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  • Neferneferuaten Nefertiti was the Great Royal Wife of Akhenaten, an Egyptian Pharaoh. Nefertiti

  • and her husband were known for a religious revolution, in which they worshiped one god

  • only, Aten, or the sun disc. Akhenaten and Nefertiti were responsible for the creation

  • of a whole new religion which changed the ways of religion within Egypt. With her husband,

  • they reigned at what was arguably the wealthiest period of Ancient Egyptian history. Some scholars

  • believe that Nefertiti ruled briefly as Neferneferuaten after her husband's death and before the accession

  • of Tutankhamun, although this identification is a matter of ongoing debate.

  • Nefertiti had many titles including Hereditary Princess; Great of Praises; Lady of Grace,

  • Sweet of Love; Lady of The Two Lands; Main King’s Wife, his beloved; Great King’s

  • Wife, his beloved, Lady of all Women; and Mistress of Upper and Lower Egypt.

  • She was made famous by her bust, now in Berlin's Neues Museum, shown to the right. The bust

  • is one of the most copied works of ancient Egypt. It was attributed to the sculptor Thutmose,

  • and it was found in his workshop. The bust is notable for exemplifying the understanding

  • Ancient Egyptians had regarding realistic facial proportions.

  • Family See also : Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt Family

  • Tree

  • Nefertiti, Egyptian Nfr.t-jy.tj, original pronunciation approximately Nafteta, for.

  • Nefertiti's parentage is not known with certainty, but one often cited theory is that she was

  • the daughter of Ay, later to be pharaoh. Scenes in the tombs of the nobles in Amarna mention

  • the queen’s sister who is named Mutbenret. Another theory that gained some support identified

  • Nefertiti with the Mitanni princess Tadukhipa. The exact dates of when Nefertiti was married

  • to Akhenaten and later promoted to queenship are uncertain. Their six known daughters were:

  • Meritaten: No later than year 1, possibly later became Pharaoh Nefernferuaten.

  • Meketaten: Year 4. Ankhesenpaaten, also known as Ankhesenamen,

  • later queen of Tutankhamun Neferneferuaten Tasherit: Year, possibly later

  • became Pharaoh Nefernferuaten. Neferneferure: Year 9.

  • Setepenre: Year 11. Life

  • Nefertiti first appears in scenes in Thebes. In the damaged tomb of the royal butler Parennefer,

  • the new king Amenhotep IV is accompanied by a royal woman, and this lady is thought to

  • be an early depiction of Nefertiti. The king and queen are shown worshiping the Aten. In

  • the tomb of the vizier Ramose, Nefertiti is shown standing behind Amenhotep IV in the

  • Window of Appearance during the reward ceremony for the vizier.

  • During the early years in Thebes, Akhenaten had several temples erected at Karnak. One

  • of the structures, the Mansion of the Benben, was dedicated to Nefertiti. She is depicted

  • with her daughter Meritaten and in some scenes the princess Meketaten participates in the

  • scenes as well. In scenes found on the talatat, Nefertiti appears almost twice as often as

  • her husband. She is shown appearing behind her husband the Pharaoh in offering scenes

  • in the role of the queen supporting her husband, but she is also depicted in scenes that would

  • have normally been the prerogative of the king. She is shown smiting the enemy, and

  • captive enemies decorate her throne. In the fourth year of his reign, Amenhotep

  • IV decided to move the capital to Akhetaten. In his fifth year, Amenhotep IV officially

  • changed his name to Akhenaten, and Nefertiti was henceforth known as Neferneferuaten-Nefertiti.

  • The name change was a sign of the ever-increasing importance of the cult of the Aten. It changed

  • Egypt's religion from a polytheistic religion to a religion which may have been better described

  • as a monolatry or henotheism. The boundary stelae of years 4 and 5 mark

  • the boundaries of the new city and suggest that the move to the new city of Akhetaten

  • occurred around that time. The new city contained several large open-air temples dedicated to

  • the Aten. Nefertiti and her family would have resided in the Great Royal Palace in the center

  • of the city and possibly at the Northern Palace as well. Nefertiti and the rest of the royal

  • family feature prominently in the scenes at the palaces and in the tombs of the nobles.

