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  • So there's this thing called the law of unintended consequences.

    「意図せざる結果の法則」と 呼ばれる事象があります

  • I thought it was just like a saying,

    ただの格言だと 思っていたのですが

  • but it actually exists, I guess.


  • There's, like, academic papers about it.


  • And I'm a designer.


  • I don't like unintended consequences.

    意図せざる結果は 好きではありません

  • People hire me because they have consequences that they really intend,

    私の顧客は その通り実現したい意図があって 私を雇うのであり

  • and what they intend is for me to help them achieve those consequences.

    希望通りの結果を出すために 力を貸して欲しいと望んでいるのです

  • So I live in fear of unintended consequences.

    だから 私は 意図せざる結果を恐れています

  • And so this is a story about consequences intended and unintended.

    そういうわけで「意図した結果」と 「意図せざる結果」についてお話します

  • I got called by an organization called Robin Hood


  • to do a favor for them.


  • Robin Hood is based in New York, a wonderful philanthropic organization

    ロビン・フッドはニューヨークを 拠点とする素晴らしい慈善団体で

  • that does what it says in the name.

    その名のとおり 英雄さながらに

  • They take from rich people, give it to poor people.

    富裕層から得たお金を 貧しい人々に与える活動をしています

  • In this case, what they wanted to benefit was the New York City school system,

    今回の支援の対象は ニューヨークの公立学校全体でした

  • a huge enterprise that educates more than a million students at a time,

    非常に大きな機関であり 百万人以上の児童の教育を担っています

  • and in buildings that are like this one,


  • old buildings, big buildings,


  • drafty buildings, sometimes buildings that are in disrepair,

    隙間風の入る建物や 中には荒れ果てた建物もあり

  • certainly buildings that could use a renovation.

    当然 改装が必要な建物ばかりでした

  • Robin Hood had this ambition to improve these buildings in some way,

    ロビン・フッドは 何らかの形で建物を直そうと考えましたが

  • but what they realized was

    いざとなると修繕するのには 莫大な費用がかかり

  • to fix the buildings would be too expensive and impractical.


  • So instead they tried to figure out what one room they could go into

    そこで 代替案として

  • in each of these buildings, in as many buildings that they could,

    できるだけ多くの校舎において それぞれ1部屋だけを選び

  • and fix that one room


  • so that they could improve the lives of the children inside

    子供たちの学校生活を 快適にしようと

  • as they were studying.


  • And what they came up with was the school library,

    結果として思いついたのが 図書室の改装です

  • and they came up with this idea called the Library Initiative.

    「図書室イニシアチブ」 というものです

  • All the students have to pass through the library.

    児童なら誰でも 図書室に足を運びます

  • That's where the books are.


  • That's where the heart and soul of the school is.

    図書室は学校の 心臓であり魂なのです

  • So let's fix these libraries.


  • So they did this wonderful thing where they brought in

    ロビン・フッドは建築家を集め 当初10人だったのが20人以上に膨らみ

  • first 10, then 20, then more architects,


  • each one of whom was assigned a library to rethink what a library was.

    図書室ごとに建築家を割り当て 各自 図書室のあり方を再考するというものです

  • They trained special librarians.


  • So they started this mighty enterprise

    こうして 図書室の改装を通して

  • to reform public schools by improving these libraries.

    公立学校の改革をするという 壮大な事業が始まったのです

  • Then they called me up and they said, "Could you make a little contribution?"

    そんな中 私にも 協力を要請する電話があり

  • I said, "Sure, what do you want me to do?"


  • And they said, "Well, we want you to be the graphic designer

    総括のグラフィックデザイナーを 頼まれました

  • in charge of the whole thing."

    要は ロゴのデザインです

  • And so I thought, I know what that means. That means I get to design a logo.

    やり方は分かりますし それが私の仕事です

  • I know how to design that. I design logos.

    だから 依頼が来るのです

  • That's what people come to me for.

    そこで デザインに取り掛かりました

  • So OK, let's design a logo for this thing.

    ロゴのデザインなんて 建築をやったり

  • Easy to do, actually, compared with architecture


  • and being a librarian.

    ロゴを作って 貢献すれば それで終わりですし

  • Just do a logo, make a contribution, and then you're out,


  • and you feel really good about yourself.

    私みたいな素晴らしい人間は 他人に尽くして高揚感を得たがるものなので

  • And I'm a great guy and I like to feel good about myself when I do these favors.


  • So I thought, let's overdeliver.

    ここで1つのアイデアを基にして作った 3つのロゴをお見せします

  • I'm going to give you three logos, all based on this one idea.


