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  • This was in an area called Wellawatta, a prime residential area in Colombo.

    翻訳: Junko KUBOTA 校正: Masaki Yanagishita

  • We stood on the railroad tracks

    コロンボのウェラワッタという高級住宅地で

  • that ran between my friend's house and the beach.

    友人宅とビーチの間を走る

  • The tracks are elevated about eight feet from the waterline normally,

    線路に私たちは立っていた

  • but at that point the water had receded

    その線路は普段 水面から2.5メートル程かさ上げされているが

  • to a level three or four feet below normal.

    そのときは1メートル程

  • I'd never seen the reef here before.

    潮位が下がっていた

  • There were fish caught in rock pools left behind by the receding water.

    初めてそこのサンゴを目にし

  • Some children jumped down and ran to the rock pools with bags.

    引潮による潮だまりには魚が取り残されていた

  • They were trying to catch fish.

    子供たちはそこに飛び込んで

  • No one realized that this was a very bad idea.

    袋に魚を獲ろうとしていた

  • The people on the tracks just continued to watch them.

    それが災いを招くことは誰も知らずに・・

  • I turned around to check on my friend's house.

    線路に立つ人々はただ彼らを眺めていた

  • Then someone on the tracks screamed.

    私は友人宅に引き返そうとしたその時

  • Before I could turn around, everyone on the tracks was screaming and running.

    誰かが叫んだ

  • The water had started coming back. It was foaming over the reef.

    すると 一目散に誰もが叫び逃げ出した

  • The children managed to run back onto the tracks.

    サンゴに激しくぶつかりながら 潮が戻ってきたのだ

  • No one was lost there. But the water continued to climb.

    子供たちはなんとか線路まで戻ったが

  • In about two minutes, it had reached the level of the railroad tracks

    波はどんどん押し寄せてくる

  • and was coming over it. We had run about 100 meters by this time.

    2分後には線路にまで達し さらにそれを超えてきた

  • It continued to rise.

    この時点で私たちは100メートルは走ったが

  • I saw an old man standing at his gate, knee-deep in water, refusing to move.

    波はまだ押し寄せる

  • He said he'd lived his whole life there by the beach,

    老人がひざ丈まで水に浸かりながらも逃げずにいる

  • and that he would rather die there than run.

    彼は「今までここで生きてきた

  • A boy broke away from his mother to run back into his house

    逃げるなら死んだほうがましだ!」と叫び

  • to get his dog, who was apparently afraid.

    少年は母親を振りほどき

  • An old lady, crying, was carried out of her house and up the road by her son.

    恐怖におびえる自分の犬を助けに走り

  • The slum built on the railroad reservation

    老女は息子に抱えられ家から逃げる

  • between the sea and the railroad tracks was completely swept away.

    海と線路の間にあったスラム街は

  • Since this was a high-risk location, the police had warned the residents,

    完全に波にさらわれた

  • and no one was there when the water rose.

    危険地帯の住民には警報が出されており

  • But they had not had any time to evacuate any belongings.

    逃げ遅れた者はいなかったが

  • For hours afterwards, the sea was strewn with bits of wood for miles around --

    荷物を持って逃げる時間はなかった

  • all of this was from the houses in the slum.

    数時間後にはスラム街からのがれきが

  • When the waters subsided, it was as if it had never existed.

    海水とともにあたり中に散らばり

  • This may seem hard to believe --

    水が引いたときには 跡形もなくなっていた

  • unless you've been reading lots and lots of news reports --

    たくさんのニュースを目にしていなければ

  • but in many places, after the tsunami, villagers were still terrified.

    信じ難いかもしれないが 津波の後も

  • When what was a tranquil sea swallows up people, homes

    多くの場所で 住民はまだ恐れていた

  • and long-tail boats -- mercilessly, without warning --

    穏やかだった海は 突然 無慈悲にも

  • and no one can tell you anything reliable about whether another one is coming,

    人々や家々 ボートまでをも飲み込み

  • I'm not sure you'd want to calm down either.

