,

    すると 悪役のルーガルは

  • so he's trying to get them to stop updating.


  • He can't use the stones, but he can stop them.


  • And by stopping them, he has more of a fascist agenda,

    彼は石を使えませんが 使わせないようには出来ます

  • where he gets some of The 99 to work for him --

    それを使わせないところに ファシスト的な意図が現れます

  • they're all wearing cookie-cutter, same color uniforms

    “The 99”の何人かを自分の味方につけ

  • They're not allowed to individually express who they are and what they are.


  • And he controls them from the top down --


  • whereas when they work for the other side, eventually,


  • when they find out this is the wrong person, they've been manipulated,

    やがて 自分が間違った側に 利用されていたと気付き

  • they actually, each one has a different, colorful

    ルガールの下を離れ 反対側に着くと

  • kind of dress.

    それぞれが 個性ある鮮やかな服を

  • And the last point about the 99 Noor stones is this.


  • So The 99 work in teams of three.


  • Why three? A couple of reasons.

    “The 99”'は3人チームで活動することです

  • Number one, we have a thing within Islam that you don't leave a boy and a girl alone together,


  • because the third person is temptation or the devil, right?

    1つが イスラム教では男女を2人きりにはしません

  • I think that's there in all cultures, right?


  • But this is not about religion, it's not about proselytizing.

    どの文化でも 通じる話でしょう

  • There's this very strong social message

    でも これは宗教とも改宗とも関係ありません

  • that needs to get to kind of


  • the deepest crevices of intolerance,


  • and the only way to get there is to kind of play the game.


  • And so this is the way I dealt with it.


  • They work in teams of three: two boys and a girl, two girls and a boy,


  • three boys, three girls, no problem.


  • And the Swiss psychoanalyst, Carl Jung, also spoke about


  • the importance of the number three in all cultures, so I figure I'm covered.

    スイスの心理学者 カール・ユングも

  • Well ...

    あらゆる文化で「3」は重要だと 述べていたので これで行けると

  • I got accused in a few blogs that I was actually sent by the Pope


  • to preach the Trinity and Catholicism in the Middle East,

    いくつかのブログは 私がローマ教皇に送り込まれ

  • so you -- (Laughter)

    中東で 三位一体とキリスト教を説教している と非難しました

  • you believe who you want. I gave you my version of the story.


  • So here's some of the characters that we have.

    どちらを信じても結構ですが 私の言い分は述べました

  • Mujiba, from Malaysia: her main power is she's able to answer any question.

    では キャラクターをご紹介しましょう

  • She's the Trivial Pursuit queen, if you want,


  • but when she first gets her power,

    どんな質問にでも答えられます いわゆるクイズ女王です

  • she starts going on game shows and making money.

    しかし 彼女が能力に目覚めると

  • We have Jabbar from Saudi who starts breaking things when he has the power.


  • Now, Mumita was a fun one to name. Mumita is the destroyer.

    サウジアラビアのジャバーが能力を持つと 物を壊してしまいます

  • So the 99 attributes of Allah have the yin and the yang;

    ムミタはいい名前です ムミタは破壊者です

  • there's the powerful, the hegemonous, the strong,


  • and there's also the kind, the generous.


  • I'm like, are all the girls going to be kind and merciful and the guys all strong?

    優しい、心の広い人もいます こんなこと訊かれます

  • I'm like, you know what, I've met a few girls who were destroyers in my lifetime, so ...

    「男は強いタイプで 女は優しい系?」

  • (Laughter)

    「破壊者らしき女も何人か 知ってるよ」

  • We have Jami from Hungary, who first starts making weapons:


  • He's the technology wiz.

    ハンガリーのジャミです 武器を作り出します

  • Musawwira from Ghana,


  • Hadya from Pakistan, Jaleel from Iran who uses fire.


  • And this is one of my favorites, Al-Batina from Yemen.

    パキスタンのハディア イランのジャレールは火を使います

  • Al-Batina is the hidden.


  • So Al-Batina is hidden, but she's a superhero.


