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  • Most people don't know that when I went to high school in this country --

    翻訳: Tomoya Kusakari 校正: Satoshi Tatsuhara

  • I applied for university at a time when I was convinced

    ほとんどの方は知らないでしょうが 高校生の頃

  • I was going to be an artist and be a sculptor.

    大学に出願する時点では 将来は彫刻家になろうと

  • And I came from a very privileged background. I was very lucky.

    心に決めていました

  • My family was wealthy, and my father believed in one thing,

    かなり恵まれた環境に育ち とても幸運でした

  • and that was to give us all as much education as we wanted.

    家庭は裕福で 父の教育方針は

  • And I announced I wanted to be a sculptor in Paris.

    私の望む教育を 全て受けさせようというものでした

  • And he was a clever man. He sort of said,

    パリに行き 彫刻家になると伝えたとき

  • "Well, that's OK, but you've done very well in your math SATs."

    頭の切れる父はこう言いました

  • In fact, I'd got an 800. And he thought I did very well -- and I did, too -- in the arts:

    「いいけど SAT試験の数学も優秀だったじゃないか」

  • this was my passion.

    確かに 数学は800点満点でしたが 芸術も優秀でした

  • And he said "If you go to MIT," to which I had been given early admission,

    大好きだったのです

  • "I will pay for every year you're at MIT,

    早期にMITの入学許可を得ていたので 父は言いました

  • in graduate or undergraduate -- as much as you want --

    「MITの学部や院に通う間は 毎年の授業料を払うから

  • I will pay for an equal number of years for you to live in Paris."

    好きなだけ通えばいい

  • And I thought that was the best deal in town, so I accepted it immediately.

    そうすれば それと同じ年数 パリでの生活費を払うよ」

  • And I decided that if I was good in art, and I was good in mathematics,

    この上ない条件なので すぐに受け入れました

  • I'd study architecture, which was the blending of the two.

    そこで 芸術も 数学も得意なのだから

  • I went and told my headmaster that, at prep school.

    2つの組み合わさった建築を専攻しようと決めて

  • And I said to him what I was doing, that I was going to go study architecture

    高校の校長に報告しに行きました

  • because it was art and mathematics put together.

    芸術と数学の融合は建築だから

  • He said to me something that just went completely over my head.

    大学で建築を学びたいと伝えると

  • He said, "You know, I like grey suits, and I like pin-striped suits,

    校長は理解できない事を言ってきました

  • but I don't like grey pin-striped suits."

    「灰色のスーツも 細縞のスーツも好きだけど

  • And I thought, "What a turkey this guy is," and I went off to MIT.

    灰色で細縞のスーツは嫌いだな」

  • I studied architecture, then did a second degree in architecture,

    「バカじゃないか」と思いつつ MITに進学しました

  • and then actually quickly realized that it wasn't architecture.

    建築を学んで2年が経つと すぐに

  • That really, the mixing of art and science was computers,

    芸術と科学の融合が建築ではないことに気づきました

  • and that that really was the place to bring both, and enjoyed a career doing that.

    実は コンピューターだったのです これこそ

  • And probably, if I were to fill out Jim Citrin's scale,

    まさに融合の場で 楽しみつつキャリアを積んできました

  • I'd put 100 percent on the side of the equation

    ジム シトリンのスケールで考えれば

  • where you spend time making it possible for others to be creative.

    他者が独創的でいられる環境を作るために

  • And after doing this for a long time, and the Media Lab passing the baton on,

    100パーセントの時間を費やしたといえます

  • I thought, "Well, maybe it's time for me to do a project.

    これに長年打ち込んで メディアラボの所長職を譲ってから

  • Something that would be important, but also something

    こう考えました

  • that would take advantage of all of these privileges that one had."

    「この特権を生かして 何か重要なプロジェクトを

  • And in the case of the Media Lab, knowing a lot of people,

    すべき時なのではないだろうか」

  • knowing people who were either executives or wealthy,

    メディアラボでは いろいろな人と知り合い

  • and also not having, in my own case, a career to worry about anymore.

    重役や金持ちとも知り合いになりました

  • My career, I mean, I'd done my career.

    私はもうキャリアのことを心配する必要はありません

  • Didn't have to worry about earning money.

    もう十分にキャリアをやり遂げました

  • Didn't have to worry about what people thought about me.