    次の津波が来るのかどうか 誰もわからない

  • One of the scariest things about the tsunami

    それを知ってどうなるかもわからないが

  • that I've not seen mentioned is the complete lack of information.

    あの津波の恐ろしさは

  • This may seem minor, but it is terrifying to hear rumor after rumor

    情報がまるでなかったということであろう

  • after rumor that another tidal wave, bigger than the last,

    些細なことのようだが 次の津波は午後1時ぴったりに

  • will be coming at exactly 1 p.m., or perhaps tonight, or perhaps ...

    いや 今夜かも いやいや たぶん・・と、

  • You don't even know if it is safe to go back down to the water,

    噂が噂を呼ぶのは 実際かなりの恐怖を煽る

  • to catch a boat to the hospital.

    病院へ向かうため ボートに乗ることが

  • We think that Phi Phi hospital was destroyed.

    安全かどうかさえわからない

  • We think this boat is going to Phuket hospital,

    ファイファイ病院は波でやられただろう

  • but if it's too dangerous to land at its pier,

    このボートはプーケット病院に向かうが

  • then perhaps it will go to Krabi instead, which is more protected.

    波止場につけるのが危険すぎるなら

  • We don't think another wave is coming right away.

    代わりにもっと安全なクラビに向かうだろう

  • At the Phi Phi Hill Resort,

    次の津波がすぐに来ることはないだろうから

  • I was tucked into the corner furthest away from the television,

    ファイファイ・ヒル・リゾートで

  • but I strained to listen for information.

    私はテレビから遠くの部屋の隅に押し込まれたが

  • They reported that there was an 8.5 magnitude earthquake in Sumatra,

    テレビからの情報に耳をそばだてていた

  • which triggered the massive tsunami.

    その情報によると スマトラでM8.5の地震が起き

  • Having this news was comforting in some small way

    それがあの巨大津波を引き起こした

  • to understand what had just happened to us.

    ニュースから私たちは一体何が起きたのか知り

  • However, the report focused on what had already occurred

    少しは安心することができた

  • and offered no information on what to expect now.

    しかし その内容は何が起こったのか そればかりで

  • In general, everything was merely hearsay and rumor,

    今後何が起こるのかはわからなかった

  • and not a single person I spoke to for over 36 hours

    すべては単なる噂にすぎず

  • knew anything with any certainty.

    私が36時間以上 人に訊ねまわっても

  • Those were two accounts of the Asian tsunami from two Internet blogs

    誰も確かなことは知らなかった

  • that essentially sprang up after it occurred.

    アジアの津波の後に急増したブログから

  • I'm now going to show you two video segments from the tsunami

    津波の様子を紹介しました

  • that also were shown on blogs.

    ブログでも紹介されていた

  • I should warn you, they're pretty powerful.

    津波の映像を2本お見せします

  • One from Thailand, and the second one from Phuket as well.

    かなり衝撃的です

  • (Screaming)

    タイの映像 そして 同じくプーケットの映像です

  • Voice 1: It's coming in. It's coming again.

    (叫び声)

  • Voice 2: It's coming again?

    声1: 来る!また来るぞ!

  • Voice 1: Yeah. It's coming again.

    声2: またか?!

  • Voice 2: Come get inside here.

    声1: ああ また来てる!

  • Voice 1: It's coming again. Voice 2: New wave?

    声2: 中に入ろう!

  • Voice 1: It's coming again. New wave!

    声1: また波来たぞ! 声2: またか!

  • [Unclear]

    声1: そうだ!次の波が来てる!

  • (Screaming)

    (叫び声)

  • They called me out here.

    まだあそこに人がいるぞ!

  • James Surowiecki: Phew. Those were both on this site: waveofdestruction.org.

