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  • What if the state covered your cost of living, would you still go to work?

    国が生活費を支給して くれるとしたら

  • Go back to school?

    それでも働きに行く?

  • Not work at all? What would you do?

    学校に戻る?

  • This concept is called a universal basic income or UBI

    全然働かない?

  • And it's nothing less than the most ambitious social policy of our times

    あなたならどうする?

  • in 2017, basic income is gaining momentum around the world

    この考え方が最低所得保障 (UBI)と呼ばれるもので、

  • First trials are ongoing or on their way

    こんにちの最も野心的な 社会政策のひとつだ

  • and a growing number of countries are considering UBI as an alternative to welfare

    2017年、ベーシックインカムは 世界的に脚光をあびはじめた

  • How would it work and what are the key arguments for and against?

    初めての試行がいくつか 進行中だし、

  • Right now people can't really agree. What universal basic income is or should be

    福祉事業に替わるものとして UBIを検討する国が増えている

  • Some want to use it to eliminate welfare and Cupp bureaucracy

    それはどういうしくみで働き、 賛否両論の要点はどこだろう?

  • Others want it as a free extra for existing programs, or even want it to be so high that work itself becomes optional

    UBIが何であり、どうあるべきかという きちんとした合意は、まだ存在しない

  • For this video we'll talk mostly about the minimum basic income

    福祉事業を廃止して、お役所仕事を 減らすために使おうという者もいれば

  • enough money to be above the poverty line

    既存政策に無料で 追加すべきという者や、

  • in the US this means about $1,000 a month or $12,000 a year

    労働がオプションになってしまうほど 支給額を高くしようという者もいる

  • The money would not be taxed and you could do whatever you wanted with it in

    この動画では、最小限の BIについて話そう

  • In this scenario UBI is a way of transferring the wealth of a society

    貧困線をかろうじて 超える額のお金

  • while still keeping the free market intact

    アメリカでなら月1,000ドル、 年12,000ドルを意味する

  • But if we hand out free money will people just spend it on booze and stop working?

    そのお金は非課税で、 何に使ってもいい

  • A 2013 study by the World Bank

    このシナリオではUBIは 社会の富の再分配手段で

  • specifically examined if poor people waste their handouts on tobacco and alcohol if they receive it in the form of cash

    自由市場には手をつけない

  • The clear answer, no they don't. The opposite is true

    でも再分配されたお金で人々は 遊び暮らし、働かなくなるのでは?

  • Other studies have shown that the richer you are, the more drugs and alcohol you consume

    2013年の、 世界銀行による研究では、

  • The lazy and drunk poor person is a stereotype rather than reality

    貧しい人が無料支給を、酒や タバコに浪費してしまわないか

  • What about laziness?

    という点を特に調査した

  • Universal basic income test runs done in Canada in the 1970s showed that around

    答えは明確で、ノー 全く反対が真実だった

  • 1% of the recipients stopped working, mostly to take care of their kids

    別の研究では、豊かな人ほど ドラッグや酒を消費していた

  • On average people reduced their working hours by less than 10%

    怠惰で酒飲みの貧困者というのは ステレオタイプな思い込みだったのだ

  • The extra time was used to achieve goals like going back to school or looking for better jobs

    怠惰についてはどうか?

  • But if laziness and drugs are not a huge deal, Why doesn't our current welfare state solve poverty

    1970年代のカナダでの UBIの試行では

  • Welfare or unemployment programs often come with a lot of strings attached

    1%程度の受給者は子供の 世話のために働くのをやめたが、

  • Like taking part in courses,

    労働時間短縮は平均10%以下で

  • Applying to a certain number of jobs a month or accepting any kind of job offer

    増えた時間は、学校に戻って勉強したり、 より良い仕事を探したり、に使われた

  • no matter if it's a good fit, or what it pays

    でも怠惰やドラッグが 問題ではないのなら

  • Besides the loss of personal freedom, these conditions are often a huge waste of time and only served to make the unemployment statistics

    現代の福祉国家が貧困を 解決できないのは何故か?