  • So you have three options, pick any of the three.


  • They're all great, I said.

    基本のアイデアは ニューヨークの公立学校のための

  • So the basic idea was these would be new school libraries


  • for New York schools,

    新たに作られたものだから 名前だって新しくしようと考えました

  • and so the idea is that it's a new thing, a new idea that needs a new name.

    私には図書室に対する固定観念を 払拭したいという思いがありました

  • What I wanted to do was dispel the idea that these were musty old libraries,

    古くて かび臭くて 退屈な場所というイメージです

  • the kind of places that everyone is bored with,


  • you know, not your grandparents' library.

    もう そんなことはありません

  • Don't worry about that at all.

    退屈するのではなく 新しくワクワクする―

  • This is going to this new, exciting thing,


  • not a boring library.


  • So option number one:


  • so instead of thinking of it as a library,

    喋ったり 騒げる場所として考えるのです

  • think of it as a place where it is like: do talk, do make loud noises.

    「シー 静かに!」などの注意とは 無縁の空間となります

  • Right? So no shushing, it's like a shush-free zone.


  • We're going to call it the Reading Room.

    これがオプション1です 次にオプション2です

  • That was option number one. OK, option number two.

    オプション2は― 今出しますね

  • Option number two was, wait for it,


  • OWL.


  • I'll meet you at OWL.

    「OWLに本を借りに行くんだ」 「放課後OWLでね」

  • I'm getting my book from the OWL. Meet you after school down at OWL.

    いいですよね? ではOWLとは何の略なのか?

  • I like that, right? Now, what does OWL stand for?

    One World Library (世界図書館)も

  • Well, it could be One World Library,

    Open(開く)Wonder(驚く) Learn(学ぶ) もアリでしょう

  • or it could be Open. Wonder. Learn.

    まぁ 司書に思いつくまま 言葉を当ててもらえばいいでしょう

  • Or it could be -- and I figure librarians could figure out other things it could be


  • because they know about words.


  • So other things, right?

    それに こうすれば まるでフクロウの目

  • And then look at this. It's like the eye of the owl.

    お好きな人には たまりません

  • This is irresistible in my opinion.


  • But there's even another idea.


  • Option number three.


  • Option number three was based actually on language.

    read(本を読む)は 現在形も過去形も同じ綴りですが

  • It's the idea that "read" is the past tense of "read,"


  • and they're both spelled the same way.

    だから「Red(読書)ゾーン」と 呼びませんか?

  • So why don't we call this place The Red Zone?


  • I'll meet you at the Red Zone.

    「Redした?」 「Redしよう」

  • Are you Red? Get Red.


  • I'm well Red.


  • (Laughter)


  • I really loved this idea,


  • and I somehow was not focused on the idea

    司書は綴りに厳しいから readをredとするのはまずいかもしれない

  • that librarians as a class are sort of interested in spelling and I don't know.


  • (Laughter)

    しかし 時として綴りより 機転が重視されます

  • But sometimes cleverness is more important than spelling,

    今回のような場合が それに当たるだろうと思いました

  • and I thought this would be one of those instances.

    通常 私がこういうプレゼンをする時

  • So usually when I make these presentations


  • I say there's just one question and the question should be,

    「いやぁ 本当にありがとう!」

  • "How can I thank you, Mike?"

    でも 今回はどちらかというと こんな感じでした

  • But in this case, the question was more like,

    「えっ 冗談でしょう?」

  • "Um, are you kidding?"

    なぜなら 彼らに言わせると

  • Because, they said,


  • the premise of all this work

    古くてかび臭い図書室に 子供が飽き飽きしていることを

  • was that kids were bored with old libraries, musty old libraries.


  • They were tired of them.

    そもそも「図書室」らしいものを 子供たちは見たこともないのだと

  • And instead, they said, these kids have never really seen a library.


  • The school libraries in these schools

    あればあったで ぐちゃぐちゃに荒れているので

  • are really so dilapidated, if they're there at all,


  • that they haven't bored anyone.


  • They haven't even been there to bore anyone at all.

    つまり 新しい名前を考えるのは やめなさいと

  • So the idea was, just forget about giving it a new name.

    もう一度頑張ってごらんというわけで 「図書室」にしました

  • Just call it, one last try, a library.


  • Right? OK.

    だったら 少し躍動感を出して

  • So I thought, OK, give it a little oomph?


  • Exclamation point?

    さらに 私は頭が良いので

  • Then -- this is because I'm clever --


  • move that into the "i,"


  • make it red,

    「図書室イニシアチブ」の 出来上がり

  • and there you have it, the Library Initiative.