    このサイトに載っていた動画でした waveofdestruction.org

  • In the world of blogs, there's going to be before the tsunami and after the tsunami,

    ブログの世界は 津波の前後で大きく変わりました

  • because one of the things that happened in the wake of the tsunami was that,

    津波に引き続いて起こったことは何かと言えば

  • although initially -- that is, in that first day --

    最初こそ -- 初日こそブログには

  • there was actually a kind of dearth of live reporting, there was a dearth of live video

    実況の報告もビデオもまったくありませんでしたが

  • and some people complained about this.

    そのために

  • They said, "The blogsters let us down."

    「ブログにはがっかりした」と 不満を漏らす人もいたほどです

  • What became very clear was that,

    その後2, 3 日もすると

  • within a few days, the outpouring of information was immense,

    膨大な情報が溢れかえり 起きたことの全てが

  • and we got a complete and powerful picture of what had happened

    迫力をもって描き出されていることが はっきりしたのです

  • in a way that we never had been able to get before.

    これまでにはなかったことでした

  • And what you had was a group of essentially unorganized, unconnected

    それを行ったのは ばらばらで 実質的に組織されていない

  • writers, video bloggers, etc., who were able to come up with

    ライターやビデオ・ブロガーなどで 情報の集積によって

  • a collective portrait of a disaster that gave us a much better sense

    この災害の現場の様子を描き出しました

  • of what it was like to actually be there than the mainstream media could give us.

    それは主流のメディアの情報よりも ずっと分かりやすかったのです

  • And so in some ways the tsunami can be seen as a sort of seminal moment,

    故に あの津波は ブログが本領を発揮し始めた

  • a moment in which the blogosphere came, to a certain degree, of age.

    歴史的なの瞬間だったとも言えるでしょう

  • Now, I'm going to move now from this kind of --

    さて このような高尚で

  • the sublime in the traditional sense of the word,

    いうなれば荘厳で恐ろしい話題から

  • that is to say, awe-inspiring, terrifying -- to the somewhat more mundane.

    もっと身近なことへと話を進めましょう

  • Because when we think about blogs,

    ブログについて考えるとき

  • I think for most of us who are concerned about them,

    ほとんどの人が

  • we're primarily concerned with things like politics, technology, etc.

    まず 政治やテクノロジーなどを 思い浮かべるでしょう

  • And I want to ask three questions in this talk,

    そこで私は残り10分で ブログ界についての

  • in the 10 minutes that remain, about the blogosphere.

    3つの疑問を挙げたいと思います

  • The first one is, What does it tell us about our ideas,

    ひとつ目は 人を行動に駆り立てるものについて

  • about what motivates people to do things?

    ブログから分かることは何か

  • The second is, Do blogs genuinely have the possibility

    二つ目に これまで未開拓だった集団的知性に

  • of accessing a kind of collective intelligence

    ブログが本当に到達する可能性はあるのか

  • that has previously remained, for the most part, untapped?

    三つ目に

  • And then the third part is, What are the potential problems,

    ブログの潜在的な問題

  • or the dark side of blogs as we know them?

    ブログの抱える問題点とは何か という問いです

  • OK, the first question:

    では 第一の質問

  • What do they tell us about why people do things?

    人々を行動させる理由について

  • One of the fascinating things about the blogosphere specifically,

    ブログから何がわかるか 特にブログ界で

  • and, of course, the Internet more generally --

    さらに広く言えばインターネットで 魅力的なことは

  • and it's going to seem like a very obvious point,

    ―あたりまえと思われるかもしれませんが

  • but I think it is an important one to think about --

    私は重要と考えていることで―

  • is that the people who are generating these enormous reams of content

    ネットサイトの構築や リンクを張り コメントを残し

  • every day, who are spending enormous amounts of time organizing,

    これほど多量のコンテンツを毎日載せる人たちが

  • linking, commenting on the substance of the Internet,

    基本的に報酬なしで行っているという点です

  • are doing so primarily for free.

    良い仕事に対して 注目を集め

  • They are not getting paid for it in any way other than in the attention and,

    高い評価を獲得するということ以外には

  • to some extent, the reputational capital that they gain from doing a good job.