  • Seem less bad

    福祉や失業政策は、 がんじがらめだ

  • Often your time would be much better spent looking for the right job

    それはまったく言いなりに

  • continuing education or starting a business

    毎月決まった数の 仕事をこなせとか、

  • Another unwanted side effect of many welfare programs is that they trap people in poverty and promote passive behavior

    賃金や適性と関係なく

  • Imagine a benefit of $1,000 each month

    どんな仕事でも受け入れよとか

  • in a lot of programs if you earn a single dollar extra the whole thing is taken away

    個人の自由を損なうばかりか、

  • If you take a job, that's paying $1200 you might not only lose your benefits,

    大いなる時間の無駄であり

  • but because of your taxes and another costs like transportation

    雇用統計をちょっと 改善する程度の

  • You might end up having less money than before

    効果しかない

  • So if you actively try to better your situation, and your total income is not improving or even a shrinking

    もっと適性に合った 仕事を探したり

  • welfare can create a ceiling that traps people in poverty

    勉強したり、起業した方が 良かっただろうに

  • and rewards passive behavior

    福祉政策の別の副作用は 人々を貧困にとどめ、

  • A basic income can never be cut and therefore getting a job and additional income would always make your financial situation better

    受動的にさせることだ

  • Work is always rewarded

    月に1,000ドルの給付金が あるとする

  • instead of a ceiling it creates a floor from which people can lift themselves up

    多くの制度では、1ドルでも稼ぎがあると 給付金は全部取り上げられる

  • But even if UBI is the better model, is it economically feasible?

    職を得て1,200ドル得ると、 給付金を失うだけでなく

  • What about inflation?

    税金や送料ほかの コストがかかり

  • Won't prices just rise making everything just like it was before?

    かえって収入が減ってしまう

  • Since the money is not being created by magic or printers it needs to be transferred from somewhere

    状況を改善しようと努力すると むしろ悪化してしまう

  • It's more of a shift of funds than the creation of new ones

    福祉が貧困から抜け出せない 罠となり

  • Hence; no inflation

    消極的な振る舞いを うながしてしまう

  • Ok, but how do we pay for it?

    BIは絶対にカット されないので

  • There's no right answer here because the world is too diverse

    職を得て追加の 収入を得ることは

  • How well-off the country is, what the local values are,

    必ず状況の改善になる

  • Are things like high taxes or cutting the defence budget politically acceptable or not?

    仕事は必ず報いられる

  • How much welfare state is already in place and is it effective?

    抜け出すべき罠を 作るのではなく

  • Each country has its own individual path to a UBI

    しかしUBIが良い 制度だとしても

  • The easiest way to pay for a UBI is to end all welfare and use the free funds to finance it

    経済学的に可能なのか?

  • Not only would this make a number of government agencies disappear, which in itself saves money, it would also eliminate a lot of bureaucracy

    インフレはどうか?

  • on the other hand cutting them could leave many people worse off than before

    物価が上がって 元のもくあみになるのでは?

  • If the goal is to have a foundation for everybody there still need to be programs of some sort because just like countries,

    お金が魔法やプリンターで 生み出せない以上、

  • People are not the same

    財源は必要だ

  • The second way - higher taxes especially for the very wealthy

    新しいお金を作るのではなく 資金の移動なのだ

  • In the US for example there's been a lot of economic growth but most of the benefits from it have gone to the richest few percent

    なので、インフレは起きない

  • the wealth gap is rapidly widening

    わかった でもどこから持ってくる?

  • and many argue that it might be time to distribute the spoils more evenly to preserve the social peace

    世界は多様なので 正解はない

  • There could be taxes on financial transactions, capital, land value, carbon, or even robots

    国の豊かさや価値観、

  • But UBI is not necessarily expensive

    高額な税金や国防費の削減が 政治的に受け入れられるか?

  • According to a recent study

    既存の福祉国家はどれだけあり、 それらは有効か?

  • a UBI of $1,000 per month in the US

    国ごとにUBIへの道は違うだろう

  • Could actually grow the GDP by 12% over eight years

    UBIの財源を作る簡単な方法は 福祉を全廃することだ

  • because it would enable poor people to spend more and increase overall demand

    多くの政府機関が消えて 節約になるだけでなく

  • What about the people who do the dirty work?

    お役所仕事も簡略化できる

  • Who will work in the fields, crawl through sewers, or lift pianos?

    その一方で、福祉をカット されると困る人もいるだろう

  • If you don't need to for survival, will people still do hard boring and unfulfilling labor?

    目的が万人のための基盤づくりに あるなら、なお何らかの政策は必要だろう

  • UBI might give them enough leverage to demand better pay and working conditions

    国と同じく、人も さまざまなのだから

  • a study calculated that every extra dollar going to wage earners would add about $1.21 to the national economy

    他の方法としては、最富裕層に 対する、より高額な課税がある

  • While every extra dollar going to high-income Americans would add only 39 cents

    米国を例に取ると、多くの 経済成長があったのに

  • There would still be very rich and poor people

    利益はみんな最富裕層の 数%に行ってしまった

  • but we could eliminate fear, suffering, and existential panic for a significant part of the population