    お金の心配もありません

  • And I said, "Boy, let's really do something that takes advantage of all these features,"

    他人にどう思われるか気にする必要もありませんから

  • and thought that if we could address education, by leveraging the children,

    「この特権を生かして何か実践しよう」と決意しました

  • and bringing to the world the access of the computers,

    子どもたちに力を貸し コンピューターを使う環境を作り

  • that that was really the thing we should do.

    教育に活用させることができるならば

  • Never shown this picture before, and probably going to be sued for it.

    それこそ私のやるべきことだと考えました

  • It's taken at three o'clock in the morning, without the permission of the company.

    これは初公開の写真ですから 訴えられるかもしれません

  • It's about two weeks old. There they are, folks.

    朝の3時に 会社の許可なしで撮りました

  • (Applause)

    出来上がって2週間たったところです それがこちら

  • If you look at the picture, you'll see they're stacked up.

    (拍手)

  • Those are conveyor belts that go around.

    写真で分かると思いますが 積み上げられていますね

  • This is one of the conveyor belts with the thing going by,

    ぐるっと周回するコンベアーベルトがあります

  • but then you'll see the ones up above.

    こちらはパソコンが流れるコンベアーベルトの一部です

  • What happens is, they burn into flash memory the software,

    上にもパソコンが流れていますね

  • and then test them for a few hours.

    フラッシュメモリにソフトウエアを入れて

  • But you've got to have the thing moving on the assembly line, because it's constant.

    数時間テストにかけているのですが

  • So they go around in this loop, which is why you see them up there.

    止まらない製造ライン上を流しつづければいけません

  • So this was great for us because it was a real turning point. But it goes back.

    だから上にもパソコンが流れているのです

  • This picture was taken in 1982, just before the IBM PC was even announced.

    この実現は最高の転換点でした さて昔の話ですが

  • Seymour Papert and I were bringing computers to schools

    これは1982年にIBMがPCを発表する直前の写真です

  • and developing nations at a time when it was way ahead of itself.

    シーモア パパートと私は学校や途上国に

  • But one thing we learned was that these kids can absolutely jump into it

    まだ珍しかったコンピューターを持ち込みました

  • just the same way as our kids do here.

    すると 子どもたちがすぐにコンピューターにのめり込む

  • And when people tell me, "Who's going to teach the teachers to teach the kids?"

    ということが分かりました アメリカの子どもと同じです

  • I say to myself, "What planet do you come from?"

    「誰が先生を育成するんだ?」と尋ねてくる人がいると

  • Okay, there's not a person in this room -- I don't care how techie you are --

    「コイツどの星から来たんだ?」と思わざるを得ません

  • there's not a person in this room that doesn't give their laptop or cell phone to a kid

    皆さんの知識がどれくらいか知りませんが

  • to help them debug it. OK?

    誰でも 若者にパソコンや携帯を渡して

  • We all need help, even those of us who are very seasoned.

    直してもらったりするでしょう

  • This picture of Seymour -- 25 years ago. Seymour made a very simple

    どんな年長者にも助けが必要です

  • observation in 1968, and then basically presented it in 1970 --

    こちらは 25年前のシーモアです 彼は1968年に

  • April 11 to be precise -- called "Teaching Children Thinking."

    ある簡単な観察記録を取って 1970年に発表しました

  • What he observed was that kids who write computer programs

    4月11日 タイトルは 「考えることを子どもに教える」

  • understand things differently, and when they debug the programs,

    この観察記録によれば プログラムを書く子どもは

  • they come the closest to learning about learning.

    書かない子とは 違った考え方をします

  • That was very important, and in some sense, we've lost that.

    デバック時には 「学習」を学習するような経験をします

  • Kids don't program enough and boy,

    とても重要なのに最近では経験する機会がありません

  • if there's anything I hope this brings back, it's programming to kids.

    プログラミング経験が不足しています

  • It's really important. Using applications is OK,

    ぜひ 子どもたちにプログラミングをしてほしいのです

  • but programming is absolutely fundamental.

    とても重要です アプリケーションを使うのもいいですが

  • This is being launched with three languages in it: Squeak, Logo, and

    プログラミングを教えることこそ必要です

  • a third, that I've never even seen before.

    まず 3つの言語から始めました スクイークと ロゴと

  • The point being, this is going to be very, very intensive on the programming side.