    こうしてロゴが完成し ミッション完了だと思いました

  • So I thought, mission accomplished, there's your logo.

    このロゴの面白いところ— ここでの意図せざる結果とは

  • So what's interesting about this logo, an unintended consequence,

    わざわざデザインする必要性自体が なかったことです

  • was that it turned out that they didn't really even need my design

    どんなフォントで入力しても作れるし 手書きしてもいいし

  • because you could type it any font, you could write it by hand,

    そのうちメールでも 使われ出しましたが

  • and when they started sending emails around,


  • they just would use Shift and 1,


  • they'd get their own logo just right out of the thing.

    私は それで良い―

  • And I thought, well, that's fine.


  • Feel free to use that logo.

    その後 実際の施工に着手し

  • And then I embarked on the real rollout of this thing --


  • working with every one of the architects

    図書室の入り口に このロゴを設置しました

  • to put this logo on the front door of their own library. Right?


  • So here's the big rollout.


  • Basically I'd work with different architects.

    ロビン・フッドだけでなく 建築家とのやりとりも始まりました

  • First Robin Hood was my client. Now these architects were my client.


  • I'd say, "Here's your logo. Put it on the door."


  • "Here's your logo. Put it on both doors."


  • "Here's your logo. Put it off to the side."


  • "Here's your logo repeated all over to the top."


  • So everything was going swimmingly.

    私の仕事は「このロゴを…」 と繰り返すだけでした

  • I just was saying, "Here's your logo. Here's your logo."

    そんな中 建築家の1人 リチャード・ルイスから

  • Then I got a call from one of the architects,

    「困ったことがある グラフィック担当として

  • a guy named Richard Lewis, and he says, "I've got a problem.

    解決してくれないか」と 電話がありました

  • You're the graphics guy. Can you solve it?"


  • And I said, OK, sure."

    「本棚と天井の間の空白が問題だ」 と言いました

  • And he said, "The problem is that there's a space


  • between the shelf and the ceiling."

    私には関係なさそうでしたが 続きを聞きました

  • So that sounds like an architectural issue to me,

    リチャードが言うには 「本棚の高さを

  • not a graphic design issue, so I'm, "Go on."

    子供の手が届くくらいに とどめなくてはならないが

  • And Richard says, "Well, the top shelf has to be low enough

    私の担当する校舎は 大きな古い建物で天井が非常に高い

  • for the kid to reach it,

    本棚の上から天井まで かなりの面積が空いているので

  • but I'm in a big old building, and the ceilings are really high,


  • so actually I've got all this space up there

    私は思わず 「えっ 私はロゴデザイナーであって

  • and I need something like a mural."


  • And I'm like, "Whoa, you know, I'm a logo designer.


  • I'm not Diego Rivera or something.


  • I'm not a muralist."

    こう提案しました 「じゃあ 児童の写真でも撮って

  • And so he said, "But can't you think of anything?"


  • So I said, "OK, what if we just took pictures of the kids in the school


  • and just put them around the top of the thing,


  • and maybe that could work."

    「ドロシー 予算はないんだが

  • And my wife is a photographer,

    東ニューヨークの学校で 写真を撮ってくれないか?」

  • and I said, "Dorothy, there's no budget,


  • can you come to this school in east New York, take these pictures?"


  • And she did,


  • and if you go in Richard's library,

    生き生きと活躍する児童の姿が 美しく壁を飾っています

  • which is one of the first that opened,

    特大サイズの子供たちが 図書室を見下ろし

  • it has this glorious frieze of, like, the heroes of the school,

    ドールハウスの中にいるような 気分になるでしょう

  • oversized, looking down

    被写体は 校長や司書が選んだ—

  • into the little dollhouse of the real library, right?


  • And the kids were great, hand-selected by the principals

    これで図書室が 華々しい雰囲気になりました

  • and the librarian.

    上には喜び溢れる子供たちの姿 下には落ち着きあるスペースです

  • It just kind of created this heroic atmosphere in this library,

    当然ながら 他校の司書も皆これを見て

  • this very dignified setting below and the joy of the children above.


  • So naturally all the other librarians in the other schools see this


  • and they said, well, we want murals too.

    全部の学校で同じデザインは 使えないと思いました

  • And I'm like, OK.

    妻には何回か 写真を撮ってもらいましたが

  • So then I think, well, it can't be the same mural every time,


  • so Dorothy did another one, and then she did another one,

    知人のリン・ポーリーという イラストレーターに電話すると

  • but then we needed more help,

    このように美しい 子供たちの絵を描いてくれました

  • so I called an illustrator I knew named Lynn Pauley,

    次にオートマティック・デザインの チャールズ・ウィルキンにお願いしたところ

  • and Lynn did these beautiful paintings of the kids.