  • I came home to my wife and I said, "I created a character after you."


  • My wife is a Saudi from Yemeni roots.


  • And she said, "Show me." So I showed this.


  • She said, "That's not me."

    「見せて」 これを見せると

  • I said, "Look at the eyes. They're your eyes."


  • (Laughter)

    私は「目を見て 君の目だよ」と

  • So I promised my investors this would not be another made-in-fifth-world-country production.


  • This was going to be Superman, or it wasn't worth my time or their money.

    出資者への約束は ケチくさい作品にはしないこと

  • So from day one, the people involved in the project,

    スーパーマンぐらいの本物でなければ 時間とお金の無駄使いです

  • bottom left is Fabian Nicieza,

    開始当初から こんなメンバーでした

  • writer for X-Men and Power Rangers.

    左下は ファビアン・ニシ-ジャ

  • Next to him is Dan Panosian,


  • one of the character creators for the modern-day X-Men.


  • Top right is Stuart Moore, a writer for Iron Man.


  • Next to him is John McCrea, who was an inker for Spiderman.

    右上はスチュワート・ムーア アイアンマンの脚本

  • And we entered Western consciousness

    隣にいるのはジョン・マックリー スパイダーマンの作画

  • with a tagline: "Next Ramadan, the world will have new heroes,"


  • back in 2005.

    「次のラマダーンに 世界に新しいヒーローが現れます」と

  • Now I went to Dubai, to an Arab Thought Foundation Conference,


  • and I was waiting by the coffee for the right journalist.

    ドバイで行われた アラブ思想財団の会議に出席して

  • Didn't have a product, but had energy.

    コーヒーを飲みながら 適当な記者を探しました

  • And I found somebody from The New York Times,

    当時 作品はなくても やる気はありました

  • and I cornered him, and I pitched him.


  • And I think I scared him -- (Laughter)


  • because he basically promised me --

    怯えさせたかも知れません (笑)

  • we had no product -- but he said, "We'll give you a paragraph in the arts section

    作品がなくても 彼は約束しました

  • if you'll just go away."


  • (Laughter)


  • So I said, "Great." So I called him up a few weeks afterward.


  • I said, "Hi, Hesa." And he said, "Hi." I said, "Happy New Year."

    私は「すばらしい」と言い 数週間後 彼に電話しました

  • He said, "Thank you. We had a baby." I said, "Congratulations."

    私は「やあ ヘサさん」  彼は「やあ」

  • Like I care, right?

    私は「新年おめでとう」 彼は「有難う 赤ちゃん生まれたよ」

  • "So when's the article coming out?"

    私は「おめでとう」 どうでもいいけどね(笑)

  • He said, "Naif, Islam and cartoon?


  • That's not timely.

    彼は「ナイフさん イスラム教とコミック?

  • You know, maybe next week, next month, next year, but, you know, it'll come out."


  • So a few days after that, what happens?

    1週間後か1か月後か 来年にもなるかもしれないが必ず出るよ」

  • What happens is the world erupts in the Danish cartoon controversy.


  • I became timely.


  • (Laughter)


  • So flurry of phone calls and emails from The New York Times.


  • Next thing you knew, there's a full page covering us positively,

    ニューヨーク・タイムズから 電話やメールが殺到し

  • January 22nd, 2006,


  • which changed our lives forever,


  • because anybody Googling Islam and cartoon or Islam and comic,


  • guess what they got; they got me.


  • And The 99 were like superheroes


  • kind of flying out of what was happening around the world.

    “The 99”のスーパーヒーローたちは

  • And that led to all kinds of things,


  • from being in curricula in universities and schools to --


  • one of my favorite pictures I have from South Asia,


  • it was a couple of men with long beards

    私の一番お気に入りの写真が 南アジアで撮られたものです

  • and a lot of girls wearing the hijab -- it looked like a school.


  • The good news is they're all holding copies of The 99, smiling,

    ヒジャブをまとった女たち ―学校らしい風景です

  • and they found me to sign the picture.

    うれしいことに みんなが“The 99”の本を持って笑っています