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  • So, I teach college students about inequality and race in education,

    翻訳: Shoko Takaki 校正: Masaki Yanagishita

  • and I like to leave my office open to any of my students

    私は大学生に 教育における不平等や 人種に関する講義をしています

  • who might just want to see me to chat.

    私に会って 話をしてみたいと思う 全ての学生に

  • And a few semesters ago,

    自分の部屋を 開放しています

  • one of my more cheerful students, Mahari,


  • actually came to see me

    私の学生の1人で 陽気なマハーリが

  • and mentioned that he was feeling a bit like an outcast because he's black.


  • He had just transferred to NYU from a community college

    自分は黒人だから ちょっと よそ者のような気がすると言いました

  • on a merit scholarship,

    彼はコミュニティカレッジから 奨学金をもらって

  • and turns out,

    ニューヨーク大学(NYU)に 移ってきたのですが

  • only about five percent of students at NYU are black.

    結局 NYUには

  • And so I started to remember

    黒人学生が わずか 5%しかいないと知りました

  • that I know that feeling of being an outsider

    そこで 私は思い出しました

  • in your own community.

    自分自身のコミュニティの中で 部外者と感じる気持ちは

  • It's partially what drew me to my work.


  • At my university,

    今の仕事にひきつけられた 理由の一つです

  • I'm one of the few faculty members of color,

    うちの大学でも 私は

  • and growing up, I experienced my family's social mobility,

    数少ない有色人種の 教職員メンバーの1人です

  • moving out of apartments into a nice house,

    また 家庭の社会的移動を 経験しながら 育ちました

  • but in an overwhelmingly white neighborhood.

    アパートを出て ちょっと素敵な家に移りましたが

  • I was 12,

    近隣住民は 圧倒的に 白人ばかりでした

  • and kids would say that were surprised that I didn't smell like curry.


  • (Laughter)

    周囲の子供達は 私から カレーの匂いがしないので 驚いていました

  • That's because school is in the morning,


  • and I had Eggo waffles for breakfast.

    それは 学校が午前中にあり

  • (Laughter)

    朝食は ワッフルだったからです

  • Curry is for dinner.


  • (Laughter)


  • So when Mahari was leaving,


  • I asked him how he was coping with feeling isolated.


  • And he said that despite feeling lonely,

    私は孤立という感情に どう対処しているかと訊きました

  • he just threw himself at his work,

    すると彼は 孤独を感じるけれども

  • that he built strategies around his grit


  • and his desire to be successful.

    成功への願望や やり抜く力を

  • A mentor of mine is actually Dr. Angela Duckworth,


  • the psychologist at UPenn who has defined this stick-to-activeness of grit

    私の指導教授の一人は アンジェラ・ダックワース博士です

  • as being "the perseverance and passion for long-term goals."

    粘り強い「やり抜く力」を 「長期目標に対する根気強さと情熱」と定義した

  • Angela's book has become a bestseller,


  • and schools across the country,

    アンジェラの本は ベストセラーになり

  • particularly charter schools,


  • have become interested in citing "grit" as a core value.


  • But sometimes grit isn't enough,

    「やり抜く力」を 基本的価値と呼ぶようになりました

  • especially in education.


  • So when Mahari was leaving my office,


  • I worried that he might need something more specific

    それで マハーリが部屋を去る時

  • to combat the challenges that he mentioned to me.

    私に話してくれた困難に 立ち向かう為

  • As a sociologist, I also study achievement,

    彼には より具体的な何かが 必要かもしれないと思いました

  • but from a slightly different perspective.

    私も社会学者として 少しばかり異なる観点から

  • I research students who have overcome immense obstacles


  • related to their background.

    自分の生活背景に関係した 計り知れない障壁を乗り越えてきた

  • Students from low-income,


  • often single-parent households,


  • students who have been homeless, incarcerated or perhaps undocumented,


  • or some who have struggled with substance abuse

    ホームレスや収監の経験があったり 非登録外国人だったであろう学生

  • or lived through violent or sexual trauma.

