Placeholder Image

字幕表 動画を再生する

  • Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast


  • We're going to begin in 1964.


  • Bob Dylan is 23 years old, and his career


  • is just reaching its pinnacle.


  • He's been christened the voice of a generation,


  • and he's churning out classic songs


  • at a seemingly impossible rate,

    しかし一部の人たちは彼を非難し こう言いました

  • but there's a small minority of dissenters, and they claim

    「ボブ・ディランは 他人の曲を盗んでいる」

  • that Bob Dylan is stealing other people's songs.

    2004年 ブライアン・バートン つまりデンジャー・マウスは

  • 2004. Brian Burton, aka Danger Mouse,


  • takes the Beatles' "White Album,"


  • combines it with Jay-Z's "The Black Album"


  • to create "The Grey Album."

    その「グレイアルバム」が オンライン上で大ヒットすると

  • "The Grey Album" becomes an immediate sensation online,

    ビートルズのレコード会社は 販売差し止めを求め

  • and the Beatles' record company sends out countless

    大量の手紙を送りました 「これは不公平なやり方であり―

  • cease-and-desist letters for "unfair competition


  • and dilution of our valuable property."


  • Now, "The Grey Album" is a remix.


  • It is new media created from old media.


  • It was made using these three techniques:

    コピーする 変形する つなぎ合わせる です

  • copy, transform and combine.

    リミックスするには 既存の曲を選び

  • It's how you remix. You take existing songs,


  • you chop them up, you transform the pieces,


  • you combine them back together again,

    すると新しい曲になります しかもその曲は―

  • and you've got a new song, but that new song


  • is clearly comprised of old songs.

    しかし今までの曲は リミックスの素材として使われるだけでなく

  • But I think these aren't just the components of remixing.


  • I think these are the basic elements of all creativity.


  • I think everything is a remix,


  • and I think this is a better way to conceive of creativity.


  • All right, let's head back to 1964, and let's hear


  • where some of Dylan's early songs came from.


  • We'll do some side-by-side comparisons here.


  • All right, this first song you're going to hear

    フォークの古典「Nottamun Town」

  • is "Nottamun Town." It's a traditional folk tune.

    そしてディランの 「戦争の親玉」です

  • After that, you'll hear Dylan's "Masters of War."

    ♫ Nottamum Townには 人っ子一人いない― ♫

  • Jean Ritchie: ♫ In Nottamun Town, not a soul would look out, ♫

    ♫ 空を見ている人も うつむいている人もいない ♫

  • not a soul would look up, not a soul would look down. ♫

    ♫ おい 戦争の親玉たち― ♫

  • Bob Dylan: ♫ Come you masters of war, ♫

    ♫ 大型銃も 突撃用の飛行機も ♫

  • you that build the big guns, you that build the death planes, ♫

    ♫ 爆弾をつくるのもあんた方だ ♫

  • You that build all the bombs. ♫

    先ず メロディーが同じです

  • Kirby Ferguson: Okay, so that's the same basic melody

    曲の構造もです 次は「The Patriot Game」という

  • and overall structure. This next one is "The Patriot Game,"


  • by Dominic Behan. Alongside that,

    ディランの「With God on Our Side」です

  • you're going to hear "With God on Our Side," by Dylan.

    ♫ 全ての若い反逆者たちよ― ♫

  • Dominic Behan: ♫ Come all ye young rebels, ♫

    ♫ 私が歌う間 ここに名を連ねてくれ ♫

  • and list while I sing, ♫

    ♫ 愛する郷土が ひどい惨事だ ♫

  • for the love of one's land is a terrible thing. ♫

    ♫ 名前なんてどうでもいい ♫

  • BD: ♫ Oh my name it is nothin', ♫

    ♫ 年齢も大したことじゃない ♫

  • my age it means less, ♫

    ♫ 大事なのは僕の出身地 それはMidwestっていう所 ♫

  • the country I come from is called the Midwest. ♫


  • KF: Okay, so in this case, Dylan admits

    「The Patriot Game」を聞いたことが あると認めています

  • he must have heard "The Patriot Game," he forgot about it,


  • then when the song kind of bubbled back up


  • in his brain, he just thought it was his song.


  • Last one, this is "Who's Going To Buy You Ribbons,"

    「Who's Going To Buy You Ribbons」です

  • another traditional folk tune.

    これと「Don't Think Twice, It's All Right」

  • Alongside that is "Don't Think Twice, It's All Right."


  • This one's more about the lyric.

    ♫ 座り込んでため息をついたって ムダさ ♫

  • Paul Clayton: ♫ It ain't no use to sit and sigh now, ♫

    ♫ 今は 座り込んで泣いたって ムダさ♫

  • darlin', and it ain't no use to sit and cry now. ♫

    ♫ 座り込んで理由を考えたってダメさ♫

  • BD: ♫ It ain't no use to sit and wonder why, babe, ♫

    ♫ 今 分からなければ ♫

  • if you don't know by now, ♫

    ♫ 座り込んで理由を考えたってムダさ ♫

  • and it ain't no use to sit and wonder why, babe, ♫

    ♫ どうにもならない事なんだから ♫

  • it'll never do somehow. ♫


  • KF: Okay, now, there's a lot of these.