    人々は何の報酬も得ていません

  • And this is -- at least, to a traditional economist -- somewhat remarkable,

    これは 少なくとも伝統的な経済学者から見れば

  • because the traditional account of economic man would say that,

    驚くべきことです 伝統的な見方では 基本的に

  • basically, you do things for a concrete reward, primarily financial.

    人間は経済的には 明確な報酬 つまりお金のために働くものでした

  • But instead, what we're finding on the Internet --

    しかし インターネットを見ると

  • and one of the great geniuses of it -- is that people have found a way

    素晴らしいことに お金とは関係なく人々が協働する方法が

  • to work together without any money involved at all.

    見出されたことが わかります

  • They have come up with, in a sense, a different method for organizing activity.

    活動を組織化するための 新しい方法が創り出されています

  • The Yale Law professor Yochai Benkler, in an essay called "Coase's Penguin,"

    エール法科大のヨーカイ・ベンクラーは 『ロナルド・コースのペンギン』という論文で

  • talks about this open-source model, which we're familiar with from Linux,

    リナックスで良く知られた オープンソースモデルについて

  • as being potentially applicable in a whole host of situations.

    あらゆる状況に適用可能だと述べています

  • And, you know, if you think about this with the tsunami,

    あの津波を思いだしてください

  • what you have is essentially a kind of an army of local journalists,

    ジャーナリストが各地に多数いて

  • who are producing enormous amounts of material

    自分の話を伝えたいということだけを理由に

  • for no reason other than to tell their stories.

    大量の記事を書きました

  • That's a very powerful idea, and it's a very powerful reality.

    その意義は大きく 迫力のある真実です

  • And it's one that offers really interesting possibilities

    このことは いずれ将来

  • for organizing a whole host of activities down the road.

    この大量の活動を組織すると 面白い可能性があることを示します

  • So, I think the first thing that the blogosphere tells us

    つまり ブログ界が示していることは

  • is that we need to expand our idea of what counts as rational,

    私たちが理性的だとされていた考えを 拡張して

  • and we need to expand our simple equation of value equals money,

    「モノの価値=カネ」という方程式を拡張するか あるいは

  • or, you have to pay for it to be good,

    ずっとカネを払い続けるかということです

  • but that in fact you can end up with collectively really brilliant products

    しかし実際にはカネが動くことなく

  • without any money at all changing hands.

    集合的に 本当に素晴らしいモノを創り出せるのです

  • There are a few bloggers -- somewhere maybe around 20, now --

    ごく少数 ―20人ほどでしょう― の人は

  • who do, in fact, make some kind of money, and a few

    ある意味 お金を稼いでいて

  • who are actually trying to make a full-time living out of it,

    それで生計を立てようとする者も少しいます

  • but the vast majority of them are doing it because they love it

    しかし大部分はただ好きでやっていたり

  • or they love the attention, or whatever it is.

    注目されたいなどの理由からでしょう

  • So, Howard Rheingold has written a lot about this

    ハワード・ラインゴールドはこの点について

  • and, I think, is writing about this more,

    多く言及していますが

  • but this notion of voluntary cooperation

    自発的な協力というものは

  • is an incredibly powerful one, and one worth thinking about.

    信じ難いほど強力で 考察すべきものだとしています

  • The second question is, What does the blogosphere actually do for us,

    二つ目の質問は 集合的知能にアクセスすることに関して

  • in terms of accessing collective intelligence?

    ブログ界は実際にどんな役割を担っているのかです

  • You know, as Chris mentioned, I wrote a book called "The Wisdom of Crowds."

    クリスに紹介された私の本 『「みんなの意見」は案外正しい』では

  • And the premise of "The Wisdom of Crowds" is that,

    前提として 正しい条件下では

  • under the right conditions, groups can be remarkably intelligent.

    グループは目覚ましい知性を発揮しうるとしています

  • And they can actually often be smarter

    しばしば グループで一番賢い人よりも

  • than even the smartest person within them.

    賢くなれるのです

  • The </