  • Nefertiti’s steward during this time was an official named Meryre II. He would have

  • been in charge of running her household. Inscriptions in the tombs of Huya and Meryre

  • II dated to Year 12, 2nd month of Peret, Day 8 show a large foreign tribute. The people

  • of Kharu and Kush are shown bringing gifts of gold and precious items to Akhenaten and

  • Nefertiti. In the tomb of Meryre II, Nefertiti’s steward, the royal couple is shown seated

  • in a kiosk with their six daughters in attendance. This is one of the last times princess Meketaten

  • is shown alive. Two representations of Nefertiti that were

  • excavated by Flinders Petrie appear to show Nefertiti in the middle to later part of Akhenaten's

  • reign 'after the exaggerated style of the early years had relaxed somewhat'. One is

  • a small piece on limestone and is a preliminary sketch of Nefertiti wearing her distinctive

  • tall crown with carving began around the mouth, chin, ear and tab of the crown. Another is

  • a small inlay head modeled from reddish-brown quartzite that was clearly intended to fit

  • into a larger composition. Meketaten may have died in year 13 or 14.

  • Nefertiti, Akhenaten, and three princesses are shown mourning her. Nefertiti disappears

  • from the scene soon after that. Death

  • Old Theories Pre-2012 Egyptological theories thought that

  • Nefertiti vanished from the historical record around Year 14 of Akhenaten's reign, with

  • no word of her thereafter. Explanations included a sudden death, by a plague that was sweeping

  • through the city, or some other natural death. This theory was based on the discovery of

  • several shabti fragments inscribed for Nefertiti. A previous theory, that she fell into disgrace,

  • was discredited when deliberate erasures of monuments belonging to a queen of Akhenaten

  • were shown to refer to Kiya instead. During Akhenaten's reign, Nefertiti enjoyed

  • unprecedented power. By the twelfth year of his reign, there is evidence she may have

  • been elevated to the status of co-regent: equal in status to the pharaohas may

  • be depicted on the Coregency Stela. It is possible Nefertiti is the ruler named

  • Neferneferuaten. Some theories believe that Nefertiti was still alive and held influence

  • on the younger royals. If this is the case, that influence and presumably Nefertiti's

  • own life would have ended by year 3 of Tutankhaten's reign. In that year, Tutankhaten changed his

  • name to Tutankhamun. This is evidence of his return to the official worship of Amun, and

  • abandonment of Amarna to return the capital to Thebes.

  • New Theories Discovered in 2012, a Regnal Year 16, month

  • 3 of Akhet, day 15 inscription, dated explicitly to Akhenaten's reign, mentions the presence

  • of the "Great Royal Wife, His Beloved, Mistress of the Two Lands, Neferneferuaten Nefertiti".

  • The badly legible five line text "mentions a building project in Amarna".

  • This means that Nefertiti was alive in the second to last year of Akhenaten's reign,

  • and demonstrates that Akhenaten still ruled alone, with his wife by his side. Therefore,

  • the rule of the female Amarna pharaoh known as Neferneferuaten must be placed between

  • the death of Akhenaten and the accession of Tutankhamun. This female pharaoh used the

  • epithet 'Effective for her husband' in one of her cartouches, which means she was either

  • Nefertiti or her daughter Meritaten. Burial

  • There are many theories regarding her death and burial but, to date, the mummy of this

  • famous queen, her parents or her children has not been found or formally identified.

  • In 1898, archeologist Victor Loret found two female mummies inside the tomb of Amenhotep

  • II in KV35 in the Valley of the Kings. These two mummies, named 'The Elder Lady' and 'The

  • Younger Lady', were likely candidates of her remains.

  • The KMT suggested in 2001 that the Elder Lady may be Nefertiti's body. It was argued that

  • the evidence suggests that the mummy is around her mid-thirties or early forties, Nefertiti's

  • guessed age of death. More evidence to support this identification was that the mummy's teeth

  • look like that of a 29-38 year old, Nefertiti's most likely age of death. Also, unfinished

  • busts of Nefertiti appear to resemble the mummy's face, though other suggestions included

  • Ankhesenamun. Due to recent age tests on the mummy's teeth,

  • it eventually became apparent that the 'Elder Lady' is in fact Queen Tiye, mother of Akhenaten

  • and that the DNA of the mummy is a close, if not direct, match to the lock of hair found

  • in Tutankhamun's tomb. The lock of hair was found in a coffinette bearing an inscription

  • naming Queen Tiye. Results have discovered that she was the daughter of Yuya and Thuya,

  • who were the parents of Queen Tiye, thus ruling her out as Nefertiti.

  • "Younger Lady"

  • On June 9, 2003, archaeologist Joann Fletcher, a specialist in ancient hair from the University

  • of York in England, announced that Nefertiti's mummy may have been the Younger Lady. Fletcher

  • suggested that Nefertiti was the Pharaoh Smenkhkare. Some Egyptologists hold to this view though

  • the majority believe Smenkhkare to have been a separate person. Fletcher led an expedition

  • funded by the Discovery Channel to examine what they believed to have been Nefertiti's

  • mummy. The team claimed that the mummy they examined

  • was damaged in a way suggesting the body had been deliberately desecrated in antiquity.

