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  • What if the state covered your cost of living, would you still go to work?

    国が生活費を支給して くれるとしたら

  • Go back to school?


  • Not work at all? What would you do?


  • This concept is called a universal basic income or UBI


  • And it's nothing less than the most ambitious social policy of our times


  • in 2017, basic income is gaining momentum around the world

    この考え方が最低所得保障 (UBI)と呼ばれるもので、

  • First trials are ongoing or on their way

    こんにちの最も野心的な 社会政策のひとつだ

  • and a growing number of countries are considering UBI as an alternative to welfare

    2017年、ベーシックインカムは 世界的に脚光をあびはじめた

  • How would it work and what are the key arguments for and against?

    初めての試行がいくつか 進行中だし、

  • Right now people can't really agree. What universal basic income is or should be

    福祉事業に替わるものとして UBIを検討する国が増えている

  • Some want to use it to eliminate welfare and Cupp bureaucracy

    それはどういうしくみで働き、 賛否両論の要点はどこだろう?

  • Others want it as a free extra for existing programs, or even want it to be so high that work itself becomes optional

    UBIが何であり、どうあるべきかという きちんとした合意は、まだ存在しない

  • For this video we'll talk mostly about the minimum basic income

    福祉事業を廃止して、お役所仕事を 減らすために使おうという者もいれば

  • enough money to be above the poverty line

    既存政策に無料で 追加すべきという者や、

  • in the US this means about $1,000 a month or $12,000 a year

    労働がオプションになってしまうほど 支給額を高くしようという者もいる

  • The money would not be taxed and you could do whatever you wanted with it in

    この動画では、最小限の BIについて話そう

  • In this scenario UBI is a way of transferring the wealth of a society

    貧困線をかろうじて 超える額のお金

  • while still keeping the free market intact

    アメリカでなら月1,000ドル、 年12,000ドルを意味する

  • But if we hand out free money will people just spend it on booze and stop working?

    そのお金は非課税で、 何に使ってもいい

  • A 2013 study by the World Bank

    このシナリオではUBIは 社会の富の再分配手段で

  • specifically examined if poor people waste their handouts on tobacco and alcohol if they receive it in the form of cash


  • The clear answer, no they don't. The opposite is true

    でも再分配されたお金で人々は 遊び暮らし、働かなくなるのでは?

  • Other studies have shown that the richer you are, the more drugs and alcohol you consume

    2013年の、 世界銀行による研究では、

  • The lazy and drunk poor person is a stereotype rather than reality

    貧しい人が無料支給を、酒や タバコに浪費してしまわないか

  • What about laziness?


  • Universal basic income test runs done in Canada in the 1970s showed that around

    答えは明確で、ノー 全く反対が真実だった

  • 1% of the recipients stopped working, mostly to take care of their kids

    別の研究では、豊かな人ほど ドラッグや酒を消費していた

  • On average people reduced their working hours by less than 10%

    怠惰で酒飲みの貧困者というのは ステレオタイプな思い込みだったのだ

  • The extra time was used to achieve goals like going back to school or looking for better jobs


  • But if laziness and drugs are not a huge deal, Why doesn't our current welfare state solve poverty

    1970年代のカナダでの UBIの試行では

  • Welfare or unemployment programs often come with a lot of strings attached

    1%程度の受給者は子供の 世話のために働くのをやめたが、

  • Like taking part in courses,


  • Applying to a certain number of jobs a month or accepting any kind of job offer

    増えた時間は、学校に戻って勉強したり、 より良い仕事を探したり、に使われた

  • no matter if it's a good fit, or what it pays

    でも怠惰やドラッグが 問題ではないのなら

  • Besides the loss of personal freedom, these conditions are often a huge waste of time and only served to make the unemployment statistics

    現代の福祉国家が貧困を 解決できないのは何故か?