  • It's been estimated that two thirds of the melodies

    ほかの曲のメロディーを使っていると 言われています

  • Dylan used in his early songs were borrowed.

    ほかのフォーク歌手も よくやることです

  • This is pretty typical among folk singers.

    ディランが崇拝するウッディ・ガスリーは こう言います

  • Here's the advice of Dylan's idol, Woody Guthrie.


  • "The worlds are the important thing.

    「メロディーには悩むな それは盗め」

  • Don't worry about tunes. Take a tune,


  • sing high when they sing low,

    「ゆっくりした曲なら速く歌え それで新しい曲になる」

  • sing fast when they sing slow, and you've got a new tune."


  • (Laughter) (Applause)

    ガスリーは まさにそうしました

  • And that's, that's what Guthrie did right here,

    その結果は みなさんご存知でしょう

  • and I'm sure you all recognize the results.


  • (Music)


  • We know this tune, right? We know it?


  • Actually you don't.

    「When the World's on Fire」という

  • That is "When the World's on Fire," a very old melody,


  • in this case performed by the Carter Family.

    ガスリーはこれを使い 「This Land Is Your Land」を作りました

  • Guthrie adapted it into "This Land Is Your Land."

    ディランもほかのフォーク歌手のように 曲をコピーし

  • So, Bob Dylan, like all folk singers, he copied melodies,

    変形し つなぎ合わせて 新しい歌詞をつけました

  • he transformed them, he combined them with new lyrics

    それらは既存のものから 作られましたが

  • which were frequently their own concoction


  • of previous stuff.


  • Now, American copyright and patent laws run counter

    他人の作品から何かを作る 障害になります

  • to this notion that we build on the work of others.


  • Instead, these laws and laws around the world


  • use the rather awkward analogy of property.


  • Now, creative works may indeed be kind of like property,

    しかし私達はその作品で さらなる創作をします

  • but it's property that we're all building on,

    しっかりとした創作物が 生まれ育つには

  • and creations can only take root and grow


  • once that ground has been prepared.

    ヘンリー・フォードは言いました 「私は新しいものを作ったわけではない

  • Henry Ford once said, "I invented nothing new.

    ただ 先人たちの何世紀もの仕事を

  • I simply assembled the discoveries of other men


  • behind whom were centuries of work.

    進歩というものは 全ての要素がそろったときに

  • Progress happens when all the factors that make for it


  • are ready and then it is inevitable."

    2007年に 発売されたiPhoneにより

  • 2007. The iPhone makes it debut.

    Appleは世界に革新を もたらしました

  • Apple undoubtedly brings this innovation to us early,

    しかしそれは時間の問題で 中核をなす技術は

  • but its time was approaching because its core technology


  • had been evolving for decades.

    それは マルチタッチと呼ばれる―

  • That's multi-touch, controlling a device


  • by touching its display.


  • Here is Steve Jobs introducing multi-touch


  • and making a rather foreboding joke.


  • Steve Jobs: And we have invented a new technology


  • called multi-touch.


  • You can do multi-fingered gestures on it,

    なんと 特許も取りました (笑い)

  • and boy have we patented it. (Laughter)

    さて こちらの マルチタッチはどうでしょう

  • KF: Yes. And yet, here is multi-touch in action.

    1年ほど前の TEDでの講演です

  • This is at TED, actually, about a year earlier.

    彼はジェフ・ハン これこそマルチタッチです

  • This is Jeff Han, and, I mean, that's multi-touch.


  • It's the same animal, at least.


  • Let's hear what Jeff Han has to say about this


  • newfangled technology.


  • Jeff Han: Multi-touch sensing isn't anything --

    完全に新しいものではありません ビル・バクストンは

  • isn't completely new. I mean, people like Bill Buxton


  • have been playing around with it in the '80s.

    一番すばらしいと思うのは その技術ではなく

  • The technology, you know, isn't the most exciting thing here


  • right now other than probably its newfound accessibility.


  • KF: So he's pretty frank about it not being new.

    マルチタッチは 特許をとった項目の

  • So it's not multi-touch as a whole that's patented.


  • It's the small parts of it that are,


  • and it's in these small details where

    特許権が本来の趣旨と 矛盾しています

  • we can clearly see patent law contradicting its intent:

    役に立つ芸術の発展を 推進できていません

  • to promote the progress of useful arts.

    スライドでロックを外すのは 初めての方法です

  • Here is the first ever slide-to-unlock.

    Appleはこの方法の 特許を取りました

  • That is all there is to it. Apple has patented this.