  • Then I called a guy named Charles Wilkin at a place called Automatic Design.


  • He did these amazing collages.

    素敵なシルエット画を 描いてくれました

  • We had Rafael Esquer

    子供たち自身に 考えてもらった言葉の

  • do these great silhouettes.


  • He would work with the kids, asking for words,

    本に出てくるような 楽しさ溢れる小さなシルエットを

  • and then based on those prompts,


  • come up with this little, delirious kind of constellation

    ピーター・アークルは 児童と直接話をして

  • of silhouettes of things that are in books.


  • Peter Arkle interviewed the kids

    本人たちの言葉を 壁の装飾部分に載せました

  • and had them talk about their favorite books

    ステファン・サグマイスターは 清水裕子とコラボで

  • and he put their testimony as a frieze up there.

    美しいメッセージを 漫画風に描き上げました

  • Stefan Sagmeister worked with Yuko Shimizu

    「正直な人はみんな面白い」 というメッセージが

  • and they did this amazing manga-style statement,


  • "Everyone who is honest is interesting,"

    実力派イラストレーターの クリストフ・ニーマンは

  • that goes all the way around.


  • Christoph Niemann, brilliant illustrator,

    本に出てくるキャラクターや シーンや場所などに

  • did a whole series of things

    本を埋め込んだアートを 描き上げてくれました

  • where he embedded books into the faces and characters

    そして マイラ・カルマンも

  • and images and places that you find in the books.

    オブジェと言葉で壁を囲むという 不思議な作品を提供してくれました

  • And then even Maira Kalman

    展示されている限り 子供たちを魅了し続けることでしょう

  • did this amazing cryptic installation of objects and words


  • that kind of go all around and will fascinate students

    ここでの私の仕事は 一言で言えば 壁の寸法をとってアーティストに伝え

  • for as long as it's up there.


  • So this was really satisfying,

    「寸法は1.0mx4.5m 好きに使って

  • and basically my role here was reading a series of dimensions to these artists,


  • and I would say,

    そうすると作品を作ってくれる もう最高でした

  • "Three feet by 15 feet, whatever you want.

    でも 本当に最高だったのは…

  • Let me know if you have any problem with that."


  • And they would go and install these. It just was the greatest thing.

    色画用紙でできた 招待状が郵送されてきて

  • But the greatest thing, actually, was --

    「新しい図書室のオープニングに ご招待します」とあるのです

  • Every once in a while,

    そこで 例えばPS10という 学校に出向いて

  • I'd get, like, an invitation in the mail made of construction paper,


  • and it would say, "You are invited to the opening of our new library."

    風船があったり 児童代表が迎えてくれたり

  • So you'd go to the library, say, you'd go to PS10,


  • and you'd go inside.

    オープニング用に 特別に書れた詩の朗読があったり

  • There'd be balloons, there'd be a student ambassador,


  • there'd be speeches that were read,

    愉快で楽しい雰囲気の パーティーばかりだったので

  • poetry that was written specifically for the opening,


  • dignitaries would present people with certificates,

    明らかに場違いな感じの こんな格好で立っていると

  • and the whole thing was just a delirious, fun party.

    「どちら様ですか?」 と聞かれるので

  • So I loved going to these things.

    「図書室の改装チームの一員です」 と答えると

  • I would stand there dressed like this, obviously not belonging,


  • and someone would say, "What are you doing here, mister?"

    「違う」と言うと 「本棚の上の写真ですね?」

  • And I'd say, "Well, I'm part of the team that designed this place."


  • And they'd said, "You do these shelves?"

    「では 何を?」

  • And I said, "No." "You took the pictures up above."


  • "No."


  • "Well, what did you do?"


  • "You know when you came in? The sign over the door?"

    「そう それ!」

  • "The sign that says library?"

    すると こんな感じで返されるのでした 「そんなことを仕事にできたらいいですね」

  • (Laughter)

    こういう ささやかなオープニングへの参加は とても満足のいくものでした

  • "Yeah, I did that!"

    大体無視されたり 恥ずかしい思いをするものでしたが

  • And then they'd sort of go, "OK. Nice work if you can get it."


  • So it was so satisfying going to these little openings

    このプロジェクトに携わった 私の事務所の人たち―

  • despite the fact that I was kind of largely ignored or humiliated,

    イラストレーターや写真家に こんな提案をしてみました

  • but it was actually fun going to the openings,


  • so I decided that I wanted to get the people in