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  • How will we be remembered in 200 years?

    翻訳: Mariko Edwards 校正: Satoshi Tatsuhara

  • I happen to live in a little town, Princeton, in New Jersey,

    200年後 どのように私たちを思い返すでしょう?

  • which every year celebrates the great event in Princeton history:


  • the Battle of Princeton, which was, in fact, a very important battle.

    毎年 プリンストン史上とても重要といわれる --

  • It was the first battle that George Washington won, in fact,

    プリンストンの戦いを祝います 実に重要で

  • and was pretty much of a turning point in the war of independence.

    ジョージ ワシントンが初めて勝った --

  • It happened 225 years ago.


  • It was actually a terrible disaster for Princeton.


  • The town was burned down; it was in the middle of winter,


  • and it was a very, very severe winter.

    町は全焼しました 季節は真冬です

  • And about a quarter of all the people in Princeton died that winter


  • from hunger and cold, but nobody remembers that.

    プリンストン市民の25%ほどの人が その冬に

  • What they remember is, of course, the great triumph,

    飢えと寒さで亡くなりました でも誰も覚えていません

  • that the Brits were beaten, and we won, and that the country was born.

    覚えているのは 大勝利を収めて

  • And so I agree very emphatically that the pain of childbirth is not remembered.

    イギリス人を打ち負かし 我々が勝ち 国が生まれたことです

  • It's the child that's remembered.

    出産の痛みはすぐに忘れ 生まれた子だけが記憶に残るということが

  • And that's what we're going through at this time.


  • I wanted to just talk for one minute about the future of biotechnology,

    今 私たちは同じような経験をしています

  • because I think I know very little about that -- I'm not a biologist --


  • so everything I know about it can be said in one minute.

    生命科学者ではありませんから この分野には疎くて

  • (Laughter)

    知識を全て披露しても 1分足らずです

  • What I'm saying is that we should follow the model


  • that has been so successful with the electronic industry,


  • that what really turned computers into a great success, in the world


  • as a whole, is toys. As soon as computers became toys,


  • when kids could come home and play with them,

    おもちゃです コンピューターがおもちゃになって 子どもたちが

  • then the industry really took off. And that has to happen with biotech.


  • There's a huge --

    電子産業は成長を始めました バイオテクノロジーも見倣うべきです

  • (Laughter)

    非常にたくさん --

  • (Applause)


  • -- there's a huge community of people in the world


  • who are practical biologists, who are dog breeders,


  • pigeon breeders, orchid breeders, rose breeders,


  • people who handle biology with their hands,

    鳩のブリーダー ランのブリーダー バラのブリーダーなどが

  • and who are dedicated to producing beautiful things, beautiful creatures,


  • plants, animals, pets. These people will be empowered with biotech,

    植物 動物 ペットなどの美しい生物を熱心に作り出しています

  • and that will be an enormous positive step

    彼らがバイオテクノロジーを手にすれば かなり役立つはずです

  • to acceptance of biotechnology.

    そうすれば バイオテクノロジーを認知してもらうという点では

  • That will blow away a lot of the opposition.


  • When people have this technology in their hands,


  • you have a do-it-yourself biotech kit, grow your own --


  • grow your dog, grow your own cat.


  • (Laughter)


  • (Applause)


  • Just buy the software, you design it. I won't say anymore,


  • you can take it on from there. It's going to happen, and

    ソフトウェアを買って自分でデザインするのです 後は言わなくても --

  • I think it has to happen before the technology becomes natural,

    想像できると思います 実現に向かっていますし

  • becomes part of the human condition,

    バイオテクノロジーが当たり前になり 治療の一環として利用されたり

  • something that everybody's familiar with and everybody accepts.

    慣れ親しんで 広く受け入れられるようになる前に

  • So, let's leave that aside.


  • I want to talk about something quite different,


  • which is what I know about, and that is astronomy.


  • And I'm interested in searching for life in the universe.


  • And it's open to us to introduce a new way of doing that,


  • and that's what I'll talk about for 10 minutes,


  • or whatever the time remains.