  • Mummification techniques, such as the use of embalming fluid and the presence of an

  • intact brain, suggested an eighteenth-dynasty royal mummy. Other elements which the team

  • used to support their theory were the age of the body, the presence of embedded nefer

  • beads, and a wig of a rare style worn by Nefertiti. They further claimed that the mummy's arm

  • was originally bent in the position reserved for pharaohs, but was later snapped off and

  • replaced with another arm in a normal position. Most Egyptologists, among them Kent Weeks

  • and Peter Locavara, generally dismiss Fletcher's claims as unsubstantiated. They say that ancient

  • mummies are almost impossible to identify as a particular person without DNA. As bodies

  • of Nefertiti's parents or children have never been identified, her conclusive identification

  • is impossible. Any circumstantial evidence, such as hairstyle and arm position, is not

  • reliable enough to pinpoint a single, specific historical person. The cause of damage to

  • the mummy can only be speculated upon, and the alleged revenge is an unsubstantiated

  • theory. Bent arms, contrary to Fletcher's claims, were not reserved to pharaohs; this

  • was also used for other members of the royal family. The wig found near the mummy is of

  • unknown origin, and cannot be conclusively linked to that specific body. Finally, the

  • 18th dynasty was one of the largest and most prosperous dynasties of ancient Egypt. A female

  • royal mummy could be any of a hundred royal wives or daughters from the 18th dynasty's

  • more than 200 years on the throne. In addition, there was controversy about both

  • the age and sex of the mummy. On June 12, 2003, Egyptian archaeologist Dr. Zahi Hawass,

  • head of Egypt's Supreme Council for Antiquities, also dismissed the claim, citing insufficient

  • evidence. On August 30, 2003, Reuters further quoted Hawass: "I'm sure that this mummy is

  • not a female", and "Dr Fletcher has broken the rules and therefore, at least until we

  • have reviewed the situation with her university, she must be banned from working in Egypt."

  • On different occasions, Hawass has claimed that the mummy is female and male.

  • In a more recent research effort led by Hawass, the mummy was put through CT scan analysis.

  • Researchers concluded that she may be Tutankhamun's biological mother, an unnamed daughter of

  • Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye, not Nefertiti. Fragments of shattered bone were found in

  • the sinus, and blood clots were found. The theory that the damage was inflicted post-mummification

  • was rejected, and a murder scenario was deemed more likely. The broken-off bent forearm found

  • near the mummy, which had been proposed to have belonged to mummy, was conclusively shown

  • not to actually belong to it. Scholars think that, after Tutankhamun returned Egypt to

  • the traditional religion, he moved his closest relatives: father, grandmother, and biological

  • mother, to the Valley of the Kings to be buried with him.

  • Iconic status

  • Nefertiti's place as an icon in popular culture is secure as she has become something of a

  • celebrity. After Cleopatra she is the second most famous "Queen" of Ancient Egypt in the

  • Western imagination. In the arts

  • Novels Mika Waltari, The Egyptian.

  • Allen Drury, God Against the Gods. Story of Akhenaten and Nefertiti.

  • Naguib Mahfouz, Akhenaten, Dweller in Truth Nefertiti is one of the characters who reflects

  • on Akhenaten and the Amarna period Michelle Moran: Nefertiti: A Novel..

  • Music Nefertiti is a classical ballet by American

  • composer John Craton "Nefertiti, Sun Goddess" appears on the demo

  • album compact disc, "The Aten Shines Again" by Leo-Neferuaten Boyle. A subsequent YouTube

  • video was created for the track in November 2012.

  • "Nefertiti" is a studio album by American jazz musician Miles Davis, released in December

  • 1967. Film

  • (1954) The Egyptian, played by Anitra Stevens (1961) Nefertiti, Queen of the Nile, played

  • by Jeanne Crain (1994) Nefertiti, figlia del sole, played

  • by Michela Rocco di Torrepadula Television

  • Doctor Who, "Dinosaurs on a Spaceship", played by Riann Steele

  • The Loretta Young Show, "Queen Nefertiti", played by Loretta Young. Alternate title "Letter

  • to Loretta" Nefertiti was also cited as inspiration for

  • the character Cortana in the Halo video game series.

  • Gallery

  • References

  • External links Staatliche Museen zu Berlin: Egyptian Museum

  • and Papyrus Collection

Neferneferuaten Nefertiti was the Great Royal Wife of Akhenaten, an Egyptian Pharaoh. Nefertiti

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ネフェルティティ (Nefertiti)

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    spshih2 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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