    3つ目は聞いたこともない言語です

  • This photograph is very important because it's much later.

    プログラミング機能を ぐっと強化しているのが特徴です

  • This is in the early 2000s. My son, Dimitri -- who's here,

    こちらはずっと最近の 重要な意味のある写真です

  • many of you know Dimitri -- went to Cambodia, set up this school

    2000年から2003年頃で 息子のディミトリーもいます

  • that we had built, just as the school connected it to the Internet.

    カンボジアに建設した学校に ネットがつながった頃

  • And these kids had their laptops. But it was really what spirited this,

    ご存知のように ディミトリーが学校運営を始めて

  • plus the influence of Joe and others. We started One Laptop per Child.

    子どもたちがラップトップを手にしたのです

  • This is the same village in Cambodia, just a couple of months ago.

    夢見たこの光景や ジョーらの影響こそ「子供に1人1台ラップトップ」計画のきっかけでした

  • These kids are real pros. There were just 7,000 machines out there

    こちらはこの村の2か月ほど前の写真です

  • being tested by kids. Being a nonprofit is absolutely fundamental.

    子どもたちがプロ並みに 7000台をテストしています

  • Everybody advised me not to be a nonprofit, but they were all wrong.

    非営利であることは間違いなく重要です

  • And the reason being a nonprofit is important is actually twofold.

    誰もが 非営利はダメと言ってきたのですが 間違いです

  • There are many reasons, but the two that merit the little bit of time is:

    非営利が重要だと考える本質的な理由は2つです

  • one, the clarity of purpose is there. The moral purpose is clear.

    たくさんありますが重要なのは2つです

  • I can see any head of state, any executive I want, at any time, because

    まず目的が明確なこと 道徳上の目的が明確なのです

  • I'm not selling laptops. OK? I have no shareholders.

    あらゆる国の首脳や高官に いつでも会えるのは

  • Whether we sell, it doesn't make any difference whatsoever.

    ラップトップを売らないからです 株主もいませんから

  • The clarity of purpose is absolutely critical. And the second is very counterintuitive --

    売ろうが売るまいが全く関係ありません

  • you can get the best people in the world.

    目的の明確さは重要です 次の理由は直観に反しますが

  • If you look at our professional services, including search firms,

    世界有数の人材が集まることです

  • including communications, including legal services, including banking,

    調査事業 通信事業 法務 銀行業といった

  • they're all pro bono. And it's not to save money.

    専門サービスを すべて無償で実現していますが

  • We've got money in the bank. It's because you get the best people.

    お金を節約するためではありません

  • You get the people who are doing it because they believe in the mission,

    銀行にお金はあります 優秀な人材がいるからです

  • and they're the best people.

    使命感をもって自ら適任と考えてこの仕事をする人材が

  • We couldn't afford to hire a CFO. We put out a job description for a CFO at zero salary,

    いるのです

  • and we had a queue of people.

    財務担当役員の給料は払えないので 無給で募集したら

  • It allows you to team up with people. The U.N.'s not going to be

    応募者が殺到しました

  • our partner if we're profit making. So announcing this with Kofi Annan

    非営利であれば協力が得やすくなります

  • was very important, and the U.N. allowed us

    営利目的なら国連も協力しようとは考えなかったでしょう

  • to basically reach all the countries. And this was the machine we were showing

    アナン事務総長とこれを共同発表できたのは貴重でした

  • before I met Yves Behar.

    国連のおかげで 概ねどんな国とも連絡がとれました

  • And while this machine in some sense is silly,

    デザイナーのイヴ べアールが手伝う前のデザインです

  • in retrospect, it actually served a very important purpose.

    おかしなデザインにも見えますが 振り返ってみると

  • That pencil-yellow crank was remembered by everybody.

    かなり貢献してくれました

  • Everybody remembered the pencil-yellow crank. It's different.

    細くて黄色いL字ハンドルを皆さん覚えているのです

  • It was getting its power in a different way. It's kind of childlike.

    特徴的なので このハンドルを誰も忘れたりしません

  • Even though this wasn't the direction we went because the crank --

    少し変わった電力供給手段です 子どもっぽいですね

  • it really is stupid to have it on board, by the way.