  • The important fact is, that most of the real estate


  • that's accessible to us -- I'm not talking about the stars,

    重要な事実があります 私たちの手が届く土地の多くは --

  • I'm talking about the solar system, the stuff that's within reach

    ここで言う土地は 夜空の星のことではなく

  • for spacecraft and within reach of our earthbound telescopes --

    太陽系の話です 宇宙船でたどり着ける距離にあって

  • most of the real estate is very cold and very far from the Sun.


  • If you look at the solar system, as we know it today,

    宇宙にある土地の大半は とても寒く 太陽から遠く離れています

  • it has a few planets close to the Sun. That's where we live.


  • It has a fairly substantial number of asteroids between

    太陽の近くには惑星がいくつかあって 私たちはそこに暮らしています

  • the orbit of the Earth out through -- to the orbit of Jupiter.

    さらに 地球の軌道と 木星の軌道の間には

  • The asteroids are a substantial amount of real estate,


  • but not very large. And it's not very promising for life,

    小惑星も 宇宙にある膨大な土地ではありますが

  • since most of it consists of rock and metal, mostly rock.

    それほど大きくはなく あまり生活できそうもありません

  • It's not only cold, but very dry.

    ほとんどが岩や金属で 特に岩が多いからです

  • So the asteroids we don't have much hope for.

    また 寒いだけでなく乾燥もしていますので

  • There stand some interesting places a little further out:


  • the moons of Jupiter and Saturn.

    しかし もう少し遠くを見ると興味深い場所がいくつかあります

  • Particularly, there's a place called Europa, which is --

    木星の衛星や 土星の衛星です

  • Europa is one of the moons of Jupiter,

    特に興味深いのがユーロパという --

  • where we see a very level ice surface,


  • which looks as if it's floating on top of an ocean.


  • So, we believe that on Europa there is, in fact, a deep ocean.


  • And that makes it extraordinarily interesting as a place to explore.


  • Ocean -- probably the most likely place for life to originate,


  • just as it originated on the Earth. So we would love to explore Europa,

    海というのは おそらく生命誕生の確率が最も高い場所です

  • to go down through the ice,

    地球と同じことです だからユーロパの氷の下を

  • find out who is swimming around in the ocean,


  • whether there are fish or seaweed or sea monsters --


  • whatever there may be that's exciting --- or cephalopods.

    魚や 海草や 海の怪獣がいるのか見てみたいのです

  • But that's hard to do. Unfortunately, the ice is thick.

    何がいても興奮します イカやタコなどの頭足動物でもいいです

  • We don't know just how thick it is, probably miles thick,

    しかし実現は困難です 残念ながら氷が厚すぎるのです

  • so it's very expensive and very difficult to go down there --

    厚さは不明ですが おそらく何キロにも及ぶので

  • send down your submarine or whatever it is -- and explore.


  • That's something we don't yet know how to do.

    非常に高価で 極めて難しいのです

  • There are plans to do it, but it's hard.


  • Go out a bit further, you'll find that beyond the orbit of Neptune,

    計画は持ち上がっても 実行は難しいのです

  • way out, far from the Sun, that's where the real estate really begins.

    もう少し遠く 海王星の軌道よりも遠く

  • You'll find millions or trillions or billions of objects which,

    太陽からはるか遠くに行けば 真の土地が見つかります

  • in what we call the Kuiper Belt or the Oort Cloud --

    何百万 何十億 あるいは何兆もの天体がある --

  • these are clouds of small objects which appear as comets

    カイパーベルトや オールトの雲と呼ばれる場所です

  • when they fall close to the Sun. Mostly, they just live out there

    太陽に向かってくるときに 彗星として観測されるような --

  • in the cold of the outer solar system,


  • but they are biologically very interesting indeed,


  • because they consist primarily of ice with other minerals,


  • which are just the right ones for developing life.


  • So if life could be established out there,

    つまり 生命誕生に適した構成なのです

  • it would have all the essentials -- chemistry and sunlight --


  • everything that's needed.

    必須の要素はそろっています 化学的条件や太陽光といった --

  • So, what I'm proposing


  • is that there is where we should be looking for life, rather than on Mars,


  • although Mars is, of course, also a very promising and interesting place.

    火星ではなく そこで生命を探したほうがいいということです

  • But we can look outside, very cheaply and in a simple fashion.