  • Seem less bad

    福祉や失業政策は、 がんじがらめだ

  • Often your time would be much better spent looking for the right job


  • continuing education or starting a business

    毎月決まった数の 仕事をこなせとか、

  • Another unwanted side effect of many welfare programs is that they trap people in poverty and promote passive behavior


  • Imagine a benefit of $1,000 each month


  • in a lot of programs if you earn a single dollar extra the whole thing is taken away


  • If you take a job, that's paying $1200 you might not only lose your benefits,


  • but because of your taxes and another costs like transportation

    雇用統計をちょっと 改善する程度の

  • You might end up having less money than before


  • So if you actively try to better your situation, and your total income is not improving or even a shrinking

    もっと適性に合った 仕事を探したり

  • welfare can create a ceiling that traps people in poverty

    勉強したり、起業した方が 良かっただろうに

  • and rewards passive behavior

    福祉政策の別の副作用は 人々を貧困にとどめ、

  • A basic income can never be cut and therefore getting a job and additional income would always make your financial situation better


  • Work is always rewarded

    月に1,000ドルの給付金が あるとする

  • instead of a ceiling it creates a floor from which people can lift themselves up

    多くの制度では、1ドルでも稼ぎがあると 給付金は全部取り上げられる

  • But even if UBI is the better model, is it economically feasible?

    職を得て1,200ドル得ると、 給付金を失うだけでなく

  • What about inflation?

    税金や送料ほかの コストがかかり

  • Won't prices just rise making everything just like it was before?


  • Since the money is not being created by magic or printers it needs to be transferred from somewhere

    状況を改善しようと努力すると むしろ悪化してしまう

  • It's more of a shift of funds than the creation of new ones

    福祉が貧困から抜け出せない 罠となり

  • Hence; no inflation

    消極的な振る舞いを うながしてしまう

  • Ok, but how do we pay for it?

    BIは絶対にカット されないので

  • There's no right answer here because the world is too diverse

    職を得て追加の 収入を得ることは

  • How well-off the country is, what the local values are,


  • Are things like high taxes or cutting the defence budget politically acceptable or not?


  • How much welfare state is already in place and is it effective?

    抜け出すべき罠を 作るのではなく

  • Each country has its own individual path to a UBI

    しかしUBIが良い 制度だとしても

  • The easiest way to pay for a UBI is to end all welfare and use the free funds to finance it


  • Not only would this make a number of government agencies disappear, which in itself saves money, it would also eliminate a lot of bureaucracy


  • on the other hand cutting them could leave many people worse off than before

    物価が上がって 元のもくあみになるのでは?

  • If the goal is to have a foundation for everybody there still need to be programs of some sort because just like countries,

    お金が魔法やプリンターで 生み出せない以上、

  • People are not the same


  • The second way - higher taxes especially for the very wealthy

    新しいお金を作るのではなく 資金の移動なのだ

  • In the US for example there's been a lot of economic growth but most of the benefits from it have gone to the richest few percent


  • the wealth gap is rapidly widening

    わかった でもどこから持ってくる?

  • and many argue that it might be time to distribute the spoils more evenly to preserve the social peace

    世界は多様なので 正解はない

  • There could be taxes on financial transactions, capital, land value, carbon, or even robots


  • But UBI is not necessarily expensive

    高額な税金や国防費の削減が 政治的に受け入れられるか?

  • According to a recent study

    既存の福祉国家はどれだけあり、 それらは有効か?

  • a UBI of $1,000 per month in the US


  • Could actually grow the GDP by 12% over eight years

    UBIの財源を作る簡単な方法は 福祉を全廃することだ

  • because it would enable poor people to spend more and increase overall demand

    多くの政府機関が消えて 節約になるだけでなく

  • What about the people who do the dirty work?


  • Who will work in the fields, crawl through sewers, or lift pianos?

    その一方で、福祉をカット されると困る人もいるだろう

  • If you don't need to for survival, will people still do hard boring and unfulfilling labor?

    目的が万人のための基盤づくりに あるなら、なお何らかの政策は必要だろう

  • UBI might give them enough leverage to demand better pay and working conditions

    国と同じく、人も さまざまなのだから

  • a study calculated that every extra dollar going to wage earners would add about $1.21 to the national economy

    他の方法としては、最富裕層に 対する、より高額な課税がある

  • While every extra dollar going to high-income Americans would add only 39 cents

    米国を例に取ると、多くの 経済成長があったのに

  • There would still be very rich and poor people

    利益はみんな最富裕層の 数%に行ってしまった

  • but we could eliminate fear, suffering, and existential panic for a significant part of the population


  • Making poor citizens better off could be a smart economic tactic

    公平に利益を分配するべき 時期だとの議論が多い

  • For some this isn't enough. They want a UBI large enough to live a middle-class existence

    金融取引、資本、地価、炭素排出、 あるいはロボットにだって課税できる

  • If we set the financial obstacle aside, this idea fundamentally challenges, how our society is constructed

    しかし、UBIが必ず 高くつくとは限らない

  • By earning money, you earn the possibility to take part in society this determines your status and options


  • But it also forces many people into spending huge chunks of their time on things they don't care about


  • in 2016 only 33% of US employees were engaged at work

    GDPにして毎年12%の 成長をもたらすという

  • 16% were actively miserable and the remaining 51% were only physically present

    貧しかった人たちがお金を 使うようになるからだ

  • Would 67% of people stop working if they could?