    このハンドルが問題になって変えましたけど

  • In spite of what some people in the press don't get it, didn't understand it,

    付いていたら確かにおかしいですね

  • we didn't take it off because we didn't want to do --

    一部の報道陣には理解できないようでしたが

  • having it on the laptop itself is really not what you want.

    方向性が気に入らなくて取り外したわけではありません

  • You want a separate thing, like the AC adaptor.

    ハンドルは ラップトップ本体に無いほうがいいのです

  • I didn't bring one with me, but they really work much better off-board.

    ACアダプターみたいに取り外せたほうがいいのです

  • And then, I could tell you lots about the laptop, but I decided on just four things.

    ここにはありませんが 本体から外すと使いやすいのです

  • Just keep in mind -- because there are other people, including Bill Gates,

    言いたいことは山ほどあるのですが 四つに絞りましょう

  • who said, "Gee, you've got a real computer."

    心に留めておいてください 皆さん ビル ゲイツでさえ

  • That computer is unlike anything you've had, and does things --

    「すごいね まさに真のパソコンだ」と言うのですから

  • there are four of them --

    このパソコンは従来品とは全く違っています

  • that you don't come close to. And it's very important to be low power,

    その中の四つの違いをあげましょう

  • and I hope that's picked up more by the industry.

    馴染みがないでしょう まず低消費電力が重要です

  • That the reason that you want to be below two watts is

    企業でも もっと取り組んでほしいですね

  • that's roughly what you can generate with your upper body.

    「2ワット以下」にしたい理由は

  • Dual-mode display -- that sunlight display's fantastic.

    上半身で生み出せるのが そのぐらいの電力だからです

  • We were using it at lunch today in the sunlight, and the more sunlight the better.

    太陽光を利用する「2方式ディスプレー」も素晴らしい

  • And that was really critical. The mesh network, it'll become commonplace.

    今日の昼に使ってみましたが 日差しは強いほどいいです

  • And of course, "rugged" goes without saying.

    いずれ普及する「メッシュネットワーク」は必須です

  • And the reason I think design matters isn't because I wanted to go to art school.

    そして 「頑丈」なのは当然です

  • And by the way, when I graduated from MIT,

    芸術志望だったからデザインを重要視するわけではなくて

  • I thought the worst and silliest thing to do would be to go to Paris for six years. (Laughter)

    ちなみにMIT卒業時には パリに6年住むなんて 最悪で

  • So, I didn't do that. But design matters for a number of reasons.

    ばかげた選択に思えたので

  • The most important being that it is the best way to make an inexpensive product.

    止めましたが いくつかの理由からデザインは重要です

  • Most people make inexpensive products by taking cheap design,

    一番の理由は 製品を安く作るための最善策だからです

  • cheap labor, cheap components, and making a cheap laptop.

    たいてい 製造費を抑えようと デザイン料を安くして

  • And, in English, the word "cheap" has

    安い労働力や部品を調達して 安いラップトップを作ります

  • a double meaning, which is really appropriate,

    英語では「安い」という言葉には

  • because it's cheap, in the pejorative sense, as well as inexpensive.

    裏の意味があって これがぴったり当てはまります

  • But if you take a different approach, and you think of very large-scale integration,

    つまり安いだけでなく 安っぽいのです

  • very advanced materials, very advanced manufacturing --

    ですが 見方を変えて 大規模な意味での統合を図って

  • so you're pouring chemicals in one end, iPods are spewing out the other --

    最先端の材料や 最先端の製造設備を使うことにしたら

  • and really cool design, that's what we wanted to do.

    材料を投入すれば iPodが出てきます

  • And I can race through these and save a lot of time because

    格好いい製品が手に入ります これをやりたかったのです

  • Yves and I obviously didn't compare notes.

    このスライドは飛ばしましょう

  • These are his slides, and so I don't have to talk about them.

    イヴと発表内容を突き合わせていなかったのですが

  • But it was really, to us, very important as a strategy.

    彼が発表しますので 私が説明しなくてもいいでしょう

  • It wasn't just to kind of make it cute, because somebody --

    いずれにしろデザインは戦略的にとても重要です

  • you know, good design is very important.

    単にかわいく見せたいからではなく

  • Yves showed one of the power-generating devices.

    良いデザインが重要だからです

  • The mesh network, the reason I -- and I won't go into it in great detail --

    これは発電装置の一つです