    薬物乱用に苦しんだ学生 暴力による あるいは性的トラウマを

  • So let me tell you about two of the grittiest people I've met.


  • Tyrique was raised by a single mother,

    これまで出会った中で 最もやり抜く力のある2人をご紹介します

  • and then after high school, he fell in with the wrong crowd.


  • He got arrested for armed robbery.

    高校卒業後 悪い仲間と付き合うようになりました

  • But in prison, he started to work hard.


  • He took college credit courses,


  • so when he got out, he was able to get a master's,


  • and today he's a manager at a nonprofit.

    出所した時 修士号を 取得する事が出来ました

  • Vanessa had to move around a lot as a kid,

    そして今 NPOで 管理職を務めています

  • from the Lower East Side to Staten Island to the Bronx.

    ヴァネッサは子供の頃 ローワーイーストサイドから

  • She was raised primarily by her extended family,

    スタテン島やブロンクスまで 様々な場所に移り住み

  • because her own mother had a heroin addiction.


  • Yet at 15,

    彼女の母親が ヘロイン中毒だったからです

  • Vanessa had to drop out of school,


  • and she had a son of her own.


  • But eventually, she was able to go to community college,


  • get her associate's,

    しかし彼女はコミュニティカレッジに 進学する事ができ

  • then go to an elite college to finish her bachelor's.


  • So some people might hear these stories and say,

    学士号取得の為に 優秀な大学へ進学しました

  • "Yes, those two definitely have grit.

    そんな話を聞くと こう言う人がいるでしょう

  • They basically pulled themselves up by the bootstraps."

    「そう この2人は 確かにやり抜く力を持っている

  • But that's an incomplete picture,


  • because what's more important

    しかしそれだけでは 捉え方が不十分です

  • is that they had factors in their lives that helped to influence their agency,


  • or their specific capacity

    力や特定の能力に 影響を及ぼす要素が

  • to actually overcome the obstacles that they were facing


  • and navigate the system given their circumstances.

    直面している障壁を乗り越え 置かれた状況下のシステムの中で

  • So, allow me to elaborate.


  • In prison, Tyrique was actually aimless at first,

    だから 詳しく話をさせて下さい

  • as a 22-year-old on Rikers Island.

    刑務所で タイリークは 22歳当初 ライカーズ島にいて

  • This is until an older detainee took him aside

    年長の拘留者が 彼を選びだして

  • and asked him to help with the youth program.

    青少年プログラムの 援助を求めるまでは

  • And in mentoring youth,


  • he started to see his own mistakes and possibilities in the teens.


  • This is what got him interested in taking college-credit courses.

    10代の若者の中に 自分自身の 過ちと可能性を見い出しました

  • And when he got out,

    この経験が 単位取得講座に関心を 持つきっかけとなったのです

  • he got a job with Fortune Society,


  • where many executives are people who have been formerly incarcerated.

    彼はフォーチュン・ソサエティに 職を紹介されました

  • So then he was able to get a master's in social work,

    この組織の理事の多くは かつて 収監されていた人達です

  • and today, he even lectures at Columbia about prison reform.

    その後 彼は社会福祉学の 修士号を取得出来たのです

  • And Vanessa ...

    そして今 彼はコロンビア大学で 刑務所改善に関する講義を行っています

  • well, after the birth of her son,


  • she happened to find a program called Vocational Foundation


  • that gave her 20 dollars biweekly,

    ボケーショナル(職業訓練)基金という プログラムをたまたま見つけました

  • a MetroCard


  • and her first experiences with a computer.

    地下鉄乗車カード そして

  • These simple resources are what helped her get her GED,

    コンピューターに触れる 初めての機会を得ました

  • but then she suffered from a very serious kidney failure,

    これらの慎ましい資源は彼女が GEDを取得する手助けとなりましたが

  • which was particularly problematic because she was only born with one kidney.