    汚い仕事をする 人たちはどうか?

  • It would be unfair to portray work as just a chore

    野良仕事や下水の仕事、あるいは ピアノを運ぶ仕事など

  • work gives us something to do. It challenges us

    生きていくのに必要でなければ、 誰がきつい仕事をするだろう?

  • it motivates us to improve, it forces us to engage

    UBIはそうした人たちの待遇改善に つながるかもしれない

  • Many find friends or partners at work, we work for social status wealth and our place in the world

    ある試算では、賃金労働者への 1ドルごとに、

  • We're looking for something to do with our lives and for many people work gives them meaning

    国民経済に対して1.21ドルの 貢献になるが

  • There are other concerns with UBI

    高所得者への1ドルは39セントの 貢献にしかならないという

  • If all welfare programs were exchanged for one single payment, this gives the government a lot of leverage

    依然として富めるものと 貧しき者がいるだろうが

  • individual programs are easier to attack or cut than a multitude

    大部分の人にとっての恐れや悩み、 実存的パニックを解消することはできる

  • or populist smite promise drastic changes to the UBI to get into power

    貧しい市民を改善するのは 賢い経済戦術だ

  • and a universal basic income doesn't tackle all problems when it comes to equality

    これでも不十分だと いう者もいる

  • Rents for example

    UBIは中流の生活ができる 程度にすべきだと

  • while $1,000 might be great in the countryside, it's not a lot for expensive metropolitan areas

    財政上の議論は おくとしても、

  • which could lead to poor people moving outwards and the difference between rich and poor

    この考えは我々の社会の成り立ちに 対する根本的な挑戦になる

  • becoming even more extreme

    お金を稼ぐことで、 人は社会の一部を担う

  • and of course, for some people, the concept of work itself not being essential for survival is appalling

    それが人のステータスと選択肢を 決定している

  • Conclusion

    だがそのために、多大な時間を 興味のないことに費やしてもいる

  • So is the universal basic income a good idea? The honest answer is that we don't know yet

    2016年、仕事に満足している 米国の被雇用者はたった33%で、

  • There needs to be a lot more research more and bigger test runs

    16%は悲惨な状態にあり、 残りの51%はやむを得ず従事していた

  • We need to think about what kind of UBI we want and what we're prepared to give up to pay for it

    67%の人々が、可能なら 仕事をやめるのだろうか

  • The potential is huge. It might be the most promising model to sustainably eliminate poverty

    仕事をただの雑用として描くのは フェアじゃないだろう

  • It might seriously reduce the amount of desperation in the world and make us all much less stressed out

    仕事は我々になすべきことを与え、 意欲をかきたてる

  • This video was made possible by a

    それは改善の動機となり、 我々に参加を強制する

  • Universal basic income provided by you, our viewers

    友人や仕事上の 仲間を見つけ、

  • Ten thousand people around the world gift us a monthly income on

    社会的身分や 居場所を得る

  • You enable us to pay salaries and buy new hardware you enable us to make more videos

    我々は人生の中で すべきことを探し、

  • And you enable us to spend more time on them

    仕事が多くの人に 意味を与えてくれる

  • Kurzgesagt would truly not be what it is today without your help

    UBIには他の 懸念もある

  • You help us stay independent, and you give us the freedom to put quality before quantity

    全ての福祉政策が単一の 給付になってしまうと、

  • Thank you so much

    政府に大きな影響力を 与えることになる

What if the state covered your cost of living, would you still go to work?

国が生活費を支給して くれるとしたら


ワンタップで英和辞典検索 単語をクリックすると、意味が表示されます

B1 中級 日本語 仕事 ドル 政策 貧困 改善 課税

ユニバーサル・ベーシック・インカムを解説_誰でも自由にお金を使える?UBI (Universal Basic Income Explained_Free Money for Everybody? UBI)

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    王惟惟 に公開 2021 年 01 月 14 日