    28ページもの ソフトウェアの特許ですが

  • It's a 28-page software patent, but I will summarize

    要約するとこうです 「指でアイコンをスライドさせると

  • what it covers. Spoiler alert: Unlocking your phone

    電話のロックが解除される。真似するな」 (笑い)

  • by sliding an icon with your finger. (Laughter)

    少々大げさに言いますが 広範囲の特許です

  • I'm only exaggerating a little bit. It's a broad patent.

    このアイディアを 所有できるでしょうか

  • Now, can someone own this idea?

    ソフトの特許がなかった 80年代

  • Now, back in the '80s, there were no software patents,

    ゼロックスがGUIを 開発していました

  • and it was Xerox that pioneered the graphical user interface.

    もしゼロックスがポップアップ・メニューや スクロールバー

  • What if they had patented pop-up menus,

    フォルダーや書類などの アイコンが並ぶディスクトップの

  • scrollbars, the desktop with icons that look like folders


  • and sheets of paper?


  • Would a young and inexperienced Apple


  • have survived the legal assault from a much larger

    法的な攻撃に 耐えられたでしょうか

  • and more mature company like Xerox?

    すべてはリミックスだと わかっていても

  • Now, this idea that everything is a remix might sound

    自分のものがリミックスされると 考えは一変します

  • like common sense until you're the one getting remixed.


  • For example ...


  • SJ: I mean, Picasso had a saying.

    「よい芸術家は模写し 偉大な芸術家は盗む」

  • He said, "Good artists copy. Great artists steal."


  • And we have, you know,

    臆することなく 偉大なアイデアを盗んできました

  • always been shameless about stealing great ideas.


  • KF: Okay, so that's in '96. Here's in 2010.


  • "I'm going to destroy Android because it's a stolen product."


  • (Laughter)

    「核戦争を仕掛けてでも破壊してやる」 と言ってます(笑い)

  • "I'm willing to go thermonuclear war on this." (Laughter)

    偉大な芸術家は盗むが 私からは盗むな ということですね

  • Okay, so in other words, great artists steal, but not from me.


  • (Laughter)

    行動経済学では 喪失への嫌悪と言いますが

  • Now, behavioral economists might refer to this sort of thing as loss aversion


  • We have a strong predisposition towards protecting


  • what we feel is ours.


  • We have no such aversion towards copying

    当たり前のことなので 嫌悪を感じません

  • what other people have, because we do that nonstop.


  • So here's the sort of equation we're looking at.

    基本的に創作物を 財産とみなす法律があり

  • We've got laws that fundamentally treat creative works as property,

    権利侵害をすれば 罰金や調停

  • plus massive rewards or settlements


  • in infringement cases, plus huge legal fees


  • to protect yourself in court,

    権利を失いたくないという 先入観もあります

  • plus cognitive biases against perceived loss.


  • And the sum looks like this.

    スマートフォン時代の この4年間で

  • That is the last four years of lawsuits


  • in the realm of smartphones.

    では訴訟によって 芸術が進歩しているでしょうか

  • Is this promoting the progress of useful arts?


  • 1983. Bob Dylan is 42 years old, and his time

    文化の担い手として 依然として注目されていました

  • in the cultural spotlight is long since past.

    彼がつくったのは ブルース歌手の名をとった

  • He records a song called "Blind Willie McTell,"

    「Blind Willie McTell」

  • named after the blues singer, and the song

    その歌で巡るのは とても暗い過去

  • is a voyage through the past, through a much darker time,

    ウィリー・マックテルのような ミュージシャンたちが

  • but a simpler one, a time when musicians like Willie McTell

    自らの行動をシンプルに 理解していた時代です

  • had few illusions about what they did.


  • "I jump 'em from other writers


  • but I arrange 'em my own way."


  • I think this is mostly what we do.

    創造力は内部ではなく 外部から生まれます

  • Our creativity comes from without, not from within.

    みんながお互いに 依存し合っています

  • We are not self-made. We are dependent on one another,

    この事実を認めても 私たちが独創的でないと

  • and admitting this to ourselves isn't an embrace


  • of mediocrity and derivativeness.


  • It's a liberation from our misconceptions,

    過大なことを求めずに とにかく始めてみるための

  • and it's an incentive to not expect so much from ourselves

    きっかけを 与えてくれるでしょう

  • and to simply begin.


  • Thank you so much. It was an honor to be here.


  • Thank you. (Applause)

    どうも ありがとう(拍手)

  • Thank you. Thank you. (Applause)


  • Thank you. (Applause)

Translator: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Morton Bast



動画の操作 ここで「動画」の調整と「字幕」の表示を設定することができます

B1 中級 日本語 TED ディラン マルチ タッチ 特許 アルバム

TED】Creativity is a remix|カービー・ファーガソン (【TED】Creativity is a remix | Kirby Ferguson)

  • 367 25
    Fatlo に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日