    格差が急速に広がっており

  • Making poor citizens better off could be a smart economic tactic

    公平に利益を分配するべき 時期だとの議論が多い

  • For some this isn't enough. They want a UBI large enough to live a middle-class existence

    金融取引、資本、地価、炭素排出、 あるいはロボットにだって課税できる

  • If we set the financial obstacle aside, this idea fundamentally challenges, how our society is constructed

    しかし、UBIが必ず 高くつくとは限らない

  • By earning money, you earn the possibility to take part in society this determines your status and options

    最近の研究によれば

  • But it also forces many people into spending huge chunks of their time on things they don't care about

    米国で毎月1,000ドルのUBIは

  • in 2016 only 33% of US employees were engaged at work

    GDPにして毎年12%の 成長をもたらすという

  • 16% were actively miserable and the remaining 51% were only physically present

    貧しかった人たちがお金を 使うようになるからだ

  • Would 67% of people stop working if they could?

    汚い仕事をする 人たちはどうか?

  • It would be unfair to portray work as just a chore

    野良仕事や下水の仕事、あるいは ピアノを運ぶ仕事など

  • work gives us something to do. It challenges us

    生きていくのに必要でなければ、 誰がきつい仕事をするだろう?

  • it motivates us to improve, it forces us to engage

    UBIはそうした人たちの待遇改善に つながるかもしれない

  • Many find friends or partners at work, we work for social status wealth and our place in the world

    ある試算では、賃金労働者への 1ドルごとに、

  • We're looking for something to do with our lives and for many people work gives them meaning

    国民経済に対して1.21ドルの 貢献になるが

  • There are other concerns with UBI

    高所得者への1ドルは39セントの 貢献にしかならないという

  • If all welfare programs were exchanged for one single payment, this gives the government a lot of leverage

    依然として富めるものと 貧しき者がいるだろうが

  • individual programs are easier to attack or cut than a multitude

    大部分の人にとっての恐れや悩み、 実存的パニックを解消することはできる

  • or populist smite promise drastic changes to the UBI to get into power

    貧しい市民を改善するのは 賢い経済戦術だ

  • and a universal basic income doesn't tackle all problems when it comes to equality

    これでも不十分だと いう者もいる

  • Rents for example

    UBIは中流の生活ができる 程度にすべきだと

  • while $1,000 might be great in the countryside, it's not a lot for expensive metropolitan areas

    財政上の議論は おくとしても、

  • which could lead to poor people moving outwards and the difference between rich and poor

    この考えは我々の社会の成り立ちに 対する根本的な挑戦になる

  • becoming even more extreme

    お金を稼ぐことで、 人は社会の一部を担う

  • and of course, for some people, the concept of work itself not being essential for survival is appalling

    それが人のステータスと選択肢を 決定している

  • Conclusion

    だがそのために、多大な時間を 興味のないことに費やしてもいる

  • So is the universal basic income a good idea? The honest answer is that we don't know yet

    2016年、仕事に満足している 米国の被雇用者はたった33%で、

  • There needs to be a lot more research more and bigger test runs

    16%は悲惨な状態にあり、 残りの51%はやむを得ず従事していた

  • We need to think about what kind of UBI we want and what we're prepared to give up to pay for it

    67%の人々が、可能なら 仕事をやめるのだろうか

  • The potential is huge. It might be the most promising model to sustainably eliminate poverty

    仕事をただの雑用として描くのは フェアじゃないだろう

  • It might seriously reduce the amount of desperation in the world and make us all much less stressed out

    仕事は我々になすべきことを与え、 意欲をかきたてる

  • This video was made possible by a

    それは改善の動機となり、 我々に参加を強制する

  • Universal basic income provided by you, our viewers

    友人や仕事上の 仲間を見つけ、

  • Ten thousand people around the world gift us a monthly income on patreon.com/Kurzgesagt

    社会的身分や 居場所を得る

  • You enable us to pay salaries and buy new hardware you enable us to make more videos

    我々は人生の中で すべきことを探し、

  • And you enable us to spend more time on them

    仕事が多くの人に 意味を与えてくれる

  • Kurzgesagt would truly not be what it is today without your help

    UBIには他の 懸念もある

  • You help us stay independent, and you give us the freedom to put quality before quantity

    全ての福祉政策が単一の 給付になってしまうと、

  • Thank you so much

    政府に大きな影響力を 与えることになる

What if the state covered your cost of living, would you still go to work?

国が生活費を支給して くれるとしたら

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B1 中級 日本語 仕事 ドル 政策 貧困 改善 課税

ユニバーサル・ベーシック・インカムを解説_誰でも自由にお金を使える?UBI (Universal Basic Income Explained_Free Money for Everybody? UBI)

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    王惟惟 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日
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