    その時 彼女は深刻な腎臓疾患に かかりました

  • She spent 10 years on dialysis waiting for a successful transplant.

    生まれつき腎臓が1つしかなかったので 極めて困難な問題でした

  • After that,

    透析を10年間続けた末に 待望の腎臓移植を受けることができました

  • her mentors at community college had kept in touch with her,


  • and so she was able to go,

    コミュニティカレッジの指導教員が 彼女と連絡を取り続けていて

  • and they put her in an honors program.


  • And that's the pathway that allowed her to become accepted


  • to one of the most elite colleges for women in the country,

    それが彼女が米国で 最も優秀な女子大の1つに

  • and she received her bachelor's at 36,


  • setting an incredible example for her young son.


  • What these stories primarily indicate is that teaching is social

    若い息子にとって 素晴らしい模範を示したのです

  • and benefits from social scaffolding.

    何よりも この話が示しているのは 教える事は社会的であり

  • There were factors pushing these two in one direction,

    社会的な基本構造からの 恩恵である事です

  • but through tailored mentorship and opportunities,

    2人にはこの方向に後押しされる 要因もありましたが

  • they were able to reflect on their circumstances


  • and resist negative influences.


  • They also learned simple skills like developing a network,


  • or asking for help --

    彼らは人脈を広めたり 助けを求める といった単純なスキルも

  • things many of us in this room can forget that we have needed from time to time,


  • or can take for granted.

    ここにいる多くの方が 時折必要となっている事すら忘れたり

  • And when we think of people like this,


  • we should only think of them as exceptional, but not as exceptions.


  • Thinking of them as exceptions absolves us

    私達は彼らを「例外」ではなく 「特別に頑張った」と考えるべきなのです

  • of the collective responsibility to help students in similar situations.


  • When Presidents Bush, Obama and now even Trump,

    同じ状況にある学生を助ける 共同の責任から免れようとする事なのです

  • have called education "the civil rights issue of our time,"

    ブッシュ、オバマそして トランプ大統領でさえ

  • perhaps we should treat it that way.

    教育を「我々の時代の市民の権利」 と呼んできたし

  • If schools were able to think about the agency that their students have

    おそらくそのように 扱うべきなのです

  • and bring to the table when they push them,

    もし学校が 学生の持つ能力について考え

  • what students learn can become more relevant to their lives,

    彼らが問題を提起した時 それを取り上げられるなら

  • and then they can tap into those internal reservoirs of grit and character.

    学生が学ぶ事は 彼らの生活とより密接になり

  • So this here --

    彼らが内面に蓄えた やり抜く気概と気質を 利用する事が出来るのです

  • My student Mahari


  • got accepted to law school with scholarships,

    私の学生 マハーリは

  • and not to brag,

    奨学金つきでロースクールへの入学を 許可されました

  • but I did write one of his letters of recommendation.


  • (Laughter)


  • And even though I know hard work is what got him this achievement,


  • I've seen him find his voice along the way,

    この業績は彼の 真摯な努力の結果なのは明らかですが

  • which as someone who's grown up a little bit shy and awkward,

    この間 彼がようやく声を上げるのを 目にしました

  • I know it takes time and support.

    それは 少しばかり内気で 不器用な人物としては

  • So even though he will rely a lot on his grit


  • to get him through that first-year law school grind,

    だから たとえロースクールの 1年次の勉強を切り抜けるのに

  • I'll be there as a mentor for him,

    自分のやり抜く力に 大いに頼るとしても

  • check in with him from time to time,

    私は彼の助言者として ここにいて

  • maybe take him out to get some curry ...


  • (Laughter)

    連れ出して カレーを食べに行くかも…

  • so that he can keep growing his agency to succeed even more.


  • Thank you.

    彼がより成功する為の能力を 育み続けられるように

  • (Applause)


So, I teach college students about inequality and race in education,

翻訳: Shoko Takaki 校正: Masaki Yanagishita


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    kevin880524 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日