    火星も もちろん非常に期待の持てる興味深い場所なのですが

  • And that's what I'm going to talk about.

    太陽系の外れを 安く簡単に探査することができるのです

  • There is a -- imagine that life originated on Europa,


  • and it was sitting in the ocean for billions of years.

    ユーロパに生命が誕生して --

  • It's quite likely that it would move out of the ocean onto the surface,


  • just as it did on the Earth.

    生命が海を抜け出し 表面に出てくる可能性は十分にあります

  • Staying in the ocean and evolving in the ocean for 2 billion years,


  • finally came out onto the land. And then of course it had great --

    20億年間 海の中で生活し 進化して --

  • much greater freedom, and a much greater variety of creatures

    やっと陸上にでてきた後には もちろん

  • developed on the land than had ever been possible in the ocean.


  • And the step from the ocean to the land was not easy, but it happened.

    海の中なら考えられなかったほど 多様な生き物に進化しました

  • Now, if life had originated on Europa in the ocean,


  • it could also have moved out onto the surface.


  • There wouldn't have been any air there -- it's a vacuum.


  • It is out in the cold, but it still could have come.


  • You can imagine that the plants growing up like kelp

    外は寒い世界ですが 出てくる可能性があります

  • through cracks in the ice, growing on the surface.

    氷の割れ目を通って伸びてきて 表面でさらに成長する --

  • What would they need in order to grow on the surface?


  • They'd need, first of all, to have a thick skin to protect themselves


  • from losing water through the skin.


  • So they would have to have something like a reptilian skin.


  • But better -- what is more important


  • is that they would have to concentrate sunlight.

    しかし それより重要なのは

  • The sunlight in Jupiter, on the satellites of Jupiter,


  • is 25 times fainter than it is here,

    木星や その衛星を照らす太陽光は

  • since Jupiter is five times as far from the Sun.

    地球を照らす光より25倍も弱いのですが それは木星が --

  • So they would have to have -- these creatures, which I call sunflowers,


  • which I imagine living on the surface of Europa, would have to have


  • either lenses or mirrors to concentrate sunlight,


  • so they could keep themselves warm on the surface.


  • Otherwise, they would be at a temperature of minus 150,


  • which is certainly not favorable for developing life,

    そうでもしなければ マイナス150度という環境は

  • at least of the kind we know.

    生命の発達には適さないのです 少なくとも --

  • But if they just simply could grow, like leaves,


  • little lenses and mirrors to concentrate sunlight,

    しかし 太陽光を集める小さなレンズや鏡が

  • then they could keep warm on the surface.


  • They could enjoy all the benefits of the sunlight


  • and have roots going down into the ocean;


  • life then could flourish much more.


  • So, why not look? Of course, it's not very likely


  • that there's life on the surface of Europa.

    探査しましょう もちろん ユーロパの表面に --

  • None of these things is likely, but my,


  • my philosophy is, look for what's detectable, not for what's probable.


  • There's a long history in astronomy of unlikely things

    私の理念は 確実なものではなく発見可能なものを探すことです

  • turning out to be there. And I mean,


  • the finest example of that was radio astronomy as a whole.


  • This was -- originally, when radio astronomy began,

    電波天文学が 一番いい例です

  • Mr. Jansky, at the Bell labs, detected radio waves coming from the sky.


  • And the regular astronomers were scornful about this.

    ベル研究所のジャンスキー氏は 空から飛来する電波を検出しましたが

  • They said, "It's all right, you can detect radio waves from the Sun,

    一般の天文学者は この報告をこう言ってばかにしました

  • but the Sun is the only object in the universe that's close enough


  • and bright enough actually to be detectable. You can easily calculate


  • that radio waves from the Sun are fairly faint,

    この宇宙で 太陽だけだ

  • and everything else in the universe is millions of times further away,

    簡単な計算で分かるけど 太陽の電波でさえとても弱い

  • so it certainly will not be detectable.


  • So there's no point in looking."


  • And that, of course, that set back the progress of radio astronomy

    だから 調べる意味など無い」

  • by about 20 years.

    そのせいで 電波天文学の発展は

  • Since there was nothing there, you might as well not look.


  • Well, of course, as soon